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Full text of "The New England Gazetteer : containing descriptions of all the states, counties and towns in New England ; also descriptions of the principal mountains, rivers, lakes, capes, bays, harbors, islands, and fashionable resorts within that territory"

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university of 





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Author of the Columbian Traveller, Religious Creeds, «&c. &c. 







Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by 


in the Clerk's OflBce of the District Court in Massachusetts 





The preparation- of a Gazetteer ot New England, worthy the 
patronage of its enlightened citizens, is no easy task : those only who 
have attempted it can form a just conception of its difficulties. Long 
and wearisome journeys must be performed ; hundreds of volumes and 
local histories must be consulted, and thousands of lette"s must be written. 

Although a kind Providence has blessed the editor with health, and 
with numerous friends, in all parts of New England ; yet, after a long 
period of devotedness, he is mortified that his work is not more complete. 

It will be perceived that there are many towns, particularly in the 
eastern section of New England, whose names are merely mentioned; 
and that notices of others, in many cases, are exceedingly deficient. Had 
our means permitted, fair representations of the character and resources 
of those towns might have promoted individual and public interests ; and 
enhanced the value of our volume. There are lakes and rivers in the 
northern and eastern parts of New England, whose beauty, volume of 
water, and hydraulic power, might vie with the Winnepisiogee and Mer- 
rimack; but whose locations and even names are but indistinctly known. 

But we have the consolation to helieve that a Gazetteer of New Eng- 
land, perfect in all its parts, is rather desired than expected. Our coun- 
try is new : large portions of the territory of the New England States, 
are yet a wilderness, and new counties and towns are very frequently 

The progress of agricultural science, and of the mechanic arts ; the 
advancement of commerce, both at home and abroad, and the increasing 
success of the fisheries, united with the determination of the people ot 
New England to connect the trade of the western oceans with their 
Atlantic borders, by roads of iron, which frosts cannot impede, are so 
great and strong, that the most devoted geographical and statistical writers 
must be satisfied with following at a distance, rather th^n keeping pace 
with the rapid car of improvement in New England. 


In the performance of our work we have derived assistance from many 
valuable maps and books on New England. Among the number a re- 
spectful tribute is due, particularly, to Belkptap's History of New 
Hampshire; Williamson's Maine; Dwight's Letters; Savage's 
Winthrop ; Thatcher's Plymouth; Folsom's Saco and Biddeford; 
Benton- and Barret's Statistics: — Hale's Map of New England; 
Stevens' Rhode Island; Carrigain's New Hampshire ; and Green- 
leaf's Maine : — to Worcester's Gazetteer; Thompson's Vermont; 
Pease and Niles' Rhode Island and Connecticut; Spofford's Mas- 
sachusetts, and Farmer and Moore's Gazetteer of New' Hampshire. 

From the latter work, and from its authors, the lamented John Far- 
mer, Esq., a celebrated antiquarian and writer, and Jacob B. Moore, 
Esq., of Concord, N. H., author of several valuable historical and mis- 
cellaneous works, we are indebted for much of that which is valuable 
in regard to New Hampshire. 

From a beautiful volume, entitled " Connecticut Historical Collec- 
tions," by John Warner Barber, Esq., we have been permitted to 
enrich our pages with some of their most valuable and interesting ar- 

To Heads of Departments at Washington, and to the Secretaries of the 
several States to which the work refers, for valuable public documents; 
to Postmasters; and to numerous other friends who have kindly assisted 
us in our labors ; whose names we should feel proud to mention, were it 
in accordance with their wishes ; we tender the acknowledgments of a 
grateful heart. 

For the purpose of enlarging our work, as well as for its correction, 
our editions will he designedly small : contributions are therefore respect- 
fully solicited. 

While it is our determination to devote our time and humble talents to 
render our publications worthy of general approbation; we are gratified 
with the assurance of co-operation from eminent men in all parts of the 
country; and we trust with confidence to receive that patronage, which 
Yankees, both at home and abroad, invariably bestow on every effort 
whose obvious design is usefulness. 

Boston, May, 1839. 



It was our intention to have connected this publication with the Gaz- 
etteer ; but it was found that by compressing the matter, sufficiently to 
unite them in one volume, both would fail of the object contemplated. 

A great mass of materials for the Register is already received ; indeed, 
a considerable portion is now ready for the press; but as we have extend- 
ed our plan, some months will elapse before its appearance. 

The work will comprise the rise and progress of all the important lit- 
eraTy, religious, moral and charitable institutions in New England : — 
an account of the Churches and Ministers in the several towns, from 
their origin, and settlement to the present time : — the rise and extent of 
internal improvements : — statistics of various kinds : lists of Courts, At- 
torneys at law, Physicians, Literary and Religious Journals, Newspa- 
pers, Banks, Postmasters, &c. &c. : to which will be added brief notices 
of distinguished men. In short, the Register is designed to comprise 
all that may be considered important and useful,in a work of this kind, in 
relation to New EngUnd, and which is not contained in the Gazetteer. 

The number of eminent men, of every profession, who have kindly 
tendered the Editor their co-operation, is so great, that we feel confident 
that the Register will be entitled to a share of public favor. 

(Cr '^ll letters and papers for the Editor, are requested to he left at 
the Boston Post Office. 


In presenting the public with a Gazetteer of New England, it has seemed 
proper to make a few introductory remarks of a general nature, on the 
character of its inhabitants. They may with great propriety be called 
a peculiar people : and perhaps New England and Pennsylvania are the 
only parts of the new world, which have been colonized by a class of 
men, who can be regarded in that light. The whole of Spanish and Por- 
tuguese America was organized, under the direct patronage of the mother 
countries, into various colonial governments, as nearly resembling those at 
home as the nature of the case admitted. The adventurers who sought 
their fortunes beyond the sea, in those golden tropical regions, carried the 
vices and the virtues with the laws and the manners of their native land, 
along with them, and underwent no farther change than was unavoidably 
incident to the new physical and political condition in which they were 
placed in America. The same remark, with nearly the same force, may 
be made of the Virginia colonists : they differed from Englishmen at 
home in no other way, than a remote and feeble colony must of necessity 
differ from a powerful metropolitan state. Pennsylvania was settled by 
a peculiar race ; but its peculiarity was of that character which eventu- 
ally exhausts itself; and would speedily perish but for an amalgamation, 
necessary though uncongenial, with the laws, the manners, and institu- 
tions of the world. If all mankind were Friends they might subsist and 
prosper. A colony of Friends, thrown upon a savage shore and environed 
by hostile influences from foreign colonial establishments, would perish, 
if not upheld by forces and principles different from its own. In the set- 
tlers of New England alone we find a peculiar people ; — but at the same 
time a people whose peculiarity was founded on safe practical principles ; 
reconcileablft with the duties of life ; capable of improvement in the pro- 
gress of civilization, and of expanding into a powerful state, as well as of 
animating a poor and persecuted colony. 


Had not America been discovered and a tract upon our continent reserv- 
ed for English colonization ; — nay, further, had it not been precisely 
such an uninviting spot as furnished no temptation to men of prosperous 
fortunes, the world would have lost that noble developement of character 
which the fathers of New England exhibit. A tropical climate would 
have made it uninhabitable to Puritans ; or rather would have filled it up 
with adventurers of a different class. A gold mine would have been a curse 
to the latest generation. Had the fields produced cotton and sugar, they 
would not have produced the men whom we venerate as the founders of 
the liberties of New England. 

Puritanism sprang up in England, but there it could not develope itself 
with vigor or consist with happiness. The conflict with the hostile in- 
stitutions of society was too sharp, and admitted of the cultivation of none 
but the militant or patient elements of character. To struggle with 
temporary success and to bow in permanent subjection was the necessary 
fate of the persecuted sect. So it was wisely ordained. Had Puritan- 
ism permanently mastered the church and the throne in England, it 
would have been corrupted. It would have picked up and worn the 
trampled diadem : it would have installed itself in the subjected church. 
Regarding Cromwell and the Rump Parliament as the gift of Puritanism 
to English liberty, it is a bequest at which we know not whether 
most to sigh or smile. The seed sown in England fell by the way side 
and the fowls came and devoured it up. The cause of political and social 
reform, which was conducted with self-denying wisdom and moderation 
in the outset, by single-hearted, honest men, degenerated as it prospered. 
In the moment of its triumph it sunk under the corruptions of selfish- 
ness, as a noble vessel which has braved the tempest in mid-ocean some- 
times goes to pieces on the rocks as it approaches land. 

But the precious seeds of liberty, civil and religious, which were sown 
in New England, fell upon a genial soil, and brought forth worthy and 
abiding fruit. Undertaking the same work which was undertaken by 
their brethren in England, our fathers conducted it through the days of 
small things, through hardships, trial, and disasters, to a triumphant issue. 
It is true there were greater obstacles to be encountered in England, in 
the resistance of established institutions. Deep rooted errors were to be 
torn up ; the towers of feudal oppression, which had stood for centuries, 
were to be overthrown. But the influence of these formidable institutions 
was not limited to Old England. The rod of arbitrary power reached 
across the Atlantic. The little colonies had to struggle with the crown 
and the hierarchy, with the privy council and with special commissions, 
with writs and acts of parliament ; and they had besides to struggle with the 


hardships of the "wilderness, the dangers of the savage foe, of a sterner 
climate than that of their native land, the privations of a settler's life, 
the alternating neglect and oppression of the mother country ; — but they 
struggled successfully with all. The reformers of abuses in England, as 
they claimed to be called, brought a king to the block, scattered a house 
of lords, and saw their great military leader clothed with all the powers 
of state; and in twelve years the son of that king returned to the throne, 
not merely by an unconditional restoration, but amidst a jubilee of na- 
tional rejoicing and without one security for liberty. All the while the 
fathers of New England held on iheir even way; not betrayed into 
extravagance when their cause at home (as they fondly called Old Eng- 
land) was triumphant ; nor in despair at the miserable relapse which en- 
sued. They did not indeed live to reap the fruit of their principles and 
their sacrifices ; and it reflects but the greater honor upon them that they 
persevered in their great work from a sense of duty, deep-seated, cori- 
trolling, fearless, and not the less so although, while they lived, unre- 
warded by worldly success. 

In fact the founders of New England were actuated by the only prin- 
ciple sufficient to produce this result. It need not be said that this was 
religious principle. How easily it is uttered of our Pilgrim fathers that 
they were actuated by religious principle ; how little in these prosper- 
ous days do we realize all that is wrapped up in that description of their 
character ! It is difficult to comprehend of others what we have not 
experienced in ourselves. That easy fi-ame of mind which prevails among 
a highly favored people, in periods of halcyon prosperity, is scarcely 
capable of being placed in sympathy with the moral heroism, the spir- 
itual courage, the sublime equanimity of a generation truly animated 
by the religious principle, exalted by persecution, and purified bj hard- 
ship. Happy if in such a period we can, by diligent contemplation of the 
venerated men of other days, exalt our imaginations, till by conceiving 
we form a desire to imitate their virtues! In proportion as we do this, 
we shall realize the secret of their perseverance and success. They did all 
things through Christ strengthening them. What cannot man do when 
he has learned habitually and distinctly to regard this life as a preparatory 
scene, — a brief hour, — nay a fleeting moment, introductory to an eternal 
being? The fathers of New England were enabled, with their scanty 
means and feeble powers, to establish the foundation of institutions which 
will last to the end of time, for the very reason that they regarded allhiv- 
man interests and delights as transitory. That paradox in our moral n5>- 
tures which educes strength out of weakness, triumph out of self-denial, 
worldly power and success out of a stern preference of things not of 


this world, received its most illustrious confirmation in the career of the 
pilgrim fathers of New England. 

This principle of our natures is the key to the great problem of the 
success which attended the forlorn hope of humanity that landed on 
these shores. There is indeed a fanaticism, which violates all the laws 
of our nature, alike the higher ulterior principles which belong to an 
immortal spirit, and the humbler influences which grow from the rela- 
tions of ordinary life. It leads to surprising deeds ; it forms characters 
which dazzle us with brilliant eccentricities. It is near allied to mad- 
ness ; often runs into it. But the religiousness of the fathers of New 
England was a far different principle. It was eminently practical. It 
allied itself with wise institutions of government ; it sought the guidance 
of education ; it encouraged the various pursuits of industry; it provided 
for the public safety and defence ; and with chaste discrimination admit- 
ted the courtesies of polished life. It is difficult to say what sort of a 
commonwealth George Fox would have founded, had circumstances call- 
ed him to assume the province of the legislator. It is most certain, that 
in setting up an immediate divine inspiration as the guide of every man, 
he maintained a principle at war with the very idea of a politcal system 
and all its institutions ; nor is it less certain that the constitution which 
was actually granted to Pennsylvania, by its pure and noble-spirited pro- 
prietor, possessed little of the peculiarities of his sect but their mild, 
peaceful, and equitable temper. But the fathers of New England stop- 
ped short of the point where solemn conviction passes into enthusiasm. 
They pursued the ordinary occupations of life, planted the field, built 
vessels and navigated the sea, and carried on the usual mechanic arts. 
They made provision for protection against the Indians and the French. 
They organized a plan of civil government; they established by law a 
system of common school education, for the first time in the history of the 
world, and they founde.l a college for the avowed purpose of training up 
a class of educated men, well qualified to take the place of the learned 
and pious ministers who had emigra-ted with the first generation of pil- 
grims. These are the doings of intelligent and practical men, not of en- 
thusiasts or fanatics; an 1 yet they are the doings of men so resolutely 
bent upon the exercise of the right of worshipping God according to the 
dictates of their consciences, that they were willing to sacrifice to it 
home, fortune, and all that t'le mass of men hold dear. 

To say that the fathers of New England were not faultless, is merely 
to say that they were men; to say that they established no institutions, 
the object of which was to bind the consciences of their successors is 
praise asjust as it is high. If they adhered with undue tenacity to their 


own opinions, and failed in charity towards those who differed, they at 
least left their posterity free, without the attempt to secure before hand 
the control of minds in other ages by transmitted symbols and tests. Hu- 
manity mourns over the rigors practised towards Roger Williams, the 
Quakers, and the unhappy persons suspected of witchcraft ; but let it 
not be torgottcn that, as late as 1749, a witch was executed at Wurzburg, 
and that even in 17G0 two women were thrown into the water in Leices- 
tershire, in England, to ascertain by their sinking or swimming whether 
they were witches. Above all, it may deserve thoughtful enquiry, before 
we condemn the founders of New England, whether a class of men less 
stern in their principles and austere in their tempers, could have accom- 
plished, under all the diiicouragements that surrounded them, against all 
the obstacles which stood in their way, the great work to which Provi- 
dence called them, — the foundation of a family of republics, confederated 
under a constitution of free representative government. There is every 
reason to believe, great and precious as are the results of their principles, 
hitherto manifested to the world, that the quickening power of those 
principles will be more and more displayed, with every leaf that is turned 
in the book of Providence. 

That part of the United States denominated New En-gland, compri- 

EIGHTY TOWNS. Their extent, divisions, and population at several 
periods, are as follows : 






" 1 "^ 
































N. H. 

9 2S0 



























472 C4J 




















1,010 . 52-1 














The population of Maine and Massachusetts, in 1837, is given as by 
a census taken in that year. The population of New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Rhode Island and Connecticut, for 1837, is estimated according to 
the ratio of increase, from 1820 to 1830. 


In 1830, there were in New England 1,112 persons deaf and dumb ; 
798 blind, and 18,668 aliens. The number of colored persons in 1820, 
was 20,782—1830, 21,310. 

New England increased in population, from 1790, to 1800, 22.1 per 
cent: from 1800, to 1810, 19.3 per cent: from 1810, to 1820, 12.7 per 
cent: from 1820, to 1830, 17.7 per cent; and from 1830, to 1837, 12.4 
cent. When it is considered, that most of the western states were origi- 
nally peopled by New Englanders, and that vast numbers annually emi- 
grate to those states, this increase of population is favorable, compared 
with other Atlantic states. The population of New England in 1700, 
is stated at 120,000 ; in 1755, at 345,000; and in 1775, at 714,000. 

BouivD ARIES AND EXTENT. This territory is bounded north and 
northwest by Lower Canada, about 375 miles, and east by the Province of 
New Brunswick, 275 miles. Its whole eastern, southeastern and southern 
borders are washed by the Atlantic ocean and the waters of Long Island 
Sound, a distance of about 600 miles. It is bounded west by the state 
of New York, 280 miles. Its circumference is about 1,530 miles- 
New England is situated between 41°, and 48^ 12' north latiude, and 
65° 55', and 74° 10' west longitude from Greenwich. Its greatest 
length is between the sources of the Madawaska, Me., and Greenwich, 
Ct., about 575 miles; and its greatest breadth is between Machias, Me., 
and Highgate, Vt., 300 miles. Its narrowest part is between Boston 
and West Stockbridge, Mass., 135 miles. 

Name. During the unsuccessful attempts of Sir Waker Raleigh to 
plant colonies within the territory of North America, from 1584 to 1587, 
the whole country was called Virginia, in honor of Queen Elizabeth, who 
was then on the British throne. In 1606, James I. divided the country 
into two sections, JVorth and Soitth Virginia; but the French having 
taken possession of the Canadas, and founded Quebec, in 1603, and the 
Dutch having established colonies at New York and Albany, in 1613, 
the intermediate territory, now the New England States, was called 
New England, in compliment to its luxuriance and beauty, and in honor 
to his native land, by the celebrated John Smith, one of the first settlers 
of Virginia, in 1607; and who visited this coast in 1614. 

The New England people are frequently called Yankees We are 
warranted in stating, from the best authority, that of the late learned 
Heckeweldek, that the Lena Lenape, a tribe of Indians belon-rins; to 
the Six Nations, on the arrival of our fore fathers to these shores, pro- 
nounced the word English, Yengees. The word was thus originally 
spelt, but in the course of years, in common with tho-.isands of other 
Indian names and phrases, it became cuirupted to Yanhte. The first 


settlers of New England were Ens:Ush, or Englishmen, from Old Eng- 
land ; and however the term Yankee, or English, may be applied to 
New Englanders — the descendants of the Puritans consider the term 
honorable to themselves, and reproachful only to those who misap- 
ply it. 

Surface, Soil, and Productioxs. New England is distinguish- 
ed for its varied surface. Mountains in immense ranges, bold spurs, 
and solitary eminences ; beautiful swells, extended valleys, and alluvial 
intervales meet the eye in every direction. Large rivers, unrivalled for 
their rapid courses and hydraulic power; brooks, rivulets, expansive 
lakes, countless ponds 5 and a sea coast of more than six hundred miles, 
decorated with delightful bays, harbors, and romantic islands, form and 
beautify the outline of a picture of New England. 

The soil of New England is as varied as its surface Loam, clay, and 
sand exist in all their varieties and mixtures. The soil most gener- 
ally diffused through this country, is a light brown loam, mixed with 
gravel ; titted, in different degrees of moisture and dryness, for every 
production common to the climate; and capable, with proper culture, 
of the highest fertility. 

The agricultural productions of this country are exceedingly numer- 
ous and valuable. The staple articles, and such as are cultivated in all 
their varieties, are grass, Indian corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats, beans, 
peas, flax, hemp, broom corn, millet, potatoes, onions, beets, carrots, 
turnips, squashes, melons, &c. 

The fruits of New England, both wild and cultivated, are also nu- 
merous and abundant. Apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries, quin- 
ces, grapes, in all their varieties ; walnuts, chesnuts, Madeira nuts, 
butternuts ; strawberries, whortleberries, blackberries, mulberries, rasp- 
berries, &c. This is but the commencement of a list of the fruits, plenr 
tiful in New England, and remarkable for their richness and flavor. 

1\\Q forests of New England exhibit a noble variety of trees, not only 
delightful to the eye, but valuable for all the uses of man. The number 
of these is so great that a catalogue of them would cover pages. — 
Among the most valuable are the varieties of the pine, cedar, oak, wal- 
nut, spruce, maple, beech, birch, ash ; the hemlock, hacmatack, elm, 
fir, &c. 

The botanical resources of New England are not inferior to any other 
section of our country. Among the most beautiful native flowering 
shrubs are the laurel, rose, honeysuckle, and woodbine. 

Mineralogy. New England unquestionably possesses a vast and 


rich variety of minerals ; but until recently its people have been too busy 
in ploughing the ocean, or digging on its surface, to search for treasures 
within the bosom of its hills and valleys. A spirit of exploration how- 
ever, has arisen, which promises the most favorable results. Learned 
and indefatigable men are in the field, and the wisdom of our legislatures 
will keep them there. 

Granite or sienite, in all its varieties, are common in all the states : 
marble of various hues, varying in quality, most of which, bearing a fine 
polish, is abundant; coal is found in vaiious places, and strongly sus- 
pected to exist in others. Peat is abundant on Cape Cod, where there 
is no wood ; and it is found in meadows surrounded by forests. Copper 
exists in various parts of New England; and iron ore, of a pure quality, 
is abundant in various sections of the country. Gold and silver are said 
to exist, but we hope not. Fine clay, sandstone, manganese ; slatestone, 
for roofing buildings ; and various other arficles for necessary use are 
abundant. Garnets, cobalt, rock crystals, and other minerals have 
been discovered in various parts of New England, and which are men- 
tioned under their localities within the volume. 

Climate. The climate of New England is exceedingly various: 
the temperature ranges from lo'^ below the zero of Fahrenheit to 95° 
above. The mercury has been known to descend from 20° to 30° below, 
and to 102° above ; but such cases rarely occur. 

European philosophers have imagined that the coldness of this part of 
America was caused by our northwest winds, proceeding, as they have 
thought, /rom the great lakes, which are situated in the interior of North 
America: but since it has been discovered that the great lakes lie west- 
ward of the true N. W. point, that opinion has been exploded. 

A second cause to which the coldness of these winds has been attribu- 
ted, is a chain of high mountains running from southwest to northeast, 
in Canada and New Britain, at a great distance bejond the St. Lawrence. 
A third opinion is that of the venerated Dr. Holyoke, of Salem, who 
supposed that the 7iumerous evergreens m this country are the source 
of the peculiar cold which it experiences. A fourth opinion is, that the 
coldness of these winds proceeds from the forested state of the country. 
Dr. Dwight entertained an opinion different from all those we have men- 
tioned, viz: that the winds which generate the peculiar cold of this 
country descend, in most cases, from the superior regions of the atmos- 
phere. The N. W. wind rarely brings snow, but when it does, the de- 
gree of cold is increased. The deepest snows fall with a N. E. wind, and 
storms from that quarter are most violent and of longest duration. On 
the mountains, the snow falls earlier and remains later than in the low 


grounds. On those elevated suir mits, the winds have greater force in 
driving the snow into the long and deep gullies of the mountains, where 
it is so consolidated, as not to be dissolved by the vernal sun. Spots of 
snow are seen on the south sides of mountains as late as May, and on 
the highest till July. A southeast storm is often as violent, but com 
monly shorter, than one from the northeast. If it begin with snow, 
it soon changes to rain. A brisk wind from the W. or S. W. with snow 
or rain, sometimes happens, but its duration is very short. Squalls of 
this kind. are common in March. 

One of the greatest inconveniences suffered by the inhabitants of our 
country, is derived from the frequent changes in the state of the atmos- 
phere. The temperature has been known to change 44° in twenty four 
hours. Changes are frequent, though seldom in the same degree. 
Changes from wet to dry, and from dry to wet, are at times unpleasant, 
and probably unhealthy. There is no month in the year which is not 
sometimes very pleasant, and sometimes disagreeable. In a series of 
years, our most pleasant months are June, September and October. 
Often the first two, and not unfrequently the first three weeks in Sep- 
tember are, however, very warm. From the 20th of September to the 
20th of October, the weather is delightful. The temperature is mild, 
the air is sweet, and the sky singularly bright and beautiful. This is 
the period denominated the Indian Summer. Some persons think June 
to be a more pleasant month than either September or October. In June, 
there are usually a few days of intense heat. In all other respects, 
except the brilliancy and beauty of the heavens, this month must be 
confessed to have the superiority over all others. The progress of vege- 
tation is wonderful ; and it seems as if the creative hand was, in a 
literal sense, renewing its original plastic efforts, to adorn the world with 
richness and splendor. All things are alive and gay. " The little hills 
rejoice on every side. The pastures are clothed with flocks. The 
valleys are also covered with corn, and shout for joy." Health at the 
same time prevails in a peculiar degree. The Spring is often chilled by 
easterly winds and rendered uncomfortable by rains. The Winter months, 
when the earth is clad with its mantle of snow, is the season for relaxa- 
tion and pleasure. 

The number of fair days in a year compared with the cloudy, is as 
three to one. We have had but few meteorological journals kept. For 
several years past they have become more frequent, and it is hoped, that 
from the increasing attention to the subject, comparative results of the 
weather will become more numerous and exact. 

Navigatiokt and Commerce. The people of New England, 
fc'jm the first settlement of the country to the present time, have been 


celebrated for their fine ships, nautical prowess, and commercial spirit. 
Their extended Atlantic sea coast, and their noble forests of ship timber, 
give them as great, if not greater facilities for these enterprises, than 
can be found in this or any other country. 

The number of vessels built in the United States in 1833, was 1,188; 
tonnage, 161,626 tons; of which there were built in New England 590: 
tonnage, 95,146. The number of seamen employed in navigation in 
the United States, was 67,744, of which 37,142 belonged to New 

In consequence of the absence of both natural and artificial channels 
to the fertile countries on the borders of the great lakes, and west of the 
Alleghany mountains, the exports and imports of New England, compar- 
ed with the whole of the United States, appears small ; but it must be 
borne in mind that a large proportion of the ships and seamen employed 
in this commerce belong to New England, and that a vast amount of the 
exports from other states consist of the products of the manufacturing 
industry and fishery of that section of the country. 

The value of the imports of New England, during the year ending 
30 September, 1837, was $22,052,414. Exports, $11,878,324. The 
total value of the imports of the United States, in that period, was 
$140,989,217; of exports, $117,419,376. 

During that period the American tonnage of New England, entered, 
compared with that of the United States, was as follows : New England, 
1,944 vessels, 393,877 tons: United States, 6,024 vessels, 1,299,720 tons. 
During that time there were 949 vessels built in the United States ; 
tonnage, 122,987 tons ; of which 389 were built in New England, meas- 
uring 51,983 tons. 

Fishery. This important branch of industry, and one of the great- 
est sources of wealth to the American people, has, from time immemo- 
rial, been almost exclusively cairied on by New England vessels, men, 
and capital. 

In 1837, there were 508 vessels in the United States engaged in the 
whale fishery ; the total tonnage was 127,239 tons ; of which number 
459 belonged to the Nev/ England states ; measuring 115,194 tons. The 
same year there were 127,678 tons employed in the cod and mackerel 
fishery ; 126,963 tons of which were owned in New England. 

Manufactures. From the first settlement of the countrj', to the 
general peace in Europe in 1815, New England was emphatically a com- 
mercial country. During the long wars in Europe, when the flag of 
the U. S. was the only passport among the belligerent nations. New 
England ships became the carriers of almost the whole of the eastern 


continent. The change from war to peace, in Europe, shook New Eng- 
land to its centre. It however stood firm. During a pause, in which 
conflicting interests in regard to the tariff on imports were settled, the 
resources of the country were examined, and it was found that a large por- 
tion of the capital which had been accustomed to float on every gale; and 
subjected to the caprice of every nation, might profitably be employed at 
home,in supplying our own necessities, and placing our independence on 
a more sure foundation. A manufacturing spirit arose in New England, 
whose power can only be excelled by the magnitude and grandeur of in- 
numerable streams on which it is seen to move. 

Our statistics on this highly important subject are exceedingly imper- 
fect : those only of Massachusetts are attempted to be given. When we 
find that evory state in New England are making rapid advances in this 
branch of our national wealth, particularly Rhode Island and Connecti- 
cut; and that the amount of manufactures in Massachusetts, in a single 
year, was $86, 282, 616, we may safely indulge the pleasing hope that 
the period is not distant when our exports will exceed our imports, and 
that our work shops will no longer remain in Europe. 



There are several items in this volume which do not strictly pertain 
to the general character of the work. Some of them are here noted. 

Routes to the White Mountains, - See White Mountains. 

Distances on Long Island Sound and Hudson river, Long I. Sound. 

Saratoga and Bailston Springs, - - White Mountains. 

Lake George, N. Y., ... " 

Whitehall, N. Y., .... 

The North Eastern Boundary Question briefly stated, Maine. 

Confidence in God, .... Sharon, Ct. 

Troy, N. Y., - - - - Long Island Sound. 

New Lebanon Springs, N. Y., - - Hancock, Mass. 

Firmness of mind, .... Stamford, Ct. 

Catskill Mountains, N. Y., - - Long Island Sound. 

A venerable minister, ... Hartford, Ct. 

Curious Courtship, .... Lyme, Ct. 

Bay of Fundy, .... Fundy, Bay 

St. John's, N. B., .... 

A Congregation made Prisoners, - - Darien, Ct 

Brave Women, Dustan^s Island, Gorham, Me., and Dorchester, Mass 

A good shot, .... Dalton, A^. H 

GofFe and Whalley, - Hadley, Mass., and Woodbridge, Ct 

Peddling, - - Alexanders' Lake, and Berlin, Ct. 

The "Old Black Bull," - - - Colchester, Ct. 

Prices of sundry articles in 1750, - - Gorham, Me. 

Faithful Missionaries, - Roxhury , Mass., and Haddam, Ct. 

Burning of Fairfield, ... FairfMd, Ct. 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, - - Camhridge, Mass. 

Transplanting fish, - - Fairlec and Whiting, Vt. 

Obookiah, ... . . Cormoall, Ct. 

Large Apple Tree, ... Duxbury, Mass. 

Thermometrical observations, - - Epping,JV. H. 

Fortunate Stageman, - - - Belchertown, Mass. 

Tribute to female character, ... Ledyard, Ct. 

Large Pines, - - Liberty and J\^orridgewock, Me. 

Generals Allen and Stark, Litchfield, Ct., and Manchester, A''. H. 

General Putnam and the Wolf, - - Pomfret, Ct. 

Tornadoes, JFarwer and A''ew London, AT. H., and Winchendon, Mass. 


Meteoric Stones, 
Story of the Frogs, 
Smart Old Men, 
A modest office seeker, 

See Weston, Ct. 

Windham, Ct. 

Whitingham Vt., and Shutesbury, Mass. 

Stratford, J\\ H. 

Land Title settled by combat. 

The «' Devils Den," a good ice house, 

Large Trout, - - 

Floating Islands, - Atkinson, JV. H., ziiA 

Singular motive for marriage, 

"Lovewell's Fight," 

Curious Epitaphs, ... 

Poised Rock, . . . 

A Turtle well marked, 

Mohegan Village, 

A relic of olden times. 

The New Hampshire Giant, 

*' Purgatory Cavern," 

Ice Beds, 

*' Satan's Kingdom," 

Names of Towns, 

A " South Shore" White oak, 

Tak, a slave, the captor of a British General, 

Horrible butchery of a family, 

Penobscot Indians, ... 

" The Pool," 

First mail stage in the United States, 

Indian Mound, .... 

George III. and John Adams, 

The Hermitess, ... 

Tough words for stammerers. 

Mineral Springs, 

Avalanches, .... 

Autumnal Foliage, ... 

A worthy maiden Lady, ... 

A Connecticut river law suit. 

The Drum Rock, . . . . 

An atrocious murder, 

A New England Clergyman of 1686, 

Ancient Epitaphs, Plymouth, Mass 

A runaway pond, - - - . 

Lyme, Ct. 

Sterling, Ct. 

Strong, Me. 

Whitingham, Vt. 

Wethersfield, Ct. 

Fryehurgh, Me. 

Dorchester, Mass. 

Farmington, JV. H. 

Lake scenery, 

Middleho rough, Mass. 

Montville, Ct. 

Ashford, Ct. 

JVew Market, JV. H. 

Sutton, Mass. 

WaUingford, Vt 

JVew Hartford, Ct. 

JVorth Bridgeivater, Mass. 

Plympton, Mass. 

Tiverton, R. I. 

Wethersfield, Ct. 

Orono, Me. 

Oxford, Ct 

Shrewsbury, Mass 

Ossipee, JV". H 

Quincy, Mass. 

Ridgefield, Ct. 

Roxbury, and Webster, Mass. 

Stafford, Ci., and Hopkinton, Mass. 

White Mountains. 

Taunton, Mass. 

Wethersfield, Ct. 

Warwick, R. I. 

Washington, Ct. 

Wenham, Mass. 

and Windsor, Ct. 

Glover, Vt. 

WinnepiMogee Lake^ 


Abbot, Me. 

Piscataquis co. This town lies 
76 miles N. by E. from Augusta, 
130 N. by E. from Portland, and 
about 40 N. N. E. from Norridge- 
wock. It is bounded N, by Mon- 
son, E. by Guilford and S. by Park- 
man. The Piscataquis river passes 
nearly through its centre. It was 
incorporated in 1827. Population, 
1837, 649. 

Abiiigtou, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This town is on 
the high land between Massachu- 
setts and Narraganset bays. Three 
rivers rise here, two of which emp- 
ty into the Taunton, the other into 
the North. It Ues 19 miles S. S. E. 
from Boston, 22 N. W. from Plym- 
outh, IS N N. E. from Taunton, 
and 8 S. of Weymouth landing. 
This town is noted for its manufac- 
tures of boots, shoes, and tacks. The 
total value of its manufactures, in 
one year, was ,$847,294, of which 
the amount of ^32,000 was for tacks, 
and $746,794 lor boots and shoes. 
There were 847 males and 470 fe- 
males employed in the manufacture 
of the latter. Population, 1837, 
3,057. This town was incorporated 
in 1712. Its Indian name was Man- 

Acoaksct River, 

Rises on the border of the town 
of Fall River, and meets an arm of 
Buzzard's bay, at Westport, 12 miles 
S. W, of New Bedford, Mass. 

Acton, Me. 

An interior town, in the county 
of York, recently taken from Shap- 
leigh. It lies near the head waters 
of Salmon river, by which it is di- 
vided, on the W., from New-Hamp- 
shire. It is 107 miles S. W. from 
Augusta, and 15 W. from Alfred. 
Population, 1837, 1409. 

Acton, "Vt. 

Windham co. This town was 
first settled in 1781, and in 1782 
it was incorporated. It has some 
line brooks, but no important mill 
stream.s. It lies about 15 miles N. 
of Newfane, and about 90 S. of 
Montpelier. Population 1830, 176. 

Acton, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This is a pleas- 
ant farming town of good soil. The 
Assabet river passes through it. It 
is 5 miles N. W. by W. of Concord, 
and 21 N. W. of Boston. Incorpo- 
rated 1735. Population 1837, 1071. 

Acworth, N. H. 

Sullivan co. This town is chiefly 
agricultural in its pursuits. The 
soil is generally good. Cold river, 
which rises from Cold pond in this 
town, affords some good mill seats. 
This town was formerly noted for 
the culture of flax, which was man- 
ufactured by some of the inhabitants 
into the finest linen, equal to any 
imported from Ireland. The town 
was settled in 1768, and incorporat- 
ed in 1771. Population 1830, 1401. 


It lies 13 miles S. of Newport, and 
44 W. of Concord. 

Adanis, Mass. 

Berkshire co. This is a flourish- 
ing agricultural and manufacturing 
township, comprising two villages, 
north and south, whose trade goes 
to New York. It is 40 miles E. of 
Troy, N. Y., 120 W. N. W. of Bos- 
ton, 29 N. of Lenox, and 7 miles S. 
E. of Williamstown college. The 
Hoosack river passes through this 
town, and affords a great water 
power. There are in this town 19 
cotton mills, 4 satinet factories, and 
2 calico printing establishments. 
There are also in this town large 
machine shops, 4 taneries, 3 air and 
cupola furnaces, and manufactories 
of shovels, spades, hoes, forks, 
chair? and cabinet ware. The total 
value of the manufactures of this 
place in the year ending April 1, 
1837, amounted to ^1,045,417. 

Between the years 1746 and 1756, 
this town was the scene of much 
Indian warfare. Traces of old 
Fort Massachusetts are still found. 
Saddle Mountain, the summit of 
which is called Gray lock,th^ high- 
est of Massachusetts mountains, lies 
chiefly in this town, and, although 
it is 3,600 feet above the level of 
the sea, is of easy ascent. A view 
from Gray ZocA: probably gives " an 
idea of vastness and even of im- 
mensity" better than any other 
landscape in New England, Mt. 
Washington, in N. H. excepted. 
The natural bridge on Hudson's 
Brook, in this town, is a curiosity 
worthy the notice of travellers. 
The waters of this brook have worn 
a fissure from 30 to 60 feet deep and 
30 rods in length, through a body 
of white marble, or limestone, and 
formed a bridge of that material, 50 
teet above the surface of the water. 
There is a cavern in this town, 30 
feet long, 20 high, and 20 wide. 
Incorporated 177S. Popuiation 1820 
1,836—1830, 2,648—1834, 3,000— 
and in 1837, 4,191 

Addison, Me« 

Washington co. This town was 
incorporated in 1797. Population, 
1837, 901. It lies 14 miles W. by 
S. from Machias, and 135 N, 
from Augusta. Addison lies be- 
tween Pleasant and Indian rivers, 
and near the south entrance into 
Mispecky reach. Addison Point, 
or Cape Split, jutting out into the 
sea, off which are several small 
islands, is the principal harbor and 
place of trade. 

Addison County, Vt., 

Jlfiddlebiiry is the chief town. 
This county is bounded on the N. 
by Chittenden county; E. by Wash- 
ington and Orange counties, and a 
part of Windsor county ; S. by 
Rutland county, and W. by Lake 
Champlain. It was incorporated in 
1787, and contains about 700 square 
miles. Large quantities of white 
and beautifully variegated marble, 
which receives a fine polish, is 
found in this county, and large 
quantities of it are quarried and 
ti-ansported to various markets. — 
This county is admirably well wat- 
ered by Otter Creek, which rises 
near its southern boundary, and ex- 
tends nearly through its centre ; — 
by Mad and White rivers ; and by 
Lake Champlain, which affords it 
many navigable privileges. The 
soil is good, particularly in those 
towns below the mountains, and 
bordering the lake and rivers. This 
county contains 22 towns. Popu- 
lation', 1820, 20,469—1830, 24,940. 
Inhabitants to a square mile, 35. 

Addison, "Vt. 

Addison co. This is supposed to 
be the first place settled by the 
whites, in this state, west of the 
mountains. The town is pleasantly 
located on the east side of lake 
Champlain, and nearly opposite to 
Crown Point, in the state of New- 
York. At this place the lake is 
about 3 miles broad. The French, 


it is said, commenced a settlement 
here in 1731 ; the same year that 
they erected a fort at Crown Point. 
The English came here about 17T0. 
0(ter Creek passes into tl)e town, 
bat arTords no impcrtant mill sites. 
The surface of the town is low and 
level. Mill and Pike rivers, are 
small streams, which fall into the 
lake opposite to Crown Point. This 
town lies about 12 miles V/, N. W. 
from Middlebury, and 40 W. S. W. 
from Montpclier. Population 1S30, 

Agamenticus Mountain, 

So called, being three elevations 
of land in York, Me., about 4 mile? 
from the sea, and a noted land mark 
for those on the coast to the north- 
ward and eastv. ard of Portsmouth 
harbor. The highest summit is G73 
feet above the ocean. It is said 
that Sai7it Aspinqiiid died on this 
mountain, in 1682, acd that his 
funeral was celebrated by the In- 
dians, by the sacritice of 6711 wild 

Aga^^vam, Itlass. 

The Indian name of a river in 
Waj-eham, and of a part of Westfield 
river; and the name of a village on 
Westfield river, 2 miles S. W. from 

Albany, 3Ic. 

Oxford CO. This town vras incor- 
porated in 1803. It lies about 17 
miles W. by N. from Paris, and 58 
W. from Augusta. It is the source 
of Crooked river, which empties in- 
to Sebago Lake. Population, 1S37, 

Allbairy, N. H., 

Strafford co., lies 60 miles N. by 
E. from Concord, and 67 N. N. W. 
from Dover. The principal river 
in Albany, is Swift river, which 
passes from W. to E. into the Saco, 
at Conway. There arc several 
small streams in different parts of 
the town, furnishing convenient 


mill privileges. These streams 
were once the residence of num- 
bers of the beaver, otter, &c. — 
There are several lofty hills and 
mountains in this town, the highest 
of which is called Chocorua, and is 
visible from a great extent of coun- 
try. It received its name from 
Chocorua, an Indian, who was kil- 
led on the summit by a party ot 
hunters in time of peace, before 
the settlement of the place. The 
predominant rock of these hills is 
granite — a soft, decomposing varie- 
ty, in wliich the crystals and grains 
of feldspar are very large. The soil 
is fertile, being a sandy loam, mix- 
ed occasicriaiiy with coarse gravel. 
There are some fertile intervale 
lands on the borders of Swift river. 
This town has been considerably 
retarded by a peculiar disease which 
atriicts neat cattle. Young cattle 
cannot be reared, nor can cows or 
oxen be kept here for a series of 
years, without being attacked by a 
singular and fatal distemper. It 
commences with a loss of appetite 
— the animals refuse hay, grain and 
salt — become emaciated ; an obstin- 
ate costiveness attends, but the ab- 
domen becomes smaller than in 
heallh, and is diminished to one third 
its oripinal bulk. After these symp- 
toms have continued for an indefi- 
nite period, a brisk scouring comes 
on, and the animals fall away and 
die. Tiiough superstition may have 
found a rcar>on in the dying curse 
of the munlered Chocorua, philoso- 
phy has not yet ascertained a salis- 
iactory cause for the disease. It is 
probably owing to the properties 
contained in the waters. This town 
was granted Nov. 6, 1766, to Clem- 
ent March, Joseph Senter and oth- 
ers, and until the 2d July, 1833, it 
]>Gre the name of Burton. Popula* 
tion in 1830, 325. 

Albany, Vt. 

Orleans co. This town was grant- 
ed in the year 1781, by the nam© 
of Lutterloh ; in 1315 it was chang- 


ed to its present name. It is water- 
ed by a number of pond^, and by 
Black river and its branches. Al- 
bany lies 3 4 miles N. from Mont- 
pelier, and 9 S. of Irasburgh. Pop- 
ulation, 1S30, 6S3. 

Altoloii, lie. 

Kennebec co. This fine farming 
town lies on the stage road from 
Augusta to Bangor; 24 miles N. 
E. from the former, and 44 S. W. 
from the latter. Population, 1837, 
1609. Thi3 town produced 10,728 
bushels of wheat, in 1S37. 

Allbiirsli, Vt. 

Grand Isle co. Settlements com- 
menced here by emigrants from 
Canada, in 17S2. Thio town lies at 
the N. W. corner of the state and 
of New England ; 10 miles N. from 
North Hero, and 79 miles N. W. 
from Montpslier. Itiis bounded by 
the waters of Lake Champlaia, ex- 
cept on the north, where it meets 
the Canaila line, in norlh latitude 
43^. The soil is good and finely 
ti!nbered. It has a mineral spring, 
of some repute in scrofulous cases. 
Population, 1830, 1,239. 

Alexander, Me. 

Washington co. About 25 m.iles 
N. by W. from Machias, and S. of 
Baileyville, and Baring, which bor- 
der on the river St. Croix. In this 
town are some pond>, which, with 
the large pond in Baring and Alex- 
ander, produce a large stream which 
empties into Cobscook bay. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 457. 

Alexander's Tisii^c. 

This beautiful sheet of water, of 
about a mile in length and half a 
mile in breadth, lies in the town of 
Killinscly, Ct., and was foi-merly 
known to the Indians by the name 
of Mashapaug. Its present name 
is derived from Nell Alexander, a 
man who settled at Killingly in 
1720, and became proprietor of a 
Isu'^c portion of the town. As this 

perion gained his wealth in a man- 
ner which illustrates the antiquity 
of the propensity of the inhabitants 
of this state to the once honored, 
yet now despised employment of 
peddling, we will give the reader 
a short notice of his history. He 
came from Scotland, with a great 
number of other emigrants, in a 
ship which wa> to land them at 
Boston. Just before leaving the 
ship he discovered a gold ring up- 
on deck, for which he could find no 
owner. Thus fortunately provided, 
after his arrival he pawned the gold 
ring for small articles of trade, 
which he peddled in Boston and 
Roxbury. He was very prosper- 
ous, and finally became able to re- 
deem the author of his success, and 
pursue his business without 
rassment. After a few years of 
constant activity, lie acquired suffi- 
cient property to purchase a plantri- 
tion of 3,:[yjO acres in Killingly. 
The gold ring was transmitted as a 
sort of talisman, to his onlv son 
JVell, who transferred it to his only 
son JVell ; who is now living at an 
advanced age, and has already pla- 
ced it in the hands of his grandson 
JVell ; and ro it will doubtless con- 
tinue from A^ell to JVell, agreeably 
to the request of the first JVell, 
until the " last knell of the race is 

A singular tradition has been 
handed down to us by the abori- 
gines concerning the origin of this 

In ancient times, when the red 
m.en of this quarter had long enjoy- 
ed prosperity, that is, when they 
had found plenty of game in the 
woods,and fish in the ponds and riv- 
ersjthey at length fixed a time for 
a general powwow, a sort of festival 
for eating, drinking, smoking, sing- 
nig and dancing. The spot chosen 
for thir< purpose was a sandy hill, or 
mountain, covered with tall pines, 
occupjdng the situation where the 
lake now lies. The powuow lasted 
four days in succession, and was to 


continue longer had not tlie Grea,t 
Spirit, enraged at the licentiousness 
which prevailed there, resolved <o 
punish them. Accordingly, while 
the red people in iiunicnie numbers 
wei-e capering about upon the sum- 
mit of the niountain, it suddenly 
"gave way" beneath them, and 
sunk to a great depth, when the 
water from below rushed up and 
covered them all except one good 
old squaw, Vvho occupied one of 
the peaks, which now bears the 
name of Loon's Island. 

Mr. Barber in hi^ admirable work 
entitled " Connecticnt Historical 
Collections,''^ from wliich this ac- 
count is taken, observes, " whether 
the tradition is entitled to cre(Ut or 
no% we will do it justice by affirm- 
ing that in a clear day, when there 
is no wind and the surface of the 
lake is smooth, the huge trunks and 
leafless branches of gigantic pines 
may be occasionally seen in the 
deepest part of the water, some of 
them reaching almost to the surface, 
in such huge and fantastic forms as 
to cause the beholder to startle !" 

Alexandria, N. H. 

Grafton CO. A small part of New- 
found lake lies in this town. Al- 
exandria is Z'd miles N. W. fiom 
Concord, and 40 S. E. from Haver- 
hill. Population, 1330,1,0-33. In- 
corporated, 1732. On Fowler's and 
Smith's rivers and sevei-al other 
smaller streams are about 2000 acres 
of intervale land, which produce 
flax, potatoes and grass in abund- 
ance. Other paj-ts of the town are 
favorable for wheat and maize. — 
This town was first settled by Jon- 
athan, John M. and William Cor- 
liss, in 1769. 

Alfred, 3Ic. 

One of the sliire towns of Yoi-k 
county. It lies 24 miles N. from 
Yo."k,\35 S. from Portland and 86 
S. W. from Augusta. Incorpora- 
ted, ISOS. Population, 1837, 1,360. 
This is a good farming town and is 

well watered by the higher sources 
of Mousum river, wiiich meets the 
sea at Kennebunk. In this town 
is a society of those neat and indus- 
trious horticultuj-ists and artizans, 
denominated ••' Shakers." 

Alford, Mass. 

Berkshire CO. On the line of the 
state of New York, and watered 
by branches of Green river. Some 
manufactories of leather and shoes. 
125 rnilesW. fj-om Boston, 14 S. by 
W. from Lenox, and 24 E. of Hud- 
son, N. Y. Population, 1837, 441. 
Incorporated, 1773. 

Allcustowii, N. H. 

Merrimack co. On the Suncook 
river, 11 miles S. E. from Concord, 
and 33 W. from Portsmouth. The 
land generally is of an ordinary 
quality, though there are some fine 
farms. The town is principally 
covered with a growtli of oak and 
pine timber; and great quantities of 
lumber are annually taken down 
the river. Allenstown is well wa- 
tered, though no large stream pass- 
es through it. Great Bear brook 
furnishes the principal mill scats. 
Catamount hill is the highest land 
in town. At the E. end of this hill 
is a precipice of 70 feet nearly per- 
pendicular, at the foot of which is a 
cavern of some extent, inclining up- 
wards. The fii-st settlers were Rob't 
Buntin and others. In 1743, while 
at work on the western bank of the 
Merrimack river,opposite the mouth 
of the Suncook, in company with 
James Carr, ]Mi-. Buntin and his son, 
ten years ol age, were sui-prised by 
a party of Indians. Carr attempted 
to escape, and was shot down. Bun- 
tin and his son, making no resist- 
ance, wei-e not harmed; but taken 
through the v/ilderness to Canada, 
and sold to a French trader at Mont- 
real ; with whom they reniained 
about eleven months, escaped, and 
fortunately i-eached home in safety. 
Andrew, the son, continued on his 
father's farm until the commence- 


ment of the revolution, when, en- 
tering the service of his country, 
he died in her defence at V\'hite 
Plains, Oct. 2S, 1776. Incorporated 
July 2, 1831. Population, 1830, 421. 

Alma, Mc. 

This town is situated in the coun- 
ty of Lincoln, 10 miles N. from 
VViscasset, 51 N. E. from Portland, 
and 20 S. S. E. from Augusta. In- 
corporated 1791. Population, 1837, 
1,138. This is a pleasant town and 
well watered by Sheepscot river. 

Alstead, !X. H., 

Cheshire co., is 12 miles S. E. 
from Charlestown,14 N.froni Keene 
and 50 W. by S. from Concord. 
This town is well watered by small 
streams. Cold river passes through 
the N. W. part; and some of the 
b-ranches of Ashuelot river have 
their sources in this town. There 
are a number of ponds, the princi- 
pal of which is Warren's pond ; — 
length, 250 rods, breadth, 150. 
Perch and pickerel are here caught 
in great abundance. The soil is 
strong and productive, and the farms 
generally well cultivated. Manu- 
factures flourish in this town, and 
great attention is paid to education. 
Alstead was originally called New- 
ton, and was granted by charter, 
August 6, 1763, to Samuel Chase 
and 69 others. General Amos Shep- 
ard, who was for many years a 
member of the General Court of 
this state, and President of the Sen- 
ate from 1797 to 1804, resided in 
this town, and was ofie of its prin- 
cipal inhabitants from 1777 to the 
time of his death, Jan. 1, 1812. By 
his persevering industry, his econ- 
omy and correctness in business, 
and at the same time, by a rigid ad- 
herence to uprightness and integri- 
ty in his dealings with his fellow 
men, he acquired a handsome for- 
tune, and was in many things, a 
pattern worthy of imitation. Pop- 
ulation in 1830, 1,552. This town 
has 6000 sheep. 

Alton, N. H. 

Strafford co. This town lies 22 
miles N. E. from Concord, and 25 
N. W. from Dover, and is bounded 
N. by Winnepisiogee lake and bay. 
The town is rough and uneven ; the 
soil hard and rocky, but productive 
v/hen well cultivated. The growth 
of wood is chiefly oak, beech, maple 
and pine. The principal elevations 
are Mount-Major and Prof^pect Hill 
Merrymeeting bay extends S. about 
1300 rods info this town, where it 
receives the waters of Merrymeet- 
ing river. Half-moon pond, be- 
tween Alton and Barnstead, is 300 
rods long and 150 wide. This town 
was originally called Jsi^eiv Dur- 
ham Gore, and was settled in 1770, 
by Jacob Chamberlain and others. 
It was incorporated Jan. 15, 1796. 
Population in 1830, 1,993. This 
town has 2000 sheep. 

Aniestoury, Mass. 

This town is situated on the N 
side of Merrimack river, in the 
county of Essex, 40 miles N. E. 
from Boston, 6 N. "VV. from New- 
buryport, and 7 N. E. from Haver- 
hill. Population, 1837, 2,567. It 
was taken from Salisbury in 1668, 
and is separated from it by Powow 
river, a navigable stream for vessels 
of 300 tons. A pond, covering 
about 1000 acres, back of the town, 
90 feet above the sea, serves as a 
reservoir for a constant and exten- 
sive water power. The manufac- 
ture of flannel and satinet is very 
extensively pursued. The amount 
of those articles m.anufacturcd in 
the year ending April 1, 1837, was 
.$425,000. Many vessels arc built 
here of superior timber, and the 
manufacture of boots, shoes, leath- 
er, chairs, phaetons, gigs, and car- 
ryalls is very considerable. The 
total amount of the various manu- 
factures of this place is about ^500,- 
000 annually. About half the pop- 
ulation of the town is engaged in 
mechanical labor. Jo:-iah Bartlett, 
M. D. one of the siirners of the 


declaration of indepondence wa'> 
born hare, ia 1729. He died May 
19, 1TJ5. 

Aitilierst, 3Ic. 

Hancock co, Thi ; town is boun- 
ded on the S. by Mariaville. The 
heavl walci-i of Union river pass 
through it. it hes about 25 niiics E. 
of Bangor. Popiihiiion, 1837, 193. 

Aitiliersl, N. H. 

An important town, and the seat 
ofjutice in Hilliborough county, 
is situated on Souhegan river. It 
is 2.-> miles S. from Concord, about 
the same distance from Hop^iinion, 
47 N. W. from BoUon, 40 E. from 
Keene, 63 S. E. from Windsor, Vt. 
and 434 from Washington. Souhe- 
gan is a con -iderable and very im- 
portant stream, and in its course 
to the Merrimack river f:om this 
town, afifordi some of the iioest wa- 
ter privilege-; in the county. Bab- 
boosjck, Little Bab'oosuck and Jo 
Englidi ponds are the largest col- 
lections of water. In some parts, 
and par'icularly on Souhegan river, 
tlie soil is of an excellent quality, 
producing a'oundant crops. In oth- 
er parts, on the hills elevated above 
the village, the soil is of a good 
quality, and several valuable farms 
are found under good cultivation. 
The village is pleasant and contains 
mmy handsome buildings. There 
is a spicious common between the 
two principal rows of houses, which 
is often used for public purposes. 
Thei-e is what is termed a mineral 
spring, about 1 1-2 miles E. of the 
meetinj- house. The water has 
been found useful in rheumatic 
complaints, and in scrofulous and 
scorbutic habits; for poisons by ivy, 
dog-wood, &c. This town was 
granted in 1733, by Massachusetts, 
to those p3rsons living and the heirs 
of those not living, who were offi- 
cers and soldiers in the Narragan- 
set war of 1375. It v/as called JVar- 
ra^aaset JSTo.'i, and afterwards Sou- 
hegan,- West. The number of pro- 

prietors was 120, of whom a consid- 
erable nuinber belonged to Salem, 
iMass. The tovvn was incnrporated 
Jan. 18, 1760, when it assumed the 
nauie of Amherst, in compliment to 
Lord Jetirey Amherst. Among 
the vvoithy citizens of Amherst 
who deserve remembrance, may be 
mentioned Hon. Moses Nichols, a 
native of Reading, Mass., who was 
a colonel under Gen. Stark in the 
Battle of Bennington: Hon. Samuel 
Dana, a native of Brighton, Mass. 
H^on. William Gordon, eminent 
in the profession of the law. — 
Hon. Robert Means, who died Jan. 
24, 1823, at the age of SO, was for 
a long period of time a resident in 
Amherst. He was a native of Ire- 
land. In 1764, he came to this 
countrjs where by his industry and 
application to business, he acquired 
a large property, and great respect. 
Amherst did its duty manfully 
during the revolutionary contest. 
During the first four years of that 
war about one in seventy of its 
people died in the service. The 
expenses of that war, to this town, 
" in addition of any bounties, travel 
or wages given or prom.ised by the 
State or the United States, was 
found to be in specie, £3,511.'* 
Population, 1S30, 1,^57. 

Atnlierst, Mass. 

Hampshire co. The college and 
village in this town are on elevated 
ground and command a very beau- 
titul prospect of tlie surrounding 
count rJ^ Amherst was taken from 
Hadley, and incorporated in 1759. 
Population, 1837, 2,602. It lies 7 
miles E. by N. from Northampton, 
108 S. from Dartmouth college, and 
82 miles W. from Boston. There are 
good mill sites in this town on two 
streams, which empty into the Con- 
necticut at Hadley. its manufac- 
tures are various, consisting of 
woollen cloth, boots, shoes, leather, 
hats, paper, chairs, cabinet ware, 
tin ware, axes, ploughs, palm-leal* 
hats, carriages, wagons, (large and 


small) joiners' planes, stoves, steel 
hammers, pistols, and bowie knives. 
Total arnual amount of manufac- 
tures, about $200,000. See Meg- 

Amity, Me. 

Washington co. Township No. 
10, first range of townships from the 
east line of the state, — about 100 
miles N. E. from Bangor. Incor- 
porated 183o. Population, 1837, 
130. This town has fine soil for 

AmoJioosiiclt Rivers, N. H. 

Upper and Lower. The Upper 
Amonoosuck rises in the ungranted 
lands north of the White i*,Iountains, 
and passing N. E. into Dummer, 
approaches to within a few miles of 
the Androscoggin ; thence turn- 
ing abruptly to the S. W. it pursues 
that direction and frills into Connec- 
ticut river near the centre of North- 
umberland. Its whole length is 
about 50 miles. The valley of the 
Upper Amonoosuck is 7 or S miles 
in breadth, and more than 20 in 
length : it is scooped out with great 
beauty, the surface gently rising to 
the summits of the mountains on 
the N. The Lower Amonoosuck 
rises on the W. side of the White 
Mountains, and after running a 
course of 50 miles, falls into the 
Connecticut just above Haverhill, 
by a mouth 100 yards wide. At 
the distance of two miles from its 
mouth, it receives the Wild Amo- 
noosuck, a stream 40 yards wide, 
and, when raised by freshets, very 
swift and furious in its course. 
The waters of the Amonoosuck 
are pure, and its bed clean ; the 
current lively, and in some places 
rapid. The valley of the Lower 
Amonoosuck is about half a mile 
in width, and was probably once 
the bed of a lake, its S. W. limit 
being the rise of ground at its foot, 
over which the waters descended 
In their course to the Connecticut. 
There is a fine fall in this river about 

6 1-2 miles from the Notch of the 
White Mountains, wiiere the de- 
scent is 50 feet, cut through a mass 
of stratified granite. 

i\juosli:eag IT'alls «fc Village, N. Il« 

These falls are in the Mcriimack 
river 5 between GofFstov.n on the 
\V. and Manchester on the E. The 
whole fall of the river, within the 
distance of half a mile, is 54 feet, 
producing a great hydraulic pow- 
er. A company, with a large cap- 
ital, have commenced forming ca- 
nals and erecting buildings for man- 
ufacturing purpoes on a very ex- 
tensive scale. Their plan provides 
for 37 mills, each containing 6000 
spindles. Two canals, 2 factories, 
a number of dwelling houses, ma- 
chine shops, &.C. are now nearly 
completed. The canals are each a 
mile in length, and will, when com- 
pleted, be equal to any works of the 
kind in our country. The village 
is in Goffstown, 16 miles below Con- 
cord and 18 miles above Nashua; 
delightfully situated on the banks 
of these majestic falls. Amoskeag 
is already a place of considerable 
business, and must eventually be- 
come the mart of large manufac- 
turing operations. The vicinity of 
these falls was much frequented by 
the Indians. The Sachem W^ono- 
lanset resided here. The tribe un- 
der him was sometimes molested by 
the Mohawks, who carried terror 
to the hearts of all the eastern In- 
dians. In time of war between 
these hostile tribes, the Indians liv- 
ing; in the neighborhood of the falls, 
concealed their provisions in the 
large cavities of the rocks on the 
island in the middle of the upper 
part of the fall. They entertained 
an idea that their deity had cut out 
these cavities for that purpose. 

Andover, Me. 

Oxford CO. This town was incor- 
porated in 1804. Population, I837» 
551. It lies about 30 miles N. W. 
from Paris, 61 W. N. W. from Au- 


gusta, and 70 N. W. from Portland. 
It is linely watered by Ellis' river, a 
branch of the Androscoggin. This 
town is an extensive g!ebe of up- 
land and intej-vale of excellent 
quality, surrounded by White Cap, 
Bald Pate, Blue and Cone moun- 
tains. The town was tirst settled 
by industi-ious and intelligent farm- 
ers from Essex county, Mass., in 
1790, and most of its present popu- 
lation maintain the characteristics 
of their fathers. 

Aiidover, H. H. 

Merrimack co. It lies 20 miles 
N. W. from Concord, and about 18 
E. by N. from Newport. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,324. The Black wa- 
ter in (he S. W. part of the town, 
is the principal stream ; but nu- 
merous rills and biooks find their 
way down the hills into the ponds 
or Blackwater. There are six 
ponds in Andover, the largest of 
which are Chance and Loon ponds, 
both picturesque, and their wa- 
ters pure. The surface of this 
town is extremely uneven, and 
in some parts rocky and barren. 
The Ragged Moun'ains pass along 
the N., and the Kearsarge extends 
its ba?e along the W. The soil is 
in many parts of good quality, and 
pleasant villages are foimed in (lif- 
erent parts of the town. This town 
was granted in 1746, and was called 
JVew Breton, in honor of the captors 
of Cape Breton in 1745; in which 
expedition several of the giantces 
were engaged. It retained this 
name un'il June 25, 1779, when it 
was incorporated by its present 
name. The fust inhabitant of Ando- 
ver was Joseph Eellows, who mov- 
ed into (he place in 1761 : he died 
March 14, 1811, aged 84. Among 
the deceased citizens who are re- 
membered with respect by the in- 
habitants, we may mention Dr. Silas 
Barnard, the first physician in town, 
a native of Bolton, Mass., who died 
June 25, 1795 : Dr. Jacob B. Moore, 
a native of Georgetown, Me., boru 

I Sept., 5, 1772; settled in Andover 
in 1796; died Jan. 10, 1S18. He 
possessed re pectable poetical tal- 
ents; was a vviiter on politicul sub- 
jects in the public papers, and was 
eminent in his profcsbion. Jonathan 
V> care, Esq., a civil magistrate, 
highly respected for his integrity, 
died in 1816. Mr. Joseph JNoyes 
was much honored for his chaiitable 
(li.-position. In 1782 a congrega- 
tional church was formed and the 
Rev. Joseiah Babcock, of Milton, 
Mass., was ordained. Andover, 
though rough, is well adapted for 
grazing. It feeds about 4,000 sheep. 

Andover, Vt. 

Windsor co. Emigrants from En- 
field, Ct., first made a permanent 
settlement in this town, in 1776. It 
was organized, as a (own, in 1781. 
1( i-; a mountainous townshij). Mark- 
hum and Tenible Uiountains lie in 
(he western part. Tiie land is une- 
ven, the soil is hard, and the town 
possesses but few water privileges. 
Population, 1830, 975. It lies 20 
miles S. W. from Windsor , 37 N. 
E. from Bennington, and 68 S. from 
Mon'pelicr. The nun;ber of sheep 
in this town is about 4,500. 

Andover, Blass. 

Essex CO. This (own lies on the 
south side of the Mcriimack river, 
and is well watered by (he Shaw- 
shcen river; and by Great Pond 
and Haggctt's Pond, coveiing an 
area of 721 acres. It is 20 miles 
N. by. W. of Boston, 15 N. N. W. 
of Salem, 10 E. of Lowell, and 43 
S. S. E.- of Concord, N. H. This 
town was first seltled in 1643. In- 
coiporated, 1646. Population, 1837, 
4,878. Tliis town has a valuable 
water power, which is ueed for 
manufacturing purposes to a great 
extent. The value of its manufac- 
tures, for the year endina: Apiil 1, 
1837, amounted to $624,450. They 
consisted of woollen goods, boots, 
shoes, leather, flax, soapstone, ma- 
chinery, tin and cabinet wares, 


chairs and hats. ■ This is a very 
beautiful town of fine soil and un- 
der excellent cultivation. It is on 
high ground and commands a vari- 
ety of beautiful landscape. The 
access to Andover from Boston by 
the railroad, is easy and very pleas- 
ant. This town has long been cel- 
ebrated for its literary and theologi- 
cal institutions. There is no place 
in New England better situated 
for seminaries of learning. See 

Androscoggin River, 

Or Ameriscoggin. Its most north- 
erly branch is the Margallaway 
river which receives the waters of 
Dead and Diamond rivers, and unites 
with those flowing from Umbagog 
lake, about a mile distant from its 
outlet. From this junction, the 
confluent stream pursues a souther- 
ly course till it approaches near the 
White Mountains, where it receives 
several considei-able tributaries, and 
passes into Maine, N. of Mount Mo- 
riah. It there bends to the E. and 
S. E. ; in which course, through a 
fertile country, it passes near the 
sea-coast, and turning N. runs over 
the falls at Brunswick, not tar 
from Bowdoin College, into Merry- 
meeting bay, forming a junction 
with the Kennebec, 20 miles from 
the sea. 

Ann, Cape, Mass. 

See Gloucester, Mass. 

Anson, Me. 

Somerset co. Anson lies about 
10 miles N. E. from Norridgewock, 
112 W. from Portland, and 40 n! 
E. from Augusta. Incorporated, 
1793. Population, 1S37, 1,894. It 
lies at the junction of Seven Mile 
Brook with the Kennebec, on the 
western side of that river. Here 
are tine farms and good husband- 
men. In 1837, 12,713 bushels of 
wheat was raised. 

Antrim, N. H. 

Hillsborough co. It is 20 miles 

N. W. from Amherst, 30 S. W. 
from Concord, and 67 from Boston. 
The E. part of Antrim lies on Con- 
toocook river ; and though some- 
what hilly, is a tract of pioductive 
land, a considerable proportion of 
which is arable. On the river 
there are valuable tracts of allu- 
vial land. The North Branch river, 
so called, a small stream originat- 
ing from several ponds in Stoddard, 
furnishes several valuable mill seats 
and in some parts of its course, it 
is bordered by tracts of intervale. 
The W. part of the town is moun- 
tainous, but suitable for grass, and 
affords an extensive range of good 
pasturage. There are six natural 
ponds well stored with parch and 
pike. A curiosity has been dis- 
covered in the middle branch of 
Contoocook river, a rock, about 10 
feet long and 8 feet wide, covered 
with a shallow coat of moss, afford- 
ing sustenance to 21 different kinds 
of plants and shrubs, three of which 
produce edible fruit. Antrim was 
incorporated March 22, 1777. The 
first settlement was made by Dea. 
James Aiken about the year 1768. 
Dea. Aiken was a native of Lon- 
donderry, where he was born in 
1731. He died July 27, 1817. He 
was a professor of the christian re- 
ligion more than 60 years, and 
adorned it by a serious and exem- 
plary life. Population, 1830, 1,309. 
Antrim has abv-^ut 4,400 sheep. 

Applcton, Me. 

Waldo CO. This town lies 20 
miles S. W. from Belfast, 84 N. W. 
from Portland, and 35 E. by S. from 
Augusta. Incorporated, 1829. — 
Population, 1837, 839. It i^ situa- 
ted between the head waters of 
the Muscongus and St. George's 
ri'^ers. Considerable wheat is grown 

Argyle, Me. 

Penobscot co. This is a new 
town, but fertile, and flourishing 
in its agricultural pursuits. It pro- 


duces the best of wheat. It lies 
89 miles N. E. from Augusta. — 
Population, 183U, 326 ; in 1837, 601. 

ArliJigtoii, Vt. 

Bennington co. This town was 
first settled in 1763. The time of 
its organizaiion is not known, as one 
Bisco, a tory, the town clerk in 
1777, destroyed the records. It ii 
finely watered by Green river, Mill 
and Warm brooks, and Roaring 
branch which fall into the Batten- 
kill, at the north part of the town. 
These streams afford excellent mill 
sites, and on their banks are large 
bodies of superior meadow land. 
West and Red mountains extend 
through the west part of the town 
and supply a great variety of good 
timber. Excellent marble is found 
here; — considerable quantities of 
which are wrought and transported. 
Here is a medicinal spi-ing, and a 
cavern of large dimeu-iions. The 
spring is not of much note, but the 
cavern is a great curio-;ity. This 
is a flourishing town in both its ag- 
ricultural and manufacturing pur- 
suits. The number of sheep in 
this town in 183o, was 10,077. It 
lies 15 miles N. from Bennington, 
106 S. W. from Mon^pelier, and 40 
N. E. from Troy, N. Y. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,207. 

Aroostooic Hivcr. 

This river rises in the interior 
part of Penobscot county, Me., and 
after traversing more than 100 mile^, 
and receiving many and powerful 
tributaries in that state, it falls into 
the river St. Johns in New Bruns- 
wick. The lands on this liver and 
its branches are very fertile, and are 
said to be equal to the celebrated 
Genesee lands for the culture of 

Asctitiiey Moiiiitaiii, Vt. 

This mountain is situated in the 
towns of Windsor ?nd Weathers- 
field. It is 3,118 feet above the 
Connecticut river, at Windsor; and 

3,320 feet above the level of the 
sea. It consists of granite and is 
nearly destiiute of vegetable cov- 
ering. From Windsor, to the base, 
is 4 miles. Its ascent is generally 
steep, but travellers wbo delight 
to view rich and variegated scene- 
ry, will be amply rewarded for the 
toil of a pilgrimage to its summit. 

Asliloiii'iiliarji, Mass. 

Worcester co. Tliis township 
was granted to Thomas Tileston and 
others of Dorchester, for services 
in an expedition against Canada, in 
the year 1690. For many yeai-s it 
was called " Dorchester Canada." 
It was incorporated as a town in 
1765. Ashburnham lies on the 
height of land between the Con- 
necticut and Merrimack rivers. It 
is watered by large ponds wliich 
furnish good mill seats. Its manu- 
factures consist of cotton goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, chairs, cabin- 
et ware, fur and palm-leaf hats ; the 
annual value of which is about 
$100,000. This town is 30 miles 
N. from Worcester, 50 N. W. from 
Boston, and 35 W. from Lowell. 
Population, 1837, 1,758. 

Asliljy, Mass. 

This is a pleasant town, in the 
county of Middlesex, on the line of 
N. H. It is 25 miles N. W, from 
Concord, 42 W. N. W. from Boston 
and 8 S. E. from New Ipswich, N. 
H. Population, 1837, 1,201. It has 
some manufactures of palm-leaf hats 
boots, shoes, chairs, wooden ware, 
and curled hair. 

AsSificlfl, Mass. 

Franklin co. This town was first 
settled in 1754, and, until its incor- 
poration, in 1764, it was called 
Huntstown. Population, 1837, — 
1,656. This town is on elevated land 
between Deerheld and Westiield 
ris'ers, to each of wliich it sendr. a 
small tributary. It has small man- 
ufactures of leather, scythe snaiths, 
spirits and essences, and about 


8000 sheep. It is 105 miles W. from 
Boston, 12 S. W, from Greenfield, 
and 15 N. W. from Northampton. 

Asliford, Ct. 

Windham co. This town was 
first settled in 1710. Incorporated, 
1714. It is watered by several 
small streams which afford a water 
power for one cotton and three 
woollen factories. The surface of 
the town is rough and stony, but 
excellent for grazing. The num- 
ber of sheep in this town is about 
5,000, It lies 31 miles E, from 
Hartford, and 14 N. W, from Brook- 
lyn, Population, 1830, 2,660, The 
following is said to have occurred in 
this town, and is told to illustrate the 
manners and customs of ancient 
times, " A concourse of people 
were assembled on the hill in front 
of the meeting house, to witness 
the punishment of a man who had 
been convicted of neglecting to go 
to meeting on the Sabbath for a pe- 
riod of three months. According 
to the existing law for such delin- 
quency, the culpiit v/as to be pub- 
licly whipped at the poit. Just as 
the whip was about to be applied, 
a stranger on horseback appeared, 
rode up to the crowd of spectators, 
and enquired for what purpose they 
were assembled. Being inforjiied 
of the state of the case, the strange 
gentleman rose upiight in his stir- 
rups, and with emphasis addressed 
the astonished multitude as follows : 
' You men of Ashford, serve God 
ns if the D...1 was in you ! Do you 
think you can whip the grace of 
God info men ? Christ will have 
none but volunteers,' The people 
stared, while the speaker, probablj- 
not caring to be arraigned for con- 
tempt of court, put spurs to his 
horse, and was soon out of sight ; 
nor was he evermore seen or heard 
of by the good people of Ashford." 
Col. Thomas Knowl'on was a na- 
tive of this town. He was at the 
battle of Bunker Ilill, and fell at 
Haarlem Heights, in 177G. Wash- 

ington termed him, in a general or- 
der after his death, "the gallant and 
brave Col, Knowlton, who would 
have been an honor to any coun- 

Aslmelot River, K. H., 

Or Ashwillet, a river in Chesh- 
ire county, which has its source in 
a pond in Washington, It runs in 
a southerly course through Marlow 
and Gilsum, to Keene, where it re- 
ceives a considerable bi-anch issu- 
ing from ponds in Stoddard. From 
Keene it proceeds to Swanzey, 
where it receives another consider- 
able branch which originates in Jaf- 
frey and Fitzwilliam, It pursues 
its course southerly and westerly 
through Winchester into Hinsdale, 
Vvhere, at the distance of about 3 
miles from the S. line of the state, 
it empties into the Connecticut. 

Assaliet River, Blass. 

This river rises in the neighbor- 
hood of AVestborough ; — it passes 
thiough Marlborough, Northbo- 
rough and Slow, and joins Sudbury 
river at Concord. 

Alliens, Ble. 

Somerset co. This tovrn was 
incorporated in 1803. Population, 
1837, 1,424. It is about 18 miles 
N. N. E. from Norridgewock, 114 
N, N, E, from Portland and 45 N. 
from Augusta, It is watered by a 
tributary of Kennebec river. 

Atlieus Vt. 

Windham co. This town lies 14 
miles N, from Ncwfane, 98 S, from 
Montpelier, 10 W, from Bellows' 
Falls, and about 40 N, E, from Ben- 
nington, Population, 1830, 415. 
This town was first settled in 1780, 
by people from Rindge, N. H., and 
Winchendon, Mass, They encoun- 
tered great hardships. " The snow 
was four feet deep when they came 
into town, and they had to beat 
llieir own path for 8 uiiles through 
the woods. A small yoke of oxen 


were the only domestic animals 
that they took with them." This 
is a good township of land, particu- 
larly for grazing. It has 2000 sheep. 
Here are productive orchards, pine 
timber, and a small mill stream. 

Atliol, Mass. 

Worcester co. The Indian name 
of this town was Paquoig. This 
pleasant place lies 60 miles W. N, 
W. from Boston, 23 N. V/. from 
Worcester, and about 24 W. from 
Fitchburg. Miller's river is a fine 
stream, and affords Athol a great 
water power. The manufactures 
of Athol consist of cotton goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, paper, iron 
castings, scythes, ploughs, cabinet 
ware, machinery, straw bonnets, 
palm leaf hats, shoe pegs, harnesses, 
shoe and hat boxes, pails, sashes, 
doors and blinds ; — annual amount 
about ^^175,000. Incorporated, 1762. 
Population, 1837, 1,603. 

Atlcinsoii, Me. 

Piscataquis co. This township 
was incorporated in 1819. It lies 
about 3.5 miles N. N. W. from Ban- 
gor, 132 N. E. from Portland, and 
79 N. E. from Augusta. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 557. It is bounded on 
the N. by Piscataquis river. This 
town has a jiood soil. Wheat crop, 
1837, 5,168^bushels. 

Atluliisou, N. II. 

Rockingham co. It is situated 
30 miles S. W. from Portsmouth, 
and 32 S. E. from Concord, The 
surface of Atkinson is uneven ; the 
soil of a superior quality, and well 
cultivated. The cultivation of the 
apple has received much attention 
here, and the finest fruit is pro- 
duced. Incorporated Sept. 3, 1767, 
by its present name, in honor of 
Theodore Atkinson. Several of 
the fii-st settlers lived to a great age. 
The Rev. Stephen Peabody was the 
first settled minister in Atkin-on. 
He was a native of Andover, Ma^s. 
He took an active part in the revo- 

lution, and served as chaplain in 
the regiment under Col. Poor, sta- 
tioned at Winter-Hill. The acade- 
my in this town is one of the oldest 
and most respectable institutions in 
the state ; it was incorporated Feb. 
17, 1791. " In a large meadow in 
this town, there is an island, con- 
taining 7 or 8 acres, which was for- 
merly loaded with valuable pine 
timber and other forest wood. Vv hen 
the meadow is overflowed, by means 
of an artificial dam, this island rises 
in the same degree as the water 
rises, which is sometimes six feet. 
Near the middle of this island, is a 
small pond, v.'hich has been gradu- 
ally lessening ever since it vv'as first 
known, and is now alm.ost covered 
with verdure. In \he water of this 
pond, there have been fish in plen- 
ty ; which, when the meadow hath 
been flov/ed, have appeared there, 
and when the water hath been 
drawn off, have been left on the 
meadow ; at which time the island 
settles to its usual place." Popu- 
lation, 1830, 555. 

AttletooroTCglx, Mass. 

This town lies at the N. W. cor- 
ner of the county of Bristol ; 12 
miles N. from Providence, R. I., 8 
N. \7. from Taunton, and 28 S. 
from Boston. A branch of the 
Pawtucket rises here, and several 
other rivers pass through the town. 
It possesses a fine water power. It 
was first settled, 1644, and incorpo- 
rated in 1694. Population, 1837, 
2,396. The value of tlie manufac- 
tures at this place, for the year 
ending April ], 1837, amounted to 
about $500,000. That of cotton 
goods alone to $229,571. The oth- 
er manufactures consisted of boots, 
shoes, leather, metal buttons, combs 
jewelry, clocks, planing machines, 
carpenter's fool,-, sfiaw bonnets, 
chairs and cabinet ware. This town 
sufTered much during the reign of 
the celebrated Indian King Philip. 
In 1675, Attleborough was ^fron- 
tier settlement. 


An.'burii, Mass. 

Worcester co. Until 1S37, this 
town had been called Ward, in hoji- 
orof Gcner;-! Waru, of the revolu- 
tionary i:: It was incorporated 
in 177S. I ..puiation, 1837, 1,1S3. 
Auburn is a pleasant agricultural 
town. French river passes through 
it. It lies 5 miles S. by W. from 
Worcester, and 45 W. S. W. from 

Aiisiista, Me. 

This delightful tov/n, the Capi- 
TAx. of the state, and chief town 
of the county of Kennebec, is in 
N. Lat. 44° 18' 43" and W. Lon. 
69=^ 50'. It lies 146 miles N. E. 
from Concord, N. H.; 182 E. N. E. 
from I\Iontpclier, Vt. ; 163 N.N. E. 
from Boston, Mass. ; 203 N. N. E. 
from Providence, R. I.; 200 N. E. 
from Hartford, Ct. ; and 595 miles 
N. E. from Washington. Augusta is 
situated at the head of sloop naviga- 
tion on Kennebec river, 43 miles 
from the sea. The town lies on 
both sides of the Kennebec, and 
contains an area of 8 by 6 miles. 
It was first settled in 1771, and in- 
corporated in 1797. In 183G it con- 
tained 6,300 inhabitants. Its In- 
dian ntime was Cushnoe. There 
was, in its early settlement, a fort, 
jind four block houses built of tim- 
ber, to afibrd protection to the in- 
habitants fz'om the Indians, who 
were then very trouble>ome. The 
fort was called Fort Western, and 
is still standing on tl)c east bank of 
the river, and is nov/ occupied as a 
dwelling house. Tiiis is already a 
very tlouri-hing town, not only in 
its agricultural pursuits, but in its 
commerce and manufactures. The 
tonnage of the place is about 3000 
tons. Its exports are lumber of all 
kinds, oats, peas, beans, hay, pota- 
toes, wool, cider, apples, &c. — 
When the extent and resources of 
the noble Kennebec and its tributa- 
ries, above tide water, are con-;id- 
ered, some idea rray be formed of 
the vast quantity of lumber that 

must pass this place on its passage 
to market. 

The Kennebec bridge, uniting the 
east and west parts of the town is 
a fine structui-e. It was built in 
1799; is 520 feet in length, and 
cost $28,000. The town rises by 
an easy ascent on both sides of the 
river to a level surface ; it is well 
laid out, neatly built, and contains 
many handsome dwelling houses. 
Many of the streets are decorated 
b}" trees, planted on each side ; — a 
striking evidence of the good taste 
of the inhabitants. 

The State House is a spacious and 
elegant structure, located upon a 
beautiful eminence about half a 
mile from the village, on the road 
towards Haliowell, and commands 
an extensive and very delightful 
prospect. It is built of hammered 
granite, or rather gneiss of a white 
color, and very much resembles 
marble, at a distance. The materi- 
al of which it was built, was quar- 
ried frora the spot on which it stands. 
It has a spacious hall for the Rep- 
resentatives ; two of convenient size 
for the Senate and the Executive 
Departments, and rooms for all the 
offices immediately connected with 
the Government. In front is an ex- 
tensive co«ir;2c?i, adorned with trees 
tastefully arranged, which, when 
grown into shades, v.'ill afibrd a de- 
lightful promenade. 

The United States' ..Arsenal 
huildings arc situated upon the east 
bank of the river, in view of the vil- 
lage, and are chiefly constructed of 
stone, and present a very fine ap- 
pearance. The Government lias 
expended large sums of money in 
their construction, and it is expect- 
ed that soon the Government will 
make it an Arsenal of Construc- 
tion. There are at present about 
2000 stand of arms dcpo ited here, 
besides cannon and other munitions 
of war. The PO't is commanded by 
a captain of the Ordnance Depart- 


ment, aided by a Lieut, of the same 

The State Insane Hospital. This 
splendid granite edifice, an honor 
to the state and to humanity, occu- 
pies a plat of elevated ground, of 
seventy acres, on the east side of 
the river. Its situation is unrival- 
ed for the beauty of its scenery. 
This building was commenced in 
1836, and will probably be complet- 
ed and prepared to receive patients, 
in 1839. It will cost the state, and 
some beneticent individuals, Avho 
have made liberal donations towards 
its erection, aliout .<|5lOO,000. It is 
of the model of the Lunatic Hos- 
pital at Worcester, Mass., and is 
much admired for lis external arch- 
itecture and internal arrangement. 
The centre building and wings are 
262 feet long ; the centre building 
is 82 feet in length, 46 feet wide, 4 
stories high, besides the basement 
and attic, having a chapel in the attic 
80 by 40. The wings are 90 feet 
long in front, and 100 in the rear, 
38 feet wide, and 3 stories high, di- 
vided into 126 rooms, 120 of which 
are designed for patients, the re- 
maining 6 for water closets and oth- 
er purposes, with halls between the 
rooms 12 feet wide running the en- 
tire length of each wing, and com- 
municating with the dining rooms 
in the centre building. 

The Augusta High School, is an 
elegant brick building, situated up- 
on a beautiful eminence, 2 stories 
high, 65 feet long by 50 wide, hav- 
ing a pediment front supported by 
doric columns, and contains two 
large school rooms, beside a labora- 
tory and four recitation rooms, and 
cost about $7,000. 

The above is a brief sketch of the 
prominent features of this beauti- 
ful and flourishing town ; — such as 
it has become by the common ef- 
forts of an intelligent and enter- 
prising people, joined to the natur- 
al advantages of the place. 

But a new era is opened to Au- 
gusta. The mighty waters of the 
Kennebec have been arrested in 
their course. That proud stream, 
which, for ages, has rolled its rapid 
current to the ocean, unimpeded by 
the devices of man, is destined for 
ages to come, to pay perpetual 
homage to Yankee perseverance 
and skill, and to lend its gigantic 
strength to aid the arts and sciences 
in supplying the wants of millions. 

We may perhaps, be suspected of 
partiality towards this lovely Vil- 
lage of the East, for giving it so ex- 
tended a notice ; — but, as accounts 
of works of great public utility are 
interesting to most of our readers, 
both duty and inclination prompt us 
to give a brief description of the 
Kejvnebec Dam; — a magniticent 
structure; — bold in its design — curi- 
ous in its workmanship, — and prob- 
ably unrivaled by any work of sim- 
ilar character and for similar pur- 
poses, in this or any other country. 

Although Augusta enjoys the 
pleasure of seeing this noble enter- 
prise accomplished within its own 
borders, and by the energy of its 
own people ; yet improvements of 
this character are by no means lo- 
cal in their effects. The benefits 
of this tmdertaking will be felt, not 
only in the valley of the Kennebec, 
but throughout the state. 

These works were commenced 
in 1836, by the Kennebec Locks 
and Canals Company, and com- 
pleted in September, 1837. The 
cost was about $300,000. They 
are about half a mile above the cen- 
tre of the village, and were con- 
structed under the superintendence 
of Col. William BoARDMAjv,of 
Nashua, N. H., as chief engineer, 
from whose report many of the fol- 
lowing facts are elicited. 

The length of the Dam, exclu- 
sive of the stone abutments and 
Lock, is 584 feet — the base, 127 
feet — the height. i5 feet above or- 
dinary high watei mark. It is built 
with cribs of timber, bolted and 


trenailed strongly together, and is 
filled with ballast, to the very top. 
The upper slope is covered with 
five inch pine plank, jointed and 
perfectly tight ; the lower with five 
and three inch hemlock plank. — 
The crest, terminating at the sluice, 
near the middle of the overfall, is 
level, and covered entirely with 
stone eight feet in length, and 
strongly secured with iron straps 
and bolts. The sluice, sixty feet 
in length, is covered in the same 
manner, and is about twenty inches 
lower than the wing's. The walls 
of the Lock are 170 feet in length, 
its chamber 101 feet by 23 1-3 feet 
in the clear, with a single lift ; the 
west wall serves as the eastern 
abutment of the Dam — it is 28 feet 
thick at the base, graduated to 2.5 
at the top. The head and east walls 
are of corresponding strength. — 
Both are built wholly of granite. 
The face courses hammered, bed 
and joint, rabbitted, and laid in ce- 
ment, and the rabbit filled with 
cement The floor of the Lock is 
constructed of timber fifteen inches 
deep, and covered with five inch 
pine plank, tongued and grooved, 
w^ith an additional flooring of five 
inch hard wood plank, commencing 
at the head of the Lock and ex- 
tending fourteen feet. The main 
gates of the Lock, and guard gates 
of the Canals, are of white oak from 
the Chesapeake, and the wicket 
gates of cast iron. The large stone 
piers above the Dam, for the pro- 
tection of the Lock and abutments, 
are each 30 feet square on the base, 
graduated to 25 feet on the top, and 
about 34 feet high, and built of 
granite, clamped and strapped with 

The Canals on each side of the 
river are 50 feet wide in the clear, 
carrying 10 feet of water from the 
level of the top of the dam. The 
walls are 22 feet high, 7 1-2 feet 
thick at the base, and 5 feet at the 
top. They are finished as far as, and 

including, the guard gates. The 
gates are of great strength, built of 
heavy oak timber, and in the most 
substantial manner, revolving in 
stone coins, with which stone and 
sheet-piling is connected, extending 
across and 25 feet into each bank, 
and driven 10 feet below the bottom 
of the Canals. 

The walls on the banks of the 
river, above and below the Dam, 
extending about 500 feet, are of the 
same height as the Canal walls, 
and 8 feet thick at the base. On 
the upper side of the Dam is a 
sheet of timber-piling, tongued and 
grooved, and either resting on the 
bare ledge, or driven as far as they 
could be made to penetrate into the 
solid bed which covers a portion of 
its surface, and is connected with 
the piling which passes under and 
across the Lock into the east bank, 
and also with that which is driven 
in the west bank of the river. — 
Above this, and extending to the 
top of the Dam, so as to cover the 
entire planking of the upper slope, 
is a mass of gravel from 20 to 30 
feet deep. 

2,500,000 feet of timber and about 
25 tons of iron have been used in 
constructing the Dam, and about 
75,000 tons of ballast have been de- 
posited in it. 

The Lock, Piers, River and Mill 
walls, with the Canal walls, ex- 
tending to and including the guard 
gates, contain about 800,000 cubic 
feet of stone. 

During the progress of the work, 
and especially while the course of 
the river was contracted to a space 
of 17 feet wide by 24 deep (a time 
peculiarly favorable for forming an 
estimate, and rarely offered in a 
stream of this magnitude) repeated 
observations were made upon the 
velocity of the current, and at no 
time was there found a less quanti- 
ty than 2,500 cubic feet per second. 
It is proper to add that the seasons 
of 1836 and 1837, were both re- 


markable for the small quantity of 
water running in all the streams in 
this vicinity. 

The pond formed by this Dam 
covers 1200 acres. It is 16 1-2 miles 
in length, and its average depth is 
16 feet. 

Augusta presents advantages 
for manufacturing establishments, 
equal, if not superior to any in New 
England. It i.-> located in the heart 
of a large and powerful state, rap- 
idly increasing in population and 
wealth ; surrounded by a fertile 
country, rich in every necessary 
agricultural product, and stored with 
granite, clay, lumber, lime, iron 
ore — every building material ; all 
of which are found near the spot, 
and at very low prices. 

The facilities afforded at this 
place, for transportation, are of in- 
estimable value to a large manufac- 
turing town. Cotton and other raw 
materials, and manufactured goods, 
maybe transported by water, to and 
from the very doors of the mills. 
At no distant period the great east- 
ern railroad from Boston and Port- 
land will pass thiough this town, 
in its course to Bangor. At this 
time, steamboats pass from Augus- 
ta to Boston in eleven hours. 

The greatest consideration, how- 
ever, in regard to Augusta, as a 
manufacturing town, is its unfail- 
ing suppli/ of icater. The main 
"branch of the Kennebec is the outlet 
of an immense lake, with numer- 
ous powerful ti-ibutaries, connected 
with other lakes or large reservoirs 
of water. On its passage to Augus- 
ta, Dead river. Seven Mile Brook, 
the Sandy, Sebasticook, and many 
other less powerful streams pay their 
tribute to it. Indeed, all the waters 
of the extensive valley of the Ken- 
nebec, above the Dam, meet at this 
place. It may be said with safety, 
that this place possesses a water 
power amply sufficient to drive 
200,000 spindles, day and night, 
throughout the year ; and an almost 

inexhaustable surplus power from 
November to July. 

Preparations are making for the 
erection of buildings for extensive 
manufacturing operations. 

Aurora, Me. 

Hancock co. This town lies 106 
miles from Augusta. With a popu- 
lation of only 140, this town pj-o- 
duced, in 1337, among its agricul- 
tural products, 855 bushels of wheat. 

Averill, Vt. 

Essex CO. This town lies on the 
Canada line, about 30 miles N. of 
Guildhall. It has several large 
ponds and a branch of Nulhegan 
river. Some of these waters pass 
to the Connecticut, and some to the 
river St. Francis. The soil of Aver- 
ill is cold and broken, with few cul- 

Avon, Me. 

Franklin co. Avon lies 35 miles 
W. by N. from Norridgewock, and 
50 N. N. W. from Augusta. It 
w^as incorporated in 1802. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 767. It is watered by 
some of the head branches of San- 
dy river. In 1837, this town pro- 
duced 3,220 bushels of wheat. 

Avon, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town was tak- 
en from Farmington, in 1830. Pop- 
ulation, 1,025. It lies between two 
mountainous ridges and has consid- 
erable rich level land on the bor- 
ders of Farmington river. This is 
a handsome agricultural town and 
possesses some very beautiful scen- 
ery. The view from Monte Video, 
on Talcott mountain, nearly 1000 
feet above the waters of the Con- 
necticut, is quite enchanting. — 
"Wardsworth's Tower," or Monte 
Video, is much resorted to by par- 
ties of pleasure in summer months. 
Avon is 6 miles N. from Farming- 
ton, and 9 W. N. W. from Hart- 


Bachelcler, Me. 

Oxford CO. This township lies 
between two mountains on the line 
of New Hampshire, 20 miles W, 
bj^ N. from Paris, and 60 W. from 

Baileyville, Me. 

"Washin£;ton co. This town is on 
the line of New Brunswick, about 
45 miles N. bv W, fiom Machias, 
and 80 E. N. E. from Bangor. In- 
coi-porated, 1828. Population, 1837, 
331. Baileyville is watered on the 
E. by the St. Croix, and on the N. 
by the outlet of Schoodic lakes. 

Baker's River, ST. H. 

Baker's river, a considerable 
stream in Grafton county, is form- 
ed of two branches. The N. branch 
has its source near Moosehillock 
mountain in Coventry. It runs 
southerly through Warren into 
Wentworth, where it unites with 
the S. branch which originates in 
Orange. After the union of these 
branches, the river pursues a S. E. 
and an easterly course through the 
S. part of Rumney and the N. part 
of Plymouth, where it forms a junc- 
tion with Pemigewaset river just 
above Plymouth village. It was 
on this river, in the township of 
Rumney, that General Stark was 
captured by the Indians, on the 28th 
of April, 1752. 

Bakcrs:field, Vt., 

Franklin co., lies 30 miles N. E. 
from Burlington, 38 N. N. W. from 
Montpelier, and 15 miles E. from 
St. Albans. Branches of Missis- 
que river pass through it. This 
town is well timbered with hard 
wood ; the land is warm, but some- 
what broken. 4,000 sheep. First 
settled about 1789. Population, 
1830, 1,087. 

Baldtvin, Me. 

Cumberland co. This town is 
bounded E. by Sebago pond and W. 
by Saco river. It contains a num- 

ber of ponds, affording fish of vari- 
ous kinds. Baldwin was incorpo- 
rated in 1802. Population, 1837, 
1,133. It is 26 miles W. S. W. 
from Portland. 

Ealtiinore, Vt. 

"Windsor co. This town was tak- 
en from Cavendish in 1793. Hawk 
mountain is the division line. The 
soil is warm but stony. 1,200 sheep. 
An abundance of gneiss and granite 
is found here. It is 10 miles N. W. 
from Windsor and about 65 S. from 
Montpelier. Population, 1830, 179. 

Eaiigor, Me. 

This is the chief town of Penob- 
scot count v. It lies in N. lat. 44° 
47' 50"., W. long. GS"" 47'. It lies 
66 miles F. N. E. from Augusta, 
120 N. E. by E. from Portland, 230 
N. E. from" Boston, Mass., 115 S. 
from Eastport, and (>75 N. E. from 
Washington. The iirst settlement 
in this place, b}- the whites, was 
made in the winter of 1769 — 1770. 
In 1772,the Plantation, Kenduskeag, 
as it was then called, consisted of 
twelve families. In 1790, the pop- 
ulation of Bans:or was 169 ; in 1800, 
277; in ISIO, 850; in 1820, 1,221; 
in 1830, 2,868, and in 1837, 9,201. 
This place is situated at the head ol 
navigation on the west side of Pe- 
nobscot river, 30 miles N. by E. 
from ]?eli'ast bay, 60 to Matawam- 
keag Point, 120 to Houlton, and 
about 60 miles from the open sea. 
The compact part of the population 
reside on both tides of Kenduskeag 
stream, about 190 yards in width at 
its mouth, over which are three 
bridges, and on which, at the foot 
of the falls, about a mile from the 
city, are numerous mills. The 
bridge across the Penobscot, 100 
rods above the mouth of the Ken- 
duskeag, is about 440 vards in 
length. It cost $50,000. the basin 
at and below the mouth of the Ken- 
duskeag, where the shipping lie 
to receive their cargoes, is 90 rods 
in width, and affords good anchor- 


age. The tide generally rises about 
17 feet. Ship building is exten- 
sively pursued at this place ; but 
commerce in lumber, of all the va- 
rious kinds in use, is the principal 
occupation of the inhabitants. An 
immense amount of that article is 
annually rafted dov/n the rivers, 
and transported to almost all parts 
of the world. Bangor is tlie great- 
est depot for lumber on the conti- 
nent of America. 

On the Penobscot river and its 
tributary streams, above Bangor, 
are more than 250 saw-mills, capa- 
ble of cutting at least two hundred 
million feet of boards a year ; all 
of which, except what is used in 
building, must be shipped at the 
harbor of Bangor. The value of 
the boards, timber, clapboards, shin- 
gles, oars, scantling, wood, &c., 
shipped at this port, varies from a 
million to a million and a half of 
dollars, annually. About 1200 ves- 
sels of about 110 tons burthen are 
annually employed during the sea- 
son of navigation, in freighting lum- 
ber, timber, &c., to various places. 
There are belonging to this place, 
about 100 sail of coasting vessels, 
50 engaged in foreign commerce, 
and 15 or 20 other vessels engaged 
in the fisheries. 

Bangor was incorporated as a town 
in 1791. In 1834 it became a city. 
Its government is under a Mayor 
and seven Aldermen, who consti- 
tute the upper Board ; and twen- 
ty-one Common Council men, who, 
when they have elected a Presi- 
dent, constitute the lower Board. 
A city court sets every Monday. 

The site of the city is pleasant, 
commanding fine views of the riv- 
ers and the adjoining country. The 
buildings, both pubUc and private, 
are constructed with neatness and 
taste, and some in a style of supe- 
rior elegance. Conveyances for 
travellers from the city are frequent 
and comfortable ; both by land and 
water. A railroad is in operation 
to Oldtown, 12 miles, and steam- 

boats ply to and from Portland and 
Boston, during the season of navi- 
gation, which generally continues 
eight months in the year. The 
great eastern railroad from Boston 
will doubtless reach this eastern city 
before the lapse of many years. 

On the banks of the Penobscot, 
within the city, three miles above 
the mouth of the Kenduskeag, is 
what is called " Fort Hill," the site 
of a fortification, supposed to be the 
ancient "Negas," destroyed by Cap- 
tain Heath, with a party of men, 
in 1725, w^ho, it is said, " fell on a 
village of about 50 Indian houses, 
and committed them to the flames. 
The Indians becoming alarmed, de- 
serted them." 

Bangor is on one of the noblest 
rivers in the Northern States ; — the 
product of an almost innumerable 
number of tributary streams. Na- 
ture has seated Bangor at the nat- 
ural outlet of these mighty waters, 
as the mart of one of the most ex- 
tensive, and one of the richest al- 
luvial basins east of the Ohio val- 
ley. It is true that this section of 
country is in a high degree of lati- 
tude, and that the icy chains of 
winter are felt with greater force 
and for a longer period than in more 
southern climes. But this seeming 
disadvantage is more than compen- 
sated by the unrivalled purity of 
the air and v.ater, — two of the in- 
dispensable requisiiions of health 
and longevity. There is pi-obably 
no portion of country in the world 
where the great staples of wheat, 
beef and wool can be produced with 
greater facility ; where surplus pro- 
duce can find a mai-kct at less ex- 
pense, or where the industrious ag- 
riculturalist can reap a more sure 
reward. When the present popu- 
lation of this immense territory, 
extending from tide water to Mad- 
awaska, is compared with that of 
older settlements of a less fertile 
soil, of less navigable facilities, and 
in nearly as high a degree of lati- 
tude, the mind is favorably struck 


with the flattering prospects of the 
valley of the Penobscot, and with 
pleasing anticipations of the pros- 
perity of its city. See Register. 

Bai'ing, Me. 

Washington co. This town is 
bounded N. by the St. Croix river, 
E. by Calais and Robinston, and W. 
by a large and beautiful pond which 
empties into the St. Croix. Incor- 
porated, 1825. Population, 1837, 
286. The railroad from Calais, 4 
miles, will soon be completed to 
this place. 209 miles N. E. by E. 
from Augusta. 

Barkliampstead, Ct. 

Litchfield co. This town is wa- 
tered by branches of Farmington 
river. The soil is more particular- 
ly adapted to grazing : considerable 
heef and the products of the dairy 
are sent to market. It is 26 miles 
N. W. from Hartford, and 20 N. N. 
E. from Litchfield. Population, 
1830, 1,715. First settled, 1746. 
Incorporated, 1779. Granite, iron 
ore and limestone are found here. 
The hilly part of the town presents 
some fine scenery. Hitchcockville, 
north of the centre of the town, is 
a flourishing manufacturing village, 
with great water privileges. 

Barnai-d, Me. 

All the knowledge we can obtain 
in regard to this town is, that it lies 
in the county of Piscataquis, 108 
miles from Augusta ; — that in 1837, 
there were 132 people in the town, 
and that they raised 444 bushels of 
wheat, the same year ; — that this 
town received |>264 of the surplus 
revenue ; — that in 1837, Augustus 
W. Walker and others, obtained an 
act of the legislature for quarrying 
slate, and that Stephen Palmer is, 
or was. Postmaster. 

Now, the good people of Barnard 
are hereby respectfully requested 
to give the editor their latitude and 
longitude, and other necessary in- 
formation for future editions. Cit- 

izens of other towns, similarly sit- 
uated, and of all toivns, who may 
wish more full descriptions of their 
resources, &c. than we are able, at 
present, to give, are also requested 
to forward their communications. 

Earuard, Vt. 

Windsor co. First settled, 1774. 
Incorporated, 1778. Population, 
1830, 1,881. It is watered by 
Broad Brook which empties into 
White river in Sharon ; and by Lo- 
cust Creek, which also empties in- 
to White river in Bethel. On this 
Creek, during the revolutionary war, 
there was erected a Fort, where 
the militia of this and other towns 
were stationed as a defence against 
Indian depredations — they having 
surprised and carried to Canada a 
number of its first settlers, in 1780. 
In the centre of this town is the 
village, and a beautiful pond, from 
which issues a stream on which 
there are mills. On this Creek is 
an establishment for the manufac- 
ture of starch from potatoes. This 
stream joins its waters with the 
Creek one mile from the pond. The 
surface of this town is hilly. The 
soil is well adapted to grazing ; and 
there are but few towns that turn 
off yearly more cattle, butter and 
cheese, sheep and wool. The num- 
ber of sheep is about 6,000. It lies 
10 miles north of Woodstock, and 
40 miles south of Montpelier. 

It is stated as a singular fact, that 
the firing on Bunker Hill, on the 
17th of June, 1775, was distinctly 
heard in this town, 130 miles N. 
W. from Charlestown. 

Baruet, Vt. 

Caledonia co. This town lies on 
Connecticut river, at the 15 mile 
falls, and opposite to Ljman, N. H. 
It has a good soil, and is an excel- 
lent farming town, with slate and 
iron ore. It lies 35 miles E. from 
Montpelier, 10 S. by E. from Dan- 
ville, and 65 N. by E. from Wind- 
sor. Population, in 1830, 1,764. — 


First settled, about 1763. Many of 
the inhabitants are of Scotch de- 
scent. This town has a great water 
power on Passumpsic and Stevens' 
rivers. On the latter, are falls of 
100 feet, in the distance of 10 rods. 
This water power is improved by 
three llannel and other manufacto- 
ries. There are a number of pleas- 
ant and fertile islands in the river 
between thi=! place and Lyman, and 
some beautiful ponds in Barnet, 
which afibrd tish of various kinds. 
This is quite a romantic place, and 
lies at the head of navigation on 
the Connecticut river. In 1835, 
the product of the farms, carried to 
market, amounted to ,*^26,381. One 
farmer sold 3,000 lbs. of butter, and 
3,000 ibs. of pork. There are about 
4,000 sheep in the town. 

Bariistal)le County Mass. 

Barnstable is the chief town. — 
This county was incorporated, 1685. 
Population, 1820, 24,046—1830, 28- 
525— and in 1837, 31,109; area, 
about 330 square miles. This coun- 
ty includes the whole of Cape Cod, 
extending E. and N. into the At- 
lantic ocean, and which Gosnold 
discovered in 1602. It is bounded 
N. W. by Plymouth county, and 
W. by Buzzard's bay. Cape Cod 
lies in the form of an arm,half open ; 
the elbow is at Chatham, 20 miles 
E. of Barnstable ; the hand, the 
wrist inclining inward, is at Race 
Point, 33 miles N. by W. of Chat- 
ham. The whole length of the 
Cape is 65 miles, and the average 
breadth about 5. This county is 
principally diluvium. Below the 
town of Barnstable the county is 
quite sandy, so much so that the 
people are generally dependant on 
Boston and other towns for a large 
proportion of their meats and bread- 
stuffs. This deficit is amply com- 
pensated by the unrivalled privi- 
leges enjoyed, and well improved 
by them, in the cod, mackerel and 
other fisheries. This county has 
but little wood, but it is well stored 

with peat. About two millions of 
dollars are invested in the manufac- 
ture of salt. There were manu- 
factured in this county in the year 
ending April 1, 1837, 669,064 bush- 
els of salt, valued at $219,870. The 
manufactures of cotton and woollen 
goods, boots, shoes, iron castings, 
glass, cabinet and tin wares, cord- 
age, &c., amounted to $496,602. 
There are in this county 370 ves- 
sels employed in the whale, cod 
and mackerel fisherv. The tonnage, 
24,378 tons. The value of the fish- 
ery, in one year previous to April, 
1837, was $557,737. Tonnage of 
the District! 1836, 30,278 tons. The 
annual amount of tonnage of vessels 
built is about 1,000 tons; value, 
$63,318. Total annual value of 
the fisheries and manufactures, $1,- 
337,527. The number of sheep in 
the county in 1837, was 7,332. 

Barnstable county is noted for its 
fine sailors and men of superior nau- 
tical talents. The ladies are cele- 
brated for their fair complexions 
and good housewifery ; but are pe- 
culiarly subject to the vicissitudes 
pertaining to a maritime situation. 
By a statement recently made, it 
appears that there were in this 
county nearly a thousand widows 
living, who had lost their husbands 
by the dangers of the sea. In two 
towns, (Harwich and Wellfleet,) 
there were 223 widows who had 
thus lost their companions. This 
county has 13 towns ; and 91 inhabit- 
ants to a square mile. 

Bariistable, Mass. 

This is the chief town of Barn- 
stable county, and a port of entry. 
It is 65 miles from Boston. Sandy 
JVeck, on the N. side, forms a good 
harbor for vessels of 8 feet of water. 
Hyannis, on the S. side, 6 miles S. 
E. of Barnstable C. H., is now a 
good harbor ; but by an expensive 
Breakwater, constructing at that 
place by the U. S. government, it 
will soon become perfectly safe 
from all winds, for all classes of 


vessels naA'^igating the Sound, and 
passing round the Cape. The " Pil- 
grim Fathers" landed here, Nov. 
11, 1620, and borrowed some corn 
of the Mattacheeset Indians. The 
celebrated patriot, James Otis, was 
born here, Feb. 5, 1725. He died 
at Andover, May 23, 1783. The 
manufacture of salt was commenced 
here as early as 1779. It then sold 
for $6 a bushel. There w^asmade 
27,1^5 bushels of salt in this town 
in 1837. Between 50 and 60 sail of 
fishing and coasting vessels belong 
to this place. This town has nu- 
merous ponds, a considerable water 
power, some fine upland, and ex- 
tensive salt marshes. The manu- 
facture of vessels, salt, boots, shoes, 
hats, leather, cabinet ware, chairs, 
and wooden ware, amounted in one 
year to $56,562. Pop. 1837, 4,017. 

Bamstead) N. H. 

Strafford co. This town lies 26 
miles W. by N. from Dover, 36 N. 
W. from Portsmoufn, and 20 N. E. 
from Concord. Incorporated, 1767. 
Population, 1830, 2,047. Barnstead 
is not mountainous, but has large 
swells of land, good for grazing. 
About 2,500 sheep are kept here. 
The soil is easy and productive. 
There are several ponds in this town 
— the largest are the two Suncook 
ponds, which lie near each other, 
Brindle pond, and Half-moon pond, 
on Alton line. These waters are 
stocked with fish, and are discharg- 
ed into the Suncook. Barnstead 
w^as granted May 20, 1727, to the 
Rev. Joseph Adams and others. 
Settlements commenced in 1767. 

Barre, Tt. 

A pleasant and flourishing town 
in Washington county, six miles 
S. of Montpelier, and 48 N. by W. 
of "Windsor. This is considered 
one of the best farming towns in 
the state. Large quantities of pot 
and pearl ashes, beef, pork, butter 
and cheese, are annually taken from 
this place to Boston market. About 

7,000 sheep are kept here. It is 
well watered by Stevens' and Jail, 
branches of Onion river, which afford 
good mill privileges. Inexhausti- 
ble quantities of granite are found 
here, of the excellent quality with 
which the capitol at Montpelier is 
built. This is a great thoroughfare 
for travellers, particularly for large 
teams from the north to Boston, by 
the Gulf road. A large number of 
these noted six and eight horse 
teams are owned here. Barre was 
first settled in 17S8. Present pop- 
ulation, about 2,500. 

Barre, Mass. 

Worcester CO. This excellent ag- 
ricultural township is on high land, 
and is well v/atered, particularly by 
Ware river, on which are many 
mills. The manufactures of Barre 
for the year ending April 1, 1837, 
amounted to about $365,000. The 
articles manufactured were woollen 
and cotton goods, (,$161,600) copper 
pumps, boots, shoes, carriages, 
leather, palm-leaf hats, ($167,200) 
straw bonnets, axes, scythes, and 
gunpowder. Large quantities of 
beef, butter, cheese, &c., are an- 
nually sent from this town to Bos- 
ton market. It was incorporated in 
1774. Population, 1837, 2,713. It 
lies 65 miles W, by S. from Boston, 
24 N. by AV. from Worcester, and 
15 N. E. from Ware. Barre took its 
name in honor of Col. Barre, an el- 
oquent friend of America in the 
British Parliament. 

Eai'riiigton, TS. H. 

Strafford co. It lies 20 miles N. 
W. from Portsmouth, 10 W. from 
Dover, and 30 E. from Concord. 
The surface of Barrington is some- 
what broken and rock)', the soil be- 
ing principally a gravelly loam. — 
The town is abundantly supplied 
with ponds, of which there are no 
less than thirteen of considerable 
magnitude, from whence issue 
streams affording excellent mill 
seats. At one of these mill seats. 


on the Isinglass river, is a perpen- 
dicular fall of 30 feet. There is, 
about two miles from the centre of 
the town, a remarkable cavern, or 
fissure in a rock, commonly called 
the DeviVs den. The entrance is 
on the side of a hill, and is suffi- 
ciently large to admit a person in a 
stooping posture. Having entered 
5 feet in a horizontal direction, 
there is a descent of 4 or 5 feet, on 
an angle of 45°, large enough only 
to admit the body of a middling siz- 
ed man. After squeezing through 
this passage, you enter a chamber 
60 feet in length, from 10 to 1-5 in 
height, and from 3 to 8 in width. — 
Communicating with tliis, are sev- 
eral other fissures of equal height, 
and from 10 to 15 in length. Bar- 
rington w'as incorporated May 10, 
1722, and the settlement commen- 
ced in 1732. Population, 1830, 

Barriiigtou, R. I. 

Bristol CO. This small town, of 
about 8 square miles, originally be- 
longed to Massachusetts. It was 
attached to Rhode Island in 1746, 
and incorporated in 1771. It is 
bounded southerly by Narraganset 
bay, and is well watered by Palm- 
er's river, and by an inlet of War- 
ren river, over which is a bridge. 
The soil of the town is of a fertile, 
sandy loam, and quite productive. 
Large quantities of sea-weed are 
collected on its shores. A large 
tract in Barrington, called "the 
cove," now covered with water to 
a considerable depth, is supposed to 
have once been a forest, as timber 
and fuel are obtained from its bot- 
tom. Some salt is made in this 
town, and shell and other fish are 
abundant. Barrington lies 8 miles 
E. S. E. from Providence, and 
about 7 miles N. by W. from Bris- 
tol. Population, 1830, 612. 

Bartlett, TH, H., 

Coos CO., is 45 miles S. E. from 
Lancaster, 82 N. N. E. from Con- 

cord, and 85 N. N. W. from Ports- 
mouth. It lies at the foot of the 
White Mountains, on the eastern 
side. Its soil is various, and, on the 
Saco, in some parts, good. This 
river meanders through the centre 
of the town. Bartlett was incorpo- 
rated June 16, 1790. Population, 
1830, 644. 

Barton, Vt. 

Orleans co. This town derived 
its name from Gen. William Barton, 
of R. I., and was first settled in 
1796. The town is well watered 
by Barton river, which rises in 
Glover, and empties into Memphre- 
magog lake. Here are several 
ponds containing good fish. Barton 
is a thriving town, with a good hy- 
draulic power, and about 3,000 
sheep. It lies 9 miles S. E. from 
Irasburgh, and 40 N. E. from Mont- 
pelier. Population, 1830, 729. 

Basin Harlbor, Vt. 

See Ferrisburgh. 

Baskaliegau River, Me. 

This river rises in a large lake of 
the same name, in the county of 
Washington, near the line of New 
Brunswick ; it passes w- esterly 15 or 
20 miles, and falls into the Mata- 
wamkeag, a tributary of the Pe- 

Batli, Me., 

In the county of Lincoln, is situ- 
ated on the west bank of Kennebec 
river, 12 miles from the sea, 32 N. 
E. of Portland, and 31 S. from Au- 
gusta. It is bounded E. by Ken- 
nebec river, S. by Phipsburg, W. 
by New Meadows river and Bruns- 
wick, and N. by Merrymeeting 
bav. Population, in 1830, 3,773 ; 
in "l835, 4,200, and in 1837,4,523. 
Incorporated, 1780. An attempt 
was made by a missionary to settle 
this place, and preach to the fisher- 
men, as early as 1670. But the In- 
dians would not permit it. A per- 
manent settlement was made in 


1756. The principal business of 
13atli is commerce, trade and ship- 
building, for which it is admirably 
well located. There belonged to 
this port in 1835, 2G ships, 32 brigs, 
54 schooners, and smaller vessels. 
Tonnage of the district of Bath, in- 
cluding the waters of Kennebec 
river, in 1837, 41,728 tons. Total 
number of vessels belonging to the 
district of Bath, in 1835, 37 ships, 94 
brigs, 195 schooners, 10 sloops, and 
1 steam-boat. Total, 337. The 
harbor of Bath is seldom obstructed 
by ice. Regular lines of steam- 
boats ply between this place and 
Portland and Boston, about three- 
fourths of the year. 

Bath, ]V. H., 

Grafton co., on Connecticut river, 
is 32 miles N. of Dartmouth Col- 
lege, 82 N. W. of Concord, and 9 
N. of Haverhill. Bath is pleasant- 
ly situated in the vale of the Con- 
necticut, between the Green moun- 
tains on the W., and the White 
Mountains on the E., by which it is 
effectually shielded from high winds 
and long storms. The Amonoosuck 
river waters the S. E. part, afford- 
ing many fine mill seats and water 
privileges. The Amonoosuck has 
a very convenient fall at the village, 
calculated to accommodate ma- 
chinery to any extent. Two mills 
for the manufacture of cassimere, 
and other machinery, are already 
erected. At the principal village, 
(which is very pleasant,) there is a 
considerable bridge over the Amo- 
noosuck, of 350 feet in length, built 
in 1807. The soil on the hills is 
generally a reddish loam, on a bed 
of marl, or hard pan. In the val- 
leys, it is alluvial. About one-sixth 
part of the whole town is intervale 
land. Much improvement has been 
made in the agriculture of this 
place : 550 sheep are kept here. 
The town was granted, 1761, and 
the first settlement was made in 
1765, bv John Herriman from Ha- 

verhill, Mass. 

Population, 1830, 

Battenkill River. 

This river is about 45 miles in 
length. It rises in Dorset, and pass- 
ing Manchester, Sunderland and 
Arlington, it receives Roaring 
Brook and other tributaries in Ver- 
mont; it then passes into the state 
of New York, and falls into the 
Hudson, three miles below Fort 
Miller, and about 35 miles N. from 
Albany, N. Y. 

Bays aiifl Ilarliors. 

The bays and harbors in New 
England are generally mentioned 
under the places pertaining to them. 

Bear Camp Rivei", N. H., 

Is formed of several branches ris- 
ing on the south side of Sandwich 
and Albany mountains. The two 
principal branches unite in Ossipee, 
and fall into Ossipee lake on its 
western border. 

Bear River, Me., 

Rises in the highlands, near Um- 
bagog lake, passes Newry, and 
empties into the Androscoggin, op- 
posite to Bethel. 

Becket, Mass., 

An elevated farming township 
on the Green mountain range, in 
Berkshire county. Westfield, Farm- 
ington and Housatonick rivers re- 
ceive the waters of several ponds in 
this town. It has some small man- 
ufactures, and about 7,000 sheep. 
The town was incorporated in 1765, 
and lies 110 miles W. from Boston, 
15 E. S. E. from Lenox, and 23 W. 
from Northampton. Population, 
1837, 957. 

Beddiugtou, Me* 

Washington co. There are sev- 
eral ponds in this town, which are 
among the head waters of Pleasant 
and Narraguagus rivers. Incorpo- 
rated, 1833. Population, 1837, 169. 


It lies 35 miles N. W. from Machi- 
as, and about 40 E. from Bangor. 

Bedford, ]V. H. 

This is a pleasant town in Hills- 
borough county. It is 8 miles N. 
E. from Amherst, 20 S. by E. from 
Concord. Merrimack and Piscata- 
quoag are the only rivers in this 
town. The latter passes through 
its N. E. corner, where there is the 
pleasant and flourishing village of 
Piscataquoag. This town has con- 
siderable very productive intervale 
land. It has been noted for the 
cultivation of hops and for its fine 
domestic manufactures. On the Vv'. 
line of Bedford, are a remarkable 
gulf and precipice, which are ob- 
jects of curiosity. A considerable 
brook passes over the precipice, and 
falls about 200 feet within the dis- 
tance of 100 yards. Here are found 
several excavations in solid stone, 
which are sufficiently large to con- 
tain many persons. In mineralogy, 
this town affords a great variety of 
specimens. Iron ore is found in 
different places, and in several vari- 
eties. Sulphuretof iron, imbedded 
in common granite, and red oxide 
of iron, combined with alumine, are 
common. Black lead, pyritous cop- 
per, schorl, hornblende, epidote, 
talc, mica, black, yellow and green 
gneiss, crystallized quartz, &c. are 
found here. The tirst child born in 
town was Silas Barron, son of Capt. 
Moses Barron, in 1741. The town 
was incorporated. May 19, 1750. 
Bedford was the residence of many 
Indians in former times. Near 
Goffe's falls is a spot of ground, 
about ten rods long and four wide, 
which is supposed to have been an 
Indian burial place. Population, 
1S30, 1,554. 

Bedford) Mass. 

This is a pleasant town in Middle- 
sex county, and the source of Shaw- 
sheen river. This town was for- 
merly parts of Concord and Billeri- 
ca, and was incorporated in 1729. 

Population, 1837, 858. It lies 15 
miles N. W. fi-om Boston, and 5N. 
E. from Concord. Bedford is bound- 
ed N. by Concord river. It has 
some manufactures ; principally of 
boots and shoes. 

BelcliertoAvu, Mass., 

A beautiful town in Hampshire 
county, originally called " Cold 
Spring," 75 miles W. from Boston, 
11 E. from Northampton, and 27 E. 
from Pittsiield, Population, 1837, 
2,598. First settled, 1732. Incor- 
porated, 1761. The soil of the 
town is of an excellent quality, and 
well improved. Large quantities 
of wool is grown in this town. It 
is separated from Ware by Swift 
river, on the N. The principal 
manufacture is that of pleasure 
wagons, of which about 600 are an 
nually made. Mr. A. Shumway, of 
this place, has driven the stage be- 
tween Belchertown and Northamp- 
ton 25 successive years. In that 
period he made 15,000 trips, travel- 
led 218,400 miles, and carried at 
least 124,000 passengers ; yet, al- 
though his hours of travelling were 
early in the morning and late in 
the evening, he never broke a limb, 
overturned his coach, or met with 
any serious accident whatever, dur- 
ing his whole career. 

Belfast, Me., 

Is the chief town of Waldo coun- 
ty, and a port of entry, and is beau- 
tifully situated on Belfast bay, on 
the W. side of Penobscot river. It 
lies 40 miles E. from Augusta, 30 
S. from Bangor, 30 N. from Thom- 
aston, and, across Belfast bay, 12 W. 
from Casline. The town was in- 
corporated in 1773, but not perma- 
nently settled until about the year 
1785. There is considerable good 
land in Belfast. In 1837 it pro- 
duced 3,492 bushels of as good 
wheat as ever grew on the prairies 
of the " boundless West." The 
Paasaggassawakeag river passes 
near the centre of the town, and 


adds much to the appearance of the 
place. The harbor is very good — 
it is guarded by Long and Sears' 
islands, and has anchorage for a 
great number of vessels of the larg- 
est class. The proximity of Bel- 
fast to the sea, its site in relation to 
Penobscot river, and its excellent 
harbor, which was never known to 
have been obstructed by ice, but 
twice, (1780 — 1815,) gives it pe- 
culiar advantages for foreign com- 
merce, the coasting trade, and the 
fisheries. Considerable ship build- 
ing is carried on at this place. The 
tonnage of the district of Belfast in 
1837,vvas 29,342 tons. The principal 
exports are lumber and fish. Pop- 
ulation, 1810,1,259; 1820, 2,026; 
1830, 3,077, and in 1837, about 
4,000. Belfast, although irregular- 
ly built, is a pleasant town, and is 
an important winter mart of the 
trade of Penobscot river. 

Belgrade, Me. 

Kennebec co. In this town are 
parts of three large and beautiful 
ponds or lakes, well stored with fish. 
They are connected with each oth- 
er, and find an outlet at Waterville. 
The scenery on the borders of these 
waters is truly delightful. It pro- 
duced in 1837, 6,^340 bushels of 
wheat. Belgrade was incorporated 
in 1796. Population, 1837, 1,483. 
It lies 10 miles N. E. from Augus- 
ta, and 69 N. by E. from Portland. 
The village at Belgrade Mills, 6 
miles from the centre of the town, 
?ind 16 miles from Augusta, is a 
very flourishing place. 

Bellamy Bank, N. H. 

A river, one branch of which is- 
sues from Chesley's pond, in Bar- 
rington, and the other from low and 
marshy lands in the vicinity ; these 
unite in Madbury, and after mean- 
dering through the town, the wa- 
ters fall into the Piscataqua, on the 
W. side of Dover Neck, where the 
stream is called Back river. 

BellLugliam, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. The soil of this town 
is light and sandy, and not very 
good for agricultural purposes. It 
is finely watered by Charles river, 
and has a good hydraulic power. 
Its manufactures, consisting of cot- 
ton and woollen goods, straw bon- 
nets, boots and shoes, amounted, in 
one year, to $127,837. It lies 18 
miles S. W. from Dedham, 17 N. 
by W. from Providence, R. I., and 
28 S. W. from Boston. Population, 
1837, 1,159. Incorporated, 1719. 
Iron ore is found hez^e. 

Bello^vs' Falls. 

See Walpole, JV. H. 

Belmont, Me. 

This town is well watered by the 
Paasaggassawakeag, which rises 
there in a pond of that name, and 
empties at Belfast, about 6 miles N. 
It lies 34 miles E. by N. from Au- 
gusta. In 1837, Belmont produced 
3,435 bushels of wheat, and consid- 
erable wool. Waldo county. 

Belvidere, "Vt. 

Lamoille co. A mountainous 
township on the west side of the 
Green Mountains, 32 miles N. E. 
from Burlington, 32 N. from Mont- 
pelier, 27 E. by S. from St. Albans, 
and watered by branches of La- 
moille river. Incorporated, 1791. 
Population, 1830, 185. 

Bennington Connty, Vt. 

Bennington and Manchester are 
the chief towns. This is the oldest 
county in Vt., on the west side of 
the Green Mountoins. Itis bound- 
ed on the north by Rutland county, 
on the east by Windham county, 
on the south by Berkshire county, 
Mass., and on the west by the state 
of New York. It is 39 miles long 
and 20 wide. Area, 610 square 
miles. Population, in 1820, 16,125 ; 
1830, 17,468. Inhabitants to square 
mile, 28. The low lands are excel- 


Ient,and produce good crops, but the 
largest portion of the county is 
mountainous, and fit only for graz- 
ing. Many streams rise in the 
mountains and descend to the ocean, 
some by the Hudson and some by 
the Connecticut, affording a great 
hydraulic pjwer. Lead and iron 
ores of good quality are found in 
this county, and large quarries of 
beautiful white marble. The num- 
ber of sheep in this county in 1837 
was 69jS2S. 

Bennington, Vt* 

One of the chief towns of Ben- 
nington county. It lies 120 milos 
S. W. by S. from Montpelier, 25 S. 
from Manchester, and 30 east from 
Troy, N. Y. Population, 1830, 
3,419. Present papulation, about 
4,200. First settled, 17GI. The town 
is situated hi.oh above the g-reat riv- 
crs and the ocean, yet \va tint] it of 
good alluvial soil, delightfully en- 
circled by ever-green mountains. It 
abounds in iron ore, manganese, 
ochre and marble. The streams 
are numerous and afford excellent 
mill sites. The products of the 
soil consist of all the varieties com- 
mon to New England. Great at- 
tention is paid to the rearing of 
sheep: about TODOof tho">e useful 
animals feed on the hills and valleys. 
There are in Bennington, 6 cotton 
and 3 woollen factories, a very ex- 
tensive iron foundry, 2 furnaces, a 
paper mill, flouring mills, &c. The 
public schools justly sustain an ele- 
vated rank. Bennington is finely 
located for the mu;-:es. On the bor- 
der of this town, about 6 miles W. 
of the court house, the gallant 
Stark, with a small band of " Green 
Mountain Boys,'' celebrated for 
their bravery, gained an important 
victory over the Briti ;h, August Ifi, 
1777. The f.ime of that battle is 
as imperishable as the mountains 
which overdiadow the ground. 
Shame to the country : — there is 
not a stone to mark the spot! 

Benson, Vt. 

Rutland co. This town, on Lake 
Champlain, was first settled in 1783. 
Population, 1830, 1,493. It lies 84 
miles E. from Montpelier, 20 W. 
N. V/. from Rutland, and opposite 
to Putnam, N. Y. The lake at this 
place is about a mile in width. The 
town has some streams affording 
mill sites, but none of great im- 
portance. The waters are generally 
l)racki:>h and unpleasant. A stream 
issues from a swamp in this town, 
and after running a short distance, 
passes through the base of a high 
hill, a distance of more than half a 
mile. Benson has good pine, ma- 
ple, walnut, oak and beech timber, 
and a bog of marl resembling ful- 
ler's earth. There are about 14,000 
sheep in this town. 

Berkley, Mass. 

Bristol CO. Berkley lies 37 mile* 
S. from Boston, 18 E. from Provi- 
dence, and 5 S. from Taunton. Pop- 
ulation, in 1837, 878. Taken from 
Dighton in 1735, from which it i» 
separated by Taunton river. Some 
coasting vessels belong to this place^ 
and some ship building is carried on, 
Assonet xnllage, on Taunton river^ 
is the principal place of business. 
The soil is light and sandy. 

Bcrksliirc County, Mass. 

Lenox is the chief town. Thi$ 
county was incorporated in 1770. 
Population, 1820, 35,G6n ; 1830, 37- 
825, and in 1337, 39,101 ; area, 860 
square miles. Bounded N. by Ben- 
nington county, Vt., W. by Rensse- 
laer and Columbia counties, N. Y., 
S. by Litchfield county, Ct., and 
E. by Fran'clin, Hampshire and 
Hampden counties. This county 
is rough and hilly in many parts, 
hut it affords considerable very fine 
land, and produces much wool, 
all ports of grain, and exports great 
quantities of beef, pork, butter, &c. 
The number of sheep in this coun- 
ty in 1337, was 13G,962. Berkshira 


is the most elevated county in the 
etatc. The Green nnd Taughkannic 
Mountains cross it from N. to S.; 
• the average height of wliich is about 
1,200 feet a!)Ove the level of the 
sea. The Housatonick and Hoo- 
sick are its chief rivers. The for- 
mer empties into Long Island Sound; 
the latter into the Hudson : 29 
towns ; 45 inhabitants to a square 
mile. " This county possesses, in 
rich and inexhaustible abundance, 
three of the most important articles 
of the commerce of the world, Iron, 
J^Iarhle and Liinc, and its wood and 
water power are fully sufficient to 
enable it to fit them for the pur- 
poses of life." The tonnage of this 
county to its marls of trade, princi- 
pally on the Hudson, amounted, in 
1831, to no less than 34,075 tons. 
At the present time it probably ex- 
ceeds 40,000 tons. The enterprize 
of a railroad from Boston to Albany 
will soon be accomplished, and can- 
not fail of being exceedingly beneli- 
cial, not only to this county, but to 
the commonwealth at large. 

Berksliire, Vt. 

Franklin co. Elihu M. Royce, 
son of Stephen Royce, was the first 
child born in this town. That event 
occurred in 179.3. On Mir^sisque 
and Trout rivers, which water this 
town, is some fine intervale land. 
Pike river, from Canada, affords 
Berkshire a great water power. 
This town lies 50 miles N. W. from 
Monlpelier, 22 N. E. by E. from 
ht. Albans, and 31 N.* E. by N. 
from Burlina;ton. Population, 1330^ 
1,303. About 3,000 sheep. 
Berlin, Mc. 

Oxford CO. This town i=: hounded 
E. by Phillips, S. by Weld and W. 
by Byron. It lies 100 miles N. 
from Portland, 45 N. AV. fiom Au- 
gusta, and about 40 N. from Paris. 
Population, 1S:57, 470. Wheat crop, 
same year, 2,175 bushels. 
Berlin, IV. II. 

Coos CO. This town, from 1771 

to 1329, was called Maynesborough. 
The Androscoggin and Amonoo- 
suck rivers pa-s thr^jugh it. It is 
about 20 miles E. from Lancaster, 
and 125 N. fiom Concord. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 73. 

Berlin, Vt. 

This is a pleasant town in Wash- 
ington county, watered by Onion and 
Dog rivers, Stevens' branch, and a 
number of ponds, furnishing good 
mill sites, and excellent tishing. 
The land is somewhat broken, but 
of strong soil and good for tillage. 
Considerable manufactures are pro- 
duced in this town, and about 6,000 
sheep. There is a mineral spring 
here of little note. First settled in 
1788. Population, 1830, 1,6G4.— 
Berlin is bounded N. by Montpe- 
lier and E. by Barre. 

EcrllM, l^Iass. 

Worcester co. Taken from Bol- 
ton, in 1734. Population, 1837, 
724. It lies 15 miles N. E. from 
Worcester, 31 W. by N. from Bos- 
ton, and 7 S. E. from Lancaster. 
A branch of the Assabet affords 
this toAvn good water privileges. 
Large quantities of hops are pro- 
duced here ; some wool, and some 

Berlin, Ct. 

Hartford co. Taken from Far- 
mington,inl785. Population, 1830, 
3,047. Thi3 tovm lies 11 miles S. 
from Hartford, and 21 N. from New 
Llaven. The surface of Berlin 
is hilly, hut productive of grass, 
grain and fruil.-;. There are in the 
town about 2,000 sheep. The vil- 
lages of JVorthington and JVew 
Britain are very pleasant, and the 
manufactures of brass, tin and oth- 
er ware.-i, there purmied, are very 
extcn-iveand flourishing. The first 
manufacture of tin ware in this 
country was commenced at this 
place, in about the year 1770, by 
Edward Patter:^on, a native of Ire- 
land. Mr. Patterson peddled hii 


ware about the country, on foot, in 
baskets; his successors in the man- 
ufacture dill the same, until the use- 
and value of the article becoming 
known, and the demand increa. iiie;, 
horses and wagons were employed ; 
and thus this important manufac- 
ture of Nev/ England was trans- 
ported to all parts of the country. 

Beruardston, Mass. 

Franklin co. This is a town-^hip 
of superior land for agricultural 
purposes, considerably elevated, be- 
tween Fall and Connecticut rivers. 
It was formerly called Fall Town. 
There was a fort here in 1746, 
when tins part of the county was 
peopled mostly by Indians. It was 
incorporated, bv its present name, 
in 1764. It lies 96 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and 7 N. from Green- 
field. Population, 1337,878. Bald 
and West mountains afford delight- 
ful scenery : — the former is 630 feet 
above the waters of the Connecti- 
cut. Here are springs containing 
magnesia, sulphur and iron. Ber- 
nardston produced, in one year, 
16,000 bushels of corn and rye, an(l 
5,000 barrels of cider. There are 
3,022 sheep in this town, and some 
manufactures of shoes, leather, palm- 
leaf hats, and scythe snaiths. 

Berwick, 9Ie. 

York CO. This town lies on the 
E. side of Salmon river, about 14 
miles S. S. W. from Alfred, 45 S. 
W. from Portland, and 93 S. W. 
from Augusta. Berwick has con- 
siderable trade in lumber. Incor- 
porated, 1713. Population, 1337, 

Bethany, Ct. 

New Haven co. Taken from 
Woodbridge, in 1832. It lies 10 
miles N. by W. from New Ha- 
ven. Some portions of this town 
is good land and well cultivated, 
but a large part of if is mountain- 
ous, and fit only for the growth of 
wood. Beacpn mountain, between 

Bethany and Naugatuck river, pre» 
sents some wild and picturesquO 

Bctlicl, Me. 

Oxford CO. Incorporated in 1796. 
Population, 1837, 1,864. Bethel 
lies 18 miles N. W. from Paris, 61 
N. W. from Portland, and 63 VV. 
fiom Augusta. This town is bound- 
ed N. and W. by Androscoggin riv- 
er, and S. by Greenwood. This is 
a tine farming town, and produced 
5,214 bushels of wheat in 1337. 

Betliel, Vt. 

AVindsor co. This town was first 
settled in 17SD, p.nd was the first 
town chartered by the government 
of Vermont. It lies 31 miles S. by 
\V. from Montpelier, and 30 N. \V. 
from Windsor. Population, 1830, 
1,240. Bethel is watered by 
branches of V/hite river, and pos- 
sesses good mill sites. Soap stone 
is found here in great quantities 
and of good quality: much of it ia 
-awed and transported. Garnet in 
small, but perfect crystals, is also 
common. The surface of Bethel is 
broken and mountainous, but the 
soil is warm and good for grazing. 
It has about 8,000 sheep. Consid- 
erable business is done at both vil- 
lages, East and West; the latter 
is the largest. 

Betlicl, Ct. 

Fairfield co. This is a pleasant 
and ilouiishing village, in the town 
of Danbury, and rbout 3 miles N. 
W. from the centre of that town. 
There are about iifty dwelling hous- 
es in the village, and about thirty 
work shop*? or factories. The man- 
ufacture of hats and combs is the 
principal business of the place, and 
Inrge quantities of bo;h are annu- 
ally transported to Boston, New 
York and other places. 

Betlileliem, N. H., 

Grafton co., is bounded N. by 
Whitefield and Dalton, E. by Car- 


roll anJ ungranted land, S. by Fran- 
conia and Liibon, and N. W. by 
Littleton. It i^ watered by Great 
Amono3<uck river. The soil pro- 
duces good crops of grass and grain. 
There i? plenty of pine timber and 
«ugar maple. Iron ore, both of the 
mountain and bog kind, has been oc- 
casionally found. Two mineral 
springs have been discovered. — 
Bethlehem was settled in 1799. 
It was incorporated Dec. 27, 17y9. 
Population, 1330, 665. 

Betlxleliem, Ct. 

Litchfield co. This town is 33 
miles W. S. W. from Hartford, 32 
N. W. by W. from New Haven, 
and S S. from Litchfield. It was 
taken from Woodbury in 1737. It 
is hilly, with a gravelly loam, and 
fit for grazing and the growth of 
rye. It has 2,000 sheep. Popu- 
lation, 1S30, 906. The town is wa- 
tered by Pomperaug river, a branch 
of the Housatonick. 

Beverly, Ulass. 

Essex CO. This town lies N. of 
Salem, and is united to it by abridge 
across the North river, built in 1788, 
1,500 feet in length. The people 
of this town are noted for their en- 
terprise in commerce and the fish- 
eries. There are some merchant 
vessels belonging to this place, 
about 50 sail of fishermen, and 20 
coasters. The annual value of the 
fisheries at Beverly is about $100,- 
000. The manufactures, consisting 
of Brittania ware, tin and cabinet 
wares, chairs, hats, boots, hair, mus- 
tard and bricks, amounted in one 
year to about $120,000, The pros- 
perity of this town has not suffered 
by the growth of luxury or excess of 
trade ; its fisheries and manufactur- 
ing concerns are steady and pro- 
gressive. First settled, 1626. In- 
corporated, 1638. Population, 1830, 
4,079—1837, 4,609. Among many 
distinguished men who have lived 
and died at Beverly, was Captain 
Thomas Lothrop, who commanded 

the " Flower of Essex," a compa- 
ny of young men from this county, 
and who were, with their leader, 
almost wholly cut off by the In- 
dians, at Bloody Brook, in 1675. 

Eiddeford, Me. 

York CO. On the S. side of Saco 
river, and connected with the town 
of Saco by a bridge. The town 
extends down the river to the sea, 
and includes a point of land called 
" Fletcher's Neck," off which are 
several small islands; on one of 
which. Wood Island, is a revolving 
light. This is a good township for 
agricultural pursuits, the coasting 
trade, ship building, and the fish- 
ery. It lies 33 miles N. E. from 
York, 15 S. W. from Portland, and 
69 S. W. from Augusta. First 
permanently settled, 1630. Incor- 
porated, 1713. Population, 1837, 
2,273. See Saco. 

Billerica, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This town is wa- 
tered by the Concord and Shaw- 
sheen rivers, and has a pleasant vil- 
lage, on high ground, near the cen- 
tre. Its soil is good and well im- 
proved. The Middlesex canal and 
the Boston and Lowell rail road pass 
through the easterly part of the 
town. First settled, 1653. Incor- 
porated, 1655. Population, 1837, 
1,493. Here are some manufactures 
of woolen cloth, boots, leather, 
wooden ware, straw bonnets, shav- 
ing and splitting knives, bed bind- 
ing, soft soap, and spirits. Billerica 
lies 13 miles N. W. from Boston, 
7 S. S. E. from Lowell, and 7 N. E. 
by N. from Concord. 

Eingliain, Me. 

Somerset co. On the eastern 
bank of Kennebec river, opposite 
to Concord, 26 miles N. from Nor- 
ridgewock, 113 N. N. E. from Port- 
land, and 55 N. from Augusta. In- 
corporated, 1312. Population, 1837, 
701. In 1837, 2,543 bushels of 
wheat was raised in this town. 


Black. Rivers. 

Black river, in Wi7idsor county, 
Vt. \i 33 miles in length. It riics 
in Plymouth, passes Ludlow, Cav- 
cnili-ih and Weathcritield, and falls 
into the Connecticut at Spring-field. 
This river passes through many nat- 
ural ponds, and affords a great num- 
ber of mill seats. 

Black river, in Orleans county, 
Vt. is about 30 miles in length, it 
ri^es in some ponds in Craftsbury, 
and passing through Albany, Iras- 
burg, and Coventry, it falls into 
Memphremagog lake at Salem. 

Black river, in Somerset county. 
Me. is one of the head branches of 
tlie Walloostook. 

Blackstone River, Mass. 

The most inland branch of this 
river rises between Paxton and Hol- 
den. It passes Worcester, and the 
ponds in Shrewsbury pay it the tri- 
bute of their waters. After pars- 
ing Auburn, Grafton, Millbury, 
Sutton, Noi'thbridge, Uxbiidge and 
Men ion, it p isses in(o the state of 
Rhode Island, where it changes its 
name to Pawtucket, and meets the 
tide waters in Providence river. 

Black %vater River, N. 11. 

Blackwater river, N. H. so called 
from its dark appearance, is formed 
by two small streams, one of which 
ri-ies in Danbury, and the other is- 
sues fiom Pleasant pond, in New 
London. These branches unite 
sor)n after cro.siiig the W. line of 
Andover, and form the Blackwater, 
which pisses through the S. W. part 
of that town; from thence thro\igh 
the W. pirtof the towns of Salisbu- 
ry and Boscawen into Hopk'nton, 
where it empties into Contoocook 

Blancliard, Me. 

Somerset co. This town lies 116 
miles from Augusta. In H37, 735 
bushels of wheat was raised here. 
Population, same year, 261. See 
.Barnard, Me. 


Blaiidford, Mass. 

Hampden CO. Branches of West- 
field river rise in tiiis town and give 
it a good water power. Blandlord 
was inco-poiated in 1741. It was 
originally settled by a company from 
the north of Ireland. It lies 114 
miles W. by S. from Boston, and 15 
W. by N. from Spriiigtieid. Popu- 
lation, 1S37, 1,443. The manufac- 
tures of the place consist of woolen 
cloth, paper and leather. Annual 
amount, ^50,500. The agricultu- 
ral products sent to market in 1S36, 
amounted toS22,340. Tiiere were 
in the town 1,535 cows and 1,822 
merino sheep. 

Block Island, R. I. 

See JVeiv Shoreham. 

Bloody Brook, Ma^S. 

See Deerfidd. 

Blooinileld, Me. 

Somerset co. This town was in- 
corporated in 1314, and lies on Ken- 
nebec river, 33 miles N. fi-om Au- 
gusta and 7 below Norridgewock, 
opposite to Skowhegan. Popula- 
tion, 1337, 1,053. I'loomfield is a 
fine township of land, and produced 
in 1837 5,030 bush,;ls of wheat. 

Blooiniiwld, Vt. 

Essex CO. Bloomfield lies on the 
W. side of Connecticut river, and is 
al watered by branches of the 
Nulhegan. Population, 1830, 150. 
It is about 20 miles N. from Guild- 
hall, and 60 N. E. from Montpelier. 

Bloonifiel«l, €'t. 

Hartford co. This was formerly 
a parish in Windsor, called Winton- 
bury. It derived its name from the 
circumstance of the parish being 
formed from Windsor, Farmington 
and Simsbury; the name \\ in-lon- 
bury being a part of the name of 
each of those tovs-ns. It was incor- 
porated info a town in 1835. The 
inhabitants enjoy a fine soil, and cul- 
tivate it with great industiy, pro- 


during large crops of grass and 
eraiu, with an abundance of choice 
fruit. It lies about six miles N. 
from Hartford, Population, about 

Blue Hill and Bay, Me. 

Hancock co. The town lies at 
the head of a large bay, of the same 
name, 12 miles E. A-om Castine, 
and 78 E. from Augusta. There 
are several large ponds in Blue Hill, 
and a hill of 960 feet in height, from 
which delightful marine scenery is 
presented. Incorporated 1789. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,808. The bay has 
Long and other inlands inside; and 
outside, Bui-ntcoat, and a group of 
smaller islands. Blue Hill bay is 
connected with Penobscot bay and 
river by a passage between the 
islands and main land, of about 12 
miles, it lies about 16 miles W. 
from Frenchman's bay. 

£lue Hills. 

The first range of mountains on 
the easte.'-n coast of New Hamp- 
shire and Maine ; and the elevated 
lands in Milton, Mass. are thus de- 
nominated, in consequence of their 
blue or cloud-like appearance, at a 
diatance, on the ocean. 

Boar's Head, N. H. 

See Hampton. 

Boltou, Vt. 

Chittenden CO. Population, 1S30, 
452. 17 miles S. E. from Burling- 
ton, and 17 N. VV, fiom Montpelier. 
Incorporated, 1763. Bolton lies on 
the western side of the Green 
Mountains. Onion river passes 
through the town, on the banks of 
which most of the inhabitants re- 

Bolton, Masa. 

A good farming town in the coun- 
ty of Worcester, 31 miles W. by N. 
fiom Bo-ston. and 15 N. N. E. from 
Worcester. Incorporated, 1738. 
Population, 1837, 1 ,185. It lies be- 

tween Concord and Nashua rivers. 
Here are good limestone, and small 
manufactujes of boots, shoes, leath- 
er and combs. 

Bolton, Ct. 

Tolland co. This town lies 14 
miles E. from Hartford, and 10 mile? 
S by W. from Tolland. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 744. The soil is a coarse, 
hard, gravelly loam, tit only for 
grazing. It is within the granite 
region of the eastern section of the 
state. The Bolton Stone Quarry is 
quite noted. " The stone is a spe- 
cies of slate, of a brilliant light 
giay color, composed of mica and 
quartz, and is excellent for flagging 
and other purposes. It is extensive- 
ly used in the principal cities of the 
United States. For strength it ex- 
ceeds any other known in this coun- 
try, and the demand for it is rapidly 
increasing." The supply is inex- 

Boon Island, I^Ie., 

A ledge of rocks, with a light- 
house thereon; about 9 miles E. 
from Kittery. Near this island the 
steamboat New England, on her 
passage from Boston to Gai'diner, 
met a fatal disaster, by coming in 
contact with a loaded coaster, on the 
night of the 31st of May, iS38, by 
which many valuable lives were 

Eootlibay, Me. 

Lincoln co. This town is hound- 
ed W. by the mouth of Shecpscot 
river, N. by Edgecomb, E. by 
Damariscotta river, ai d S. by the 
ocean. It is nearly surrounded by 
water, and is noted for its excelleni 
harbor. Its maritime situation ren- 
ders it a place of considerable busi- 
ness in the coasting trade and fish- 
eries. This town lies 39 miles S. S. 
E. from Augusta, 12 E. N. E. from 
Wiscassct, 60 E. N. E. from Port- 
land, and about 40 uiiles S. VV. by 
W. from Owl's Head, by water. 
Boothbay is a fine watering place. 


and many visit it, in summer months, 
for health or pleasure. Here may 
be found all the enjoyments of sea 
air and bathing; tishing and fowl- 
ing ; ocean and i.-^land scenery ; for 
which JVahant, in Massachusetts 
bay, is justly celebrated. Incorpo- 
rated, 1764. Population, 1837, 2,5()2. 

Boscaiven, N. II. 

Merrimack co. Boscavvcn is sit- 
uated between Concord and Salis- 
bury, on the W. side of Merrimack 
river. Bo5cawen is 8 miles N. W. 
from Concord. Besides the Merri- 
mack, the west part of this town is 
watered by Blackwater river, run- 
ning nearly parallel with the for- 
mer, through the whole extent of 
the town, and about five miles dis- 
tant from it. It is not a large stream, 
but very important, both on account 
of the fertile fields of champaign 
on its borders, and the numerous wa- 
ter privileges it aflTords. There are 
two ponds of some note. Great pon<l, 
near the centre of the town, Long 
pond, in the west part, and mill scats 
at the outlet of each. Boscawen is 
of a deep, productive soil, affording 
many excellent farms delightfully 
gitualed. The surface, when view- 
ed from its highest parts, appears 
uncommonly level. From the nu- 
merous streams of living water, and 
from the peculiar direction of the 
swells of the hillrs thi? town prob- 
ably derives that pure air and uni- 
form temperature which are so con- 
ducive to health. The p.-incipil 
village is in the east section of the 
town. It is situated on a spacious 
street nearly two miles in length, 
very straight and level. Here the 

eye of the traveller is attracted and 
delighted by the fertile intervales 
and windings of the river Merri- 
mack. There is another village on 
a pleasant eminence near the west 
meeting house. Bo^cawen was 
granted by Massachusetts in 1733. 
The propiietors gave to it the name 
of Contuoc.ook, after the Indian 
name of the river. It received its 
present name when it was incorpo- 
i-ated, Apiil22, 1760, fiom Edward 
Boscawen, a celebrated English ad- 
miral then on the American station. 
The first settlement commenced 
early in the season of 1734. Abi- 
gail Danforth was the tirst child 
born in the town. The Indians 
made frequent predatory incursions 
on the inhabitants. See DustoiVs 

Among the deceased citizens of 
this place entitled to re-pec(ful no- 
tice, are, George Jackman, Esq., 
the first town clerk, who continued 
in office 39 years. He was appoint- 
ed a justice of the peace under 
Geo. II. and continued in that office 
durinoall successive changes down 
to IS 13. 

Rev. Samuel IVood, D. D., for 
more than half a century the min- 
ister of Boscawen, was di ^tinguish- 
ed for his learning and piety. 

Hon. Ezekiel Webster, a native 
of Salisbury, resided here many 
yeaivs. He was an eminent barris- 
ter at law, of extraordinary talents, 
and great private worth. He died 
in the court house, at Concord, 
April 10, 1S29, aged 49, beloved 
and lamented by all who knew his 
character. Population, 1830, 2,093, 



County of Suffolk. The ancient city of Boston, the capital of Mas- 
Bachusetts, and of New England, and the birlh place of American Free- 
dom, is naturally divided into three sections — Old Boston, South Boston, 
and East Boston, situated at the western extremity of Massachusetts 
Bay. The peninsula on which Old Eoston is built, extends from Roxbu- 
ry, on the south, to Winnesimet Ferry, on the north, and is nearly sur- 
rounded by the waters of Eoston harbor on the east, and Charles river 
on the north and west. Its length is nearly three miles, and its average 
breadth about one mile. It originally contained about 700 acres, but its 
territory has been greatly extended, by filling up around its borders. Its 
surface is quite uneven. It has numerous eminences, rising from 50 to 
110 feet above the sea, affording admirable sites for building, and giving 
to it a peculiarly romantic appearnnce. It is in north Lat. 42° 21' 23" 
and west Lon. 71° 4' 9". It lies 163 miles S. S. W. from Augusta, Me. ; 
63 S. S. E. from Concord, N. H. ; 160 S. E. by S. from Montpelier, Vt. ; 
158 E. (19' S.) from Albany, N. Y. ; 40 N. N. E. from Providence, R. I. ; 
97 E. N. E. from Hartford, Ct. ; 207 N, E. by E. from New York, and 
432 miles N. E. by E. from Washington. Its Indian name was Shaw- 
mut. It was called by the first settlers Tramount, Tre?nont, or Tri- 
mountain, from three hills nearly in its centre. It took its present name 
on the 7th of Sept., 1630, in honor of the Rev, John Cotton, second min- 
ister of the first church, who came from Eoston, in England. The orig- 
inal propiietor of this territory was John Blackstone, who, soon after its 
settlement by Winthrop and others, removed to Rhode Island. Boston 
was incorporated as a city, February 23, 1822. 

South Boston. 

This part of Boston was set off fi-om Dorchester, by Icgi'^lafive enact- 
ment, March the 6th, 1804. It is bounded south by Dorchester Bay, 
and spreads about two n:iles on the south side of the harbor, above the 
fOrts. It contains about 600 acres, and is laid out into regular streets and 
squares. The surface of this part of Boston is exceedingly picturesque. 
In about the centre of this tract, and about two miles from the City Hall, 
the memorable " Dorchester Heights" rear (heir heads 130 feet above 
the sea, from which is presentecl a splendid view of Eoston, its harbor, 
and the surrounding country. It is connected with Old Boston by two 
fcrido-es. This part of Eo-iton is rapidly increasing in population and 
wealth. The Washington Ilousey near the " Heights," is a noble 
tuilding, and a delightful residence 


East Boston. 

This section of the city, until recently, had been called JVoddWs Isl- 
and. It lies about 660 yards N. E. from Old Boston, and about the same 
distance from Charlestown. It is divided from Chelsea by Chelsea Creek, 
600 feet wide, over which is a bridge, and from which is an excellent 
road to the Salem turnpike. The Eastern rail-road, to Salem, Newbu- 
ryport, &c., commences at East Boston. The island contains about 660 
acres of land, and a large body of flats. It was purchased by a compa- 
ny of enterprizing gentlemen in 1832. They were incorporated in March, 
1833, and the first house was commenced in October of the same year. 
A steam-boat ferry is established between this place and Old Boston, 
starting from each side every live minutes. The time occupied in cross- 
ing is about three minutes. A ferry is about being established between 
this island and Charlestown. The surface of the island is pleasingly va- 
riegated, and affords delightful sites for dwelling houses and gardens 
at moderate prices. This place is well located for manufactoiies of vari- 
ous kinds; particularly for ship building, and all those branches of me- 
chanics connected with navigation. 

The Maverick Hotel is a large and splendid building, occupying a 
commodious site. This house is named in honor of Samuel Maverick, 
who owned the island and resided there in 1630, and who is said to have 
made " some figure in the history of after times — a man of very loving 
and courteous behavior, and very ready to entertain strangers." 

Boston Harbor, 

Extends across Light House Channel and Broad Sound, from Point Al- 
derton on Nantasket, to Point Shirley in Chelsea, a distance, between the 
islands, of about 4 miles. It is safe, and of ample capacity for the larg- 
est navy. The most important part of this harbor is entered by a narrow 
pass, between two and three miles below the city and Navy Yard ; and-ia 
well protected by two powerful forts — Independence and Warren. The 
outer harbor, below these forts, will shortly be protected by a very pow- 
erful fortress now erecting on George's Island, at a great expense, by the 
government of the United States. Boston harbor contains many islands 
of great beauty, and is the reservoir of the Mystic, Charles, JVeponset, 
Manatiquot and other rivers. Its borders are environed by the towns 
of Hull, Hingham, Weymouth, Braintree, Quincy, Dorchester, Rox^u- 
ry, Brookline, Cambridge, Charlestown, and Chelsea; and the numerous 
small bays, coves and inlets, indenting their shores, give great variety, 
and add much to the scenery of this delightful harbor. 

Owing to the almost insular situation of Boston, and its limited extent, 
its population appears small. But it must be considered that the neigh- 


boring towns of Quincy, Dorchester, Milton, Roxbury, Brookline, Brigh- 
ton, Watertown, Cambridge, Charlcstown, Medfbrd, Maiden, and Chel- 
sea, although not included in the city charter, are component parts of the 
city, and are as much associated with it in all its conimercial, manufac- 
turing, literary, and social relations and feelings, as Greenwich, Man- 
hattanville, and Harlem are with the city of New York; or Southwark 
and the Northern Liberties with Philadelphia. 

The population of Boston in 1700, was 7,000—1722, 10,567—1765, 
15,520—1790, 1S,03S— ISOO, 24,937—1810, 33,250—1320,43,298—1830, 
61,391, and in 1837, 80,325. 


The peninsular situation of Boston requires many artificial avenues to 
and from the surrounding country. Until 17S6, the " Neck," between 
Boston and Roxbury, one mile and 117 feet in length, was the only pas- 
sage to it by land. On the 17th June, of that year, the Charle$ R>ver 
Bridge, leading from Boston to Charlestown, was opened for travel. It 
was incorporated, March 9, 1785. This bridge is 1,503 feet in length, 42 
'n breadth, and cost $50,000. Net revenue in 1834, $9,383. This 
bridge by its charter becomes state property in 1856. 

West Boston Bridge, leading to Cambridge, was opened on the 23d 
of November, 1793. It was incorporated March 9, 1792. Length of 
the bridge, 2,758 feet — abutment and causeway, 3,432 — total length, 
6,190 feet. Cost, $76,667. Net revenue in 1834, $12,928. This bridge 
will become state property in 1879. 

South Boston Bridge, leading from Boston Neck to South Bo-ton, was 
incorporated March 6, 1804, and opened for travel in July, 1805. Length, 
1,550 feet — width, 40. It cost the proprietors about $50,000. It is now 
city property — free. 

Canal Bridge, from Boston to Lechmere Point, in East Cambridge, 
was incorporated February 27, 1807, and opened for travel in August, 
1809. Length, 2,796 feet — width, 40. A lateral bridge extends from 
this to Prison Point, Charlestown. Length, 1,820 — width, 35 feet. 
Not receipts in 1834, $3,173. This bridge will become state property in 

The Western Jlvenue, leading from Beacon street to SeiuelVs Pointy 
in Brookline, was incorporated June 14, 1814, and commenced in 1818. 
It was opened for travel, July 2, 1821. This avenue is a substantial dam 
across Charles river bay, about a mile and a half in length, and from 60 
to 100 feet in width. This dam encloses about 600 acres of Hats, over 
which the tide formerly flowed from 7 to 10 feet. A partition dam di- 
vides this enclosure, and forms, by the aid of flood and ebb gates, a full 


and receiving basin ; thereby producing, at all times, a great bydraufic 
power. The cross dam also forms an excellent avenue from the main 
dam to Roxbury. Cost, about $700,000. Net receipts in 1834, $6,133. 
The proprietors of this iivenue claim a perpetual franchise. 

Boston Free Bridge, from Sea street to South Boston. Incorporated, 
March 4, 1826— completed, 1828. Length, 500— width, 38 feet. Built 
by propiietors of lands in the vicinity. City property. 

Warren Bridge, leading to Charlestown. Length, 1,390 feet — width, 
44. Incorporated March 12, 1823, and opened on the December follow- 
ing. It is now state property. The net receipts of this bridge in 1834, 
were $16,427. 

All the above avenues are lighted with lamps, when necessary, and 
make a beautiful appearance. 

Public Buildings. 

Some of those of the most prominent character only can be mentioned. 

The City Hall, or " the Old State House," on State and Washington 
streets, now occupied by the city government, Post-Office, Reading-Room, 
&c., is 110 feet in length, 38 in breadth, and 3 stories high. Two build- 
ings on this spot have been destroyed by lire. The first was built in 1659, 
the second in 1714, and the present in 1748. Un'il (he erection of the 
present State Hou^e, this building had ever been used for governmental 
purposes, both colonial and state. 

Faneuil Hall, or the " Cradle of Liberty," in Dock Square, is three 
stories high, 100 feet by 80, and was the gift of Peter Faneuil, Esq. to 
the town, in 1742. The building was enlarged in 1S05, and until the 
new Market was built the lower part of it was used for meat stalls. It is 
now improved for stores. The Hall is 76 feet square, 28 feet high, and 
has deep galleries on three sides. It is adorned with superb paintings of 
patriots, warriors and statesmen. The third story is improved for armo- 

State House. This building i-; en an open square, on Beacon-street, 
fronting the malls and common. Its foundation ii 110 feet above the lev- 
el of the sea. It was commenced in 1795, and completed and occupied 
in 1798. Cost, $133,333. Length, 173 feet— breadth, 61. On the area 
of the lower hall stands the beautiful Statue of JVashington, by Chan- 
try. From the top of the dome on this building, 52 feet in diameter, and 
230 feet above the level of the harbor, the whole city appears beneath, 
with all its crooked streets, its extended avenues, its splendid buildings, 
and the malls and common, crossed with romantic walks, and shaded by 
centurian elms. On the north and west the county of Middlesex pre- 
sents its numerous villas, and a rich array of agricultural taste and beau- 


ty. Here are viewed the hallowed halls of Harvard, and the sacred 
field of Bunker. On the south the county of Norfolk appears, with its 
granite hills and luxuriant vales, chequered with a thousand farm houses, 
cottages, and splendid mansions. On the east, the city, with its lofty 
spires, the harbor and the ocean, all conspire to render this the most en- 
chanting scene west of the Bay of Naples. 

The Massachusetts Hospital is on an open plot of ground of 4 acres, 
at the western part of tlie city, on the banks of Cliarles river. It is 163 
feet in length, and 54 in breadth. Commenced in ISIS, completed in 
1821. This building is of granite, and is a beautiful monument of taste 
and beneficence. 

Faneuil Hall Market. The corner stone of this superb granite 
building was laid on the 27th of April 1S25, and completed in 1827. Cost, 
^150,000, exclusive of land. It extends east of Faneuil Hall, on Dock 
square, 536 feet, and is 50 feet in width. The centre part of the build- 
ing, 74 by 55, projects two o-r three feet on the north and south, and rises 
77 feet from the ground, to a beautiful dome. The wings are 31 feet, 
and two stories high. The lower floor is exclusively appropriated as a 
meat, fish and vegetable market. The upper story is one vast hall, ar- 
ranged to be divided into compartments for ware-rooms and large sales. 
On the sides of this building are JVorth Market street, 65, and South 
Market street, 102 feet in width ; on each of which is a range of spa- 
cious ware-houses, with granite fronts. On the east, across Commercial 
street, is a commodious wharf, belonging to the citj\ The hall, in the 
centre of the building is called Quincy Hall, in honor of Josiah Quincy, 
L.L. D., the late indefatigable mayor of the city, and now president of 
Harvard University. 

Tremont House. This superb hotel, on Tremont and Beacon streets, 
was commenced on the 4th of Jul}', 1823, and completed 16th of October, 
1829. Its granite front on Tremont street is 160 feet, and 3 stories high. 
The wings are four stories high; that on Beacon street is 84 by 34 feet; 
and that on the south, fronting an open square, is 110 by 40 feet. This 
building contains 180 rooms. The dining hall is 70 by 31, and 14 feet 
high. Cost, $68,000, without the land. 

JVew Court House. The corner stone of this building, in Court 
square, between Court and School streets, for the accomm-odation of all 
the courts of law for the county, city, and the United States, offices of 
record, &.c., was laid Sept. 28, 1833. It is of cut, or hewn granite, from 
the Quincy quarry. Its length is 175 feet 10 inches; — width, 53 feet 
10 inches, and height 57 feet 3 inches. A portico of neaily ihe same 
model of the Doric porlico at Alhcns, adorns its north and ?outh fronts. 
There are four columns of fluted granite at each of these porticos, meas* 


uring 25 feet 4 inches in length, and 4 feet 5 inches in diameter. They 
weigh 25 tons each. The interior contains four court rooms, 50 feet by 
40, and large and commodious offices for all the respective departments. 
Houses of Industry, Correction, and Reformation. These houses are 
delightfully situated on a plot of ^ .cund of about 61 acres, situated at 
South Boston, on the margin of the harbor, and near the brow of Dor- 
chester Heights. 

Trinity Church, in Summer street, St. PauVs Church and the Ma- 
sonic Temple, in Trcmcnt street, the Washington Sank, in Washing- 
ton street, the granite building lately erected by the Suffolk Bank, the 
United States Bank, in State street, and the Steeple of Park street 
Church, are some of the best specimens of architecture m Boston. 

Schools aud Institutions* 

The first settlers of New England were exceedingly tenacious of their 
civil and religious rights, and they well knew that knov)ledge was an 
all-powerful engine to preserve those rights, and transmit them to their 
posterity. They therefore very early laid the foundation of those free 
schools, of which all the sons and daughters of New England are justly 
proud. Exclusive of Infant and Sabbath school scholars, about a quar- 
ter part of the population of Boston is kept at school throughout the 
year, at an annual expense of about ^200,000. Boston is not only cele- 
brated for its schools, but for its munificent donations in support of its 
institutions for moral, religious, and literary purposes. Since the year 
1800, not less than two millions of dollars have thus been appropriated 
by the citizens of Boston. 

New England Institution for the Education of the Blind. 

This Institution Mas incorporated in 1829; but, little was accomplished 
until 1832, when Dr. Howe returned from Europe accompanied by a 
blind teacher; manifesting that zeal in the cause of the blind which had 
distinguished his philanthropic labors, in another sphere, in a distant 
land. He opened a school with six blind young scholars. The progress 
of those children was so great, and the value of an Institution of the 
kind so apparent, that legislatures and citizens, generally, became 
much interested. By public and private donations, particularly by the 
influence of ladies in several parts of New England, and by the munifi- 
cent gift of a splendid building in Pearl street, by the Hon. Thomas H. 
Perkins, the Institution has increased, both in reputation and funds, with 
unparalleled success. The scholars are instructed in all those branches 
common in other schools, and some of them in the higher branches of 
literature. Music is the study of all. Mechanical labors are taught 
and enjoyed by the pupils. Musical instruments of all kinds, and other 


implements are provided for their convenience and use. A printing 
press is established, and several books have been printed in embossed 
letters, which are superior to any in Europe. It is exceedingly delight- 
ful to see these interesting youth, whose lives once seemed a dreary 
waste, and to witness iheir improvement in acquiring useful knowledge, 
partaking of all those recreations, natural and proper for their age, sex, 
and condition, and fitting themselves for useful stations in society. The 
Institution is managed by a board of trustees, and is patronized by the 
governments of all the New England States. 

Eye and Ear Infirmary. 

This Institution was comnenced in Boston, by Drs. Jeffries and Rey- 
nolds, in 1824, from a conviction of its utilit)^ and importance, derived 
from what they had seen and known of similar establishments in Europe. 
Those gentlemen conducted the establishment at their own expense for 
some time, during which large numbers received the most important 
benefits. In 1827, by the philanthropic exertions of those, and other 
gentlemen, an act of incorporation was obtained, and some funds were 
raised. As early as 1828, 2,610 cases Avere treated at the Infirmary, of 
which about five-sixths were cured. Of these cases about one-sixth 
were for diseases of the ear. Since that time the number of applicants 
has increased annuallj' ; and this Institution, Avhose merits are not sur- 
passed by any other in the city, has now a beautiful and commodious 
building in Bowdoin square for the reception of patients. 


The Boston Tlieatre, on Federal and Franklin streets, was first open- 
ed February 3, 1794. It was burnt, February 2, 1798; it was re-built, 
and re-opened on the 29th of October, the same year. It is of brick, 152 
feet long, 61 wide, and 40 high. This building is now denominated 
" The Odeon," and is consecrated to the worship of God, A huge wood- 
en building was erected on Tremont street, and opened as the " Hay- 
Market Theatre," December 26, 1796. The citizens in its neighbor- 
hood being fearful of its conflagration, caused its demolition, by subscrip- 
tion, and the block of elegant brick dwelling-houses, near, and north of 
Boylston street, now occupy the spot. 

The Tremont Theatre, on Tremont street, is a very neat building, 
with a granite front 135 feet by 79. It was commenced in July, and 
opened September 24, 1827. Cost, about $120,000. 

The A''ational Theatre, at the junction of Portland and Traverse 
streets, near the Warren bridge, was constructed in 1831. This build- 
ing was first used for equestrian performances. 


Boston Common. 

This is considered one of the most delightful promenades in the world. 
It comprises about 75 acres of land, of variegated surface, beautifully 
shaded by trees of various kinds, particularly in the malls, or walks 
which surround it. Some of those trees were planted more than a hun- 
dred years as;o. The malls are wide, beveled, graveled, and smooth; 
the waters of Charles river, and the romantic scenery beyond it, are in 
prospect. The whole is enclosed by an iron fence, on the outside of 
which are wide streets and beautiful buildings. The distance around 
the malls and common is about a mile. This plot of ground is so held 
by the city, that it can never be appropriated to any other than its pres- 
ent healthful and pleasing purposes. 

The foundation of a large and splendid Botanic Gardeiv was 
laid in 1837, by the subscription of funds for that purpose. It is located 
on the city lands, on the west side of th& Common. This will be a 
great ornament to the city, and an honor to the taste and judgment of its 


The public debt of the city of Boston on the 1st of May, 1837, was 
$1,497,200. The receipts, during the financial year, from the 30th of 
April, 1836, to 30th April, 1837, was $926,350— the expenditures, 
$904,065. Besides the public property in public buildings, city and other 
wharves, &,c. &c., both improved for city purposes, and rented, the city 
has about 7,000,000 square feet of land on the Neck, exclusive of streets, 
public squares, and malls, and a very large property in other lands in 
various parts of the city, which are rapidly increasing in value. The 
amount of this p.-^operty cannot be stated, but it is known greatly to ex- 
ceed the city debt, exclusive of that part which is wanted for the uses 
of the city. 


The citizens of Boston have ever sustained a high rank for their com- 
mercial enterprise. After whitening every sea with their canvass, and 
extending their commerce with all nations of the globe, they are now 
looking westward and northivard, and constructing new and artificial 
channels, to enable them not only to compete with other Atlantic cities 
for the already immense commerce of the western world, but to inter- 
cept it on its passage down the St. Lawrence. 

The number of vessels entered at this port the year ending September 
30, 1837, was 1,544— tonnage, 242,277 tons— crews, 11,503 :— cleared, 
1,367, tonnage, 184,373 tons — crews, 9,177. The registered, enrolled and 
licensed tonnage of this port, the same year, was 201,005 tons. A large 
amount of tonnage, owned at Boston, is registered at southern ports. 


Commercial Accommodations. 

There is probably no place in the world better accommodated for com- 
mercial operations than Boston. The whole length of the harbor on the 
east and north is lined with about 200 docks and wharves. A few of 
them only can be noticed, 

Ind'a Wharf, at the foot of Fort Hill, was constructed in 1S05. It 
extends into the harbor 980 feet, and is 246 to 2S0 feet in width, in the 
centre is a range of 39 stores, 22 by 80, and 4 stories in height. 

Central Wharf, between India and Long wharves, was built in 1816. 
In the centre are .54 ware-houses, 23 by 50, 4 stories high. It is 1,379 
feet in length, and 150 in width. Over a spacious- hall in the centre of 
this range of stores, is one of the best observatories in the United States. 

North of this is Long Wharf, at the foot of State street, commenced 

in 1710. This wharf extends into the harbor 1,800 feet, is 200 feet in 

width, and has 76 spacious ware-houses. About the centre of th s wliarf 
is a well of fresh water, 90 feet in depth. 

Passing the City wharf on the north, we come to Commercial Wliarf 
1,100 feet in length, and 160 in width. On the centre of this wharf is 
a range of 34 granite ware-houses, 25 by 60 feet, and are unequall3d by 
any thing of the kind in the United States for convenience or grandeur. 
Cost, $500,000. 

On the west, and in front of this tier of wharves, which run into the 
harbor nearly parallel to each other, are India and Commercial streets^ 
having the east end of Faneuil Hall Market nearly in the centre. These 
streets are wide ; they serve as wharves, and their west sides are cover- 
ed with large and convenient stores. It is contemplated to extend India 
street, on the south, to the Free Bridge on Sea street; and Commercial 
street, on the north, to Winnesimet Ferry. (See Hale's Map of Boston.) 

The Marine Railways, established in 1326, at the north part of the 
city, afford great accommodations to those engaged in navigation. A 
new and splendid Custom House is now erecting on India street, between 
Long and Central wharves. An Exchange, for the accommodation oi 
merchants, and a new City Hall, are contemplated. 


Although Boston has never been considered a manufa^tuiinjr city, 
yet, since the general peace in Europe, in 1815, and the passage of the 
present tariff laws^ in 1833, its manufacturing interests have considerably 

The following are the manufactures of Boston for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, with the value of each, the number of hands employed, 
and the amount of capital invested, so far as can be ascertained. 

It may be proper to observe, that the following account is doubtless 


accurate, as fir it extends, but it is known that in some towns in Massa- 
chusetts t'lie whole amount of their manufactures has not been stated by 
the assessors. 



I Hands einploy'd] 

Males. iFeiiKdes. 

Capital la- 

JBoots and Shoes, 



Ii'on Castings, 



Chairs and Cabinet Ware, 


Tin Ware, 


Straw Bonnets, 

Vessels, (average for 5 years,) 



Soap and Candles, 

Whale Oil, 

Copper and Brass, 

Organs and Piano- fortes. 


Gold and Silver Leaf, 

CaiTiages and Harnesses, 

Kefined Sugar, 

Silver Ware and Jewelry, 

Chain Cables, 


Saddles, Trunks and Whips, 

Granite, Marble, &c. 


Blank Books and Stationary, 


Looking Glasses and Frames, 


Neck Stocks, &c. 

Types and Stereotypes, 

Printed Books, 


Hard Ware, 

Baskets, &c. 



228, ()()(> 









132,4 50 




























$10,010,631 4,6.55 3,967 









































































The city of Boston is so limited, in regard to territory, as to be exclud- 
ed, in a great measure, fjom participating in the fisheries. Much capi- 
ta! of llie Bostonians is, howev.>r, invested, at the out ports, in this im- 
portant branch of the resources of the wealth of New England. During 



the year ending April 1, 1837, there were belonging to this city four ves- 
sels engaged in the whale tisheiy, and 152 in the cod and mackerel fish- 
eries, employing 1,919 hands. Total tonnage, 11,253 tons. Total pro- 
ceeds, $824,898. Capital employed, $748,200. 

To judge of the health of a city we must compare its hills of mortality^ 
for a series of years, with those of some other city. We have ever believed 
that the climate of Boston, and of New England generally, was as con- 
ductive to health as any portion of our country ; but having heard it 
often asserted that the climate of Boston was more favorable to some 
diseases, particularly those of a pulmonary character, or what is com- 
monly called co7isumption, than that of our sister city New York, we 
have examined with great care the authenticated bills of mortality of 
each city for five successive years, (1830 — 1834, inclusive.) The popu- 
lation of Boston, in 1830, was 61,391 — of New York, 202,589 — a frac- 
tion less than 3 1-3 in New York to 1 in Boston. From 1820 to 1S30, the 
average increase of the population of Boston was a fraction less than 4 
per cent, per annum — that of New York a fraction less than 6 1-3 per 
cent, per annum. The aggregate number of deaths in Boston during those 
five years, was 7,340 — New York, 35,037 : — a fraction more than 4 2-3 in 
New Yoik to 1 in Boston, In that period, the aggregate number of deaths 
in Boston, by consumption, was 1,128— in New York 6,124 : — more 
than 5 1-3 in New York to 1 in Boston. 


Boston, in common with all large towns which are chiefly built of 
wood, has suffered very much by fire. Fifty years ago the buildings in 
the town were principally of that material; but by efficient measures 
adopted by the citizens, particularly the law of 1803, prohibiting the con- 
struction of wooden buildings of a greater height than 10 feet, a large por- 
tion of the old buildings have been taken down, and their places, with 
thousands of others on new sites, now present to that destructive element 
solid walls of brick and stone. A few of the most memorable fires are 
here given. In October 1711, a fire broke out in "\Mllioms' Court and 
destroyed most of the buildings on both sides of Cornhill, now Washing- 
ton street, from School street to Market square. On the 20th of March 
1760, 174 dwelling-houses, 175 ware-houses, shops, &c. were burnt. 
This fire was in the centre of the town, (Cornhill, State and Congress 
streets to Fort Hill,) and the amount of property consumed, was estimated 
at £100,000 sterling. April 24, 1787, a fire commenced in Beach street, 
and extending south, destroyed about 60 dwelling-houses, 40 other build- 
ings, and the church in Hollis street. July 30, 1794. Seven rope-walks, 
between Pearl and Atkinson streets, and about 90 other building;s in thai 


neighborhood were destroyed. Loss estimated at more than $200,000. 
On the 3d of November, 1818, the Boston Exchange Coffee- House, 
in Congress-square, was destroyed by tire. This building covered 12,- 
753 feet of land. It was 7 stories high, and from the floor to the top of 
the dome was 83 feet. It contained 210 apartments, and cost about half 
a million of dollars. The conflagration occurred in the evening, and the 
sight was awfully sublime. 

On the 7th of July, 1824, at noon, (the wind blowing almost a gale,) 
15 costly dwelling-houses were burnt, on Beacon, Charles and Chesnut 

A very destructive lire commenced on Doane street, A.pril 7th, 1824, 
when 53 large ware-houses, in that part of the city, with a great amount 
of merchandize, were destroyed. 

A number of buildings, containing abaut 35 lawyers' offices, and 20 
stores and shops, on Court street, were burnt, Nov. 10, 1825. 

During five years, 1830 — 1834, inclusive, there were 226 fires — the 
amount of property destroyed was $274,273 : — of which $140,943 was 
insured. The most destructive fires were in 1833. In that year 71 fires 
occurred, $39,970 value of property was destroyed, of which $57,040 
was insured. 

The present Fire Department was organized in 1823. It is always in 
the most parfect state of preparation for service. Attached to this de- 
partment are 24 engines, and 16,000 feet of hose. By the most powerful 
of these engines, with 250 feet of hose, water can be thrown over the 
grasshopper, on the cupola of Faneuil Hall, 84 feet above the pavement. 

The subject of pure water for all the variaus uses of life has ever been 
one of the first and most important considerations with settlers in all oun- 
tries. It frequently happens that those places most suitable for com- 
merce are the least favorable to the ready acquirement of that indi-psns- 
able element; consequently the ingenuity and skill of man have devised 
and executed those stupendous aqueducts, and tanks or reservoirs, both in 
ancient and modern times, which have made some of the most desolate 
parts of the globe the greatest marts of trade and most splendid cities. 
Governor Winthrop and his associates located themselves at Charlestown, 
and would have continued there had not the waters of Shawmut been 
more agreable to their tastes. Their change of situation, or that account, 
is no compliment to their chemical knowledge, for the waters of Charles- 
town are decidedly the best. Possibly " the magic of a name" might have 
influenced them ; for Shawmut, in the Indian language, is said to mean 
«< springs of living waters." 

The city council, in 1834, took the long neglected subject of ir'^'duc- 


ing soft and pure "vater in*^o the city, into consideration. By analyses of 
the waters of Boston, one of the best wells in the city was found to contain 
3.6 grains of the salts of sulphate of lime, muriate of soda and muriate ol 
lime, to the pound of water. The well is 30 feet deep, and is situate high 
on the side of a hill. Some wells were found to contain 7.5 grains of the 
above salts, and many others a much greater quantity of noxious matter. 
An able en^iaeer stated that in October 1834, there were 2,767 wells in 
the city J of which number 2,085 were drinkable, and 682 bad ; and that 
only 7 of the whole number were occasionally used for washing. The 
engineer also stated that " all the dug or Artesian wells of Boston, are 
in strata of different materials in very irregular position, so that whatever 
may be the success in making one well, no certain result can be predica- 
ted upon another trial at a short distance from the tirst. The wells in 
town are polluted by the dirty water at the surface being absorbed, set- 
tling and mingling with the veins below ; or are adulterated by mixture 
with little streams of sea-water." 

The Boston Aqueduct Corporation commenced operations for convey- 
ing water into the city from Jamaica pond, in Roxbury, in 1795. The 
distance from Boston to the pond is four miles, and the number of feet of 
logs laid in the city is 72,000, or about 18 miles. The greatest quantity 
of water that can be supplied from this source is 50,000 gallons daily, and 
the greatest height it can be raised in the city is 49 feet above tide- water. 
According to the estimates of the quantity of water used in London and 
Philadelphia, about 28 gallons daily would be required for every person 
in the city. This includes all that is commonly used for stables, wash- 
ing streets, the extinguishment of tires, for manufacturing, and all other 
purposes. The quantity of water necessary for the present population 
is therefore about 2,500,000 gallons daily. Spot pond in Stoneham, 8 
miles from the cily ; Mystic pond in Charlestown and Medford, 7 miles ; 
Long pond, in Nalick, 16 miles; or the waters of Charles river, taken at 
Waterlovvn, 7 miles fiom the city, would almost inundate the misnamed 
Shawmut with soft and pure water, at an expense of about a million of 
dollars. Philadelphia, by her incomparable water works, has added a 
lustre to her bright name ; New Vork is following her noble example, 
by bringing the Croion river, 45 miles, to the centre of the city, at an 
expense of five millions of dollars; and Boston cannot much longer re- 
main insensible of the value of pure water, to the health and comfort of 
its people. 


Boston was described by John on in his *' Wonder Working Provi- 
dence," about the year 1663, in the following words: — 

*' Invironed it is with brinish floods, saving one small Istmos, which 


gives free access to the neighboring towns by land, on the south side, on 
the northwest and northeast. Two constant fairs are kept for daily 
trafique thereunto. The form of this town is like a heart, naturally sit- 
uated for fortifications, having two hills on the frontier part there .1 luxt 
the sea, the one well fortified on the superficies thereof, with store of 
great artillery well mounted. The other hath a very strong battery built 
of whole timber, and filled with earth ; at the descent of the hill, in the 
extreme poynt thereof betwixt these two strong arms lies a cove or bay, 
on which the chief part of this town is built, overtopped with a third 
hill ; all these like overtopping towers, keep a constant watch to see the 
approach of foreign dangers, being furnished with a beacon and loud 
babbling guns to give notice by their redoubled echo to all the sister 
towns. The chief edifice of this city-like town is crowded on the sea- 
banks, and wharfed out with great labour and cost; the bull lings beau- 
tiful and large, some fairly set forth with brick tile, stone and slate, and 
orderly placed with semely streets, whose continual enlargement pre- 
sageth some sumptuous city. But now behold the admirable acts of 
Christ, at this his people's landing ; the hideous thickets in this place 
were such that wolves and bears nurst up their young from the eyes of 
all beholders, in those very places where the streets are full of girls and 
boys, sporting up and down with continued concourse of people. Good 
store of shipping is here yearly built, and some very fair ones, Thia 
town is the very mart of the land; Dutch, French, and Portugalls como- 
here to trafique." 

Present condition of Boston. 

Perhaps at no period since the settlement of Boston has its prosperity 
been so flattering as for the last seven years. It is true that Boston in- 
creased in population and wealth with great rapidity during the wars in 
Europe, from 1794 to 1807. But that growth was unnatural and contin- 
gent ; it depended solely on the caprice of the belligerent powers, who 
viewed us rather as servants to their necessities, than with respect. 

The present state of things is altogether different. The world is at 
peace. We look for no besieged city to supply with bread, neither do we 
seek to run the gauntlet of a blockading squadron to furnish a starving 
country with the growth and produce of its own colonies. We now rely 
on our own resources— agriculture, manufactures, the fisheries, and com- 
merce with all nfitions with whom we can exchange our commodities at 
fair prices. So long as we are blessed with union, good schools, good 
laws, and with all those moral, religious and charitable institutions, which 
tend 10 make mankind wiser and better, our city, under Providence, will 
continue on in the forward path to prosperity and hapi iness. 

The location of Boston always gave it the command of a greater coast- 


ing trade than any other port in the United States; but the great arteries 
to an immense, wide-spread and rapidly increasing interior commerce 
were never opened until the rail-roads to the north, the west, the south, 
and the east were constructed and in operation. By these devices of hu- 
man wisdom, and by the continuance of the two former — crossing the wa- 
ters of our own Connecticut to the noble Hudson, and piercing the cen- 
tre of a large and fertile country, to the outlet of the great western 
oceans on the banks of the St. Lawrence, Boston, with its enterprize and 
wealth, located 160 miles nearer the British capital than New York, can- 
not fail of sustaining a fair and successful competition for this trade with 
any city on the American continent. 

Motto of the City. 

Sicut patribus sit Sens nobis. 
As God was with our fathers, so may he be 

WITH us. 

Bow, N. H., 

Merrimack co., was originally 
laid out nine miles square, compre- 
hending a great portion of the ter- 
ritory now constituting Pembroke 
and Concord. It is bounded N. E. 
hy Merrimack river, which divides 
it from Pembroke, S. E. by Hook- 
sett, S. W. by Dunbarton, N. W. 
by Concord and a part of Hopkin- 
ton. The soil is very uneven and 
hard, but productive when well 
managed. There is but one pond 
of any size, called Turee pond. 
Turkey river empties into the Mer- 
rimack at Turkey falls, near the N. 
E. part of Bow. About a mile be- 
low are Garven's falls, now passable 
by locks on Bow side. Bow canal 
is situated on the Merrimack, 3 
miles below Concord ; the perpen- 
dicular measurement around which 
it is carried is 25 feet — its length 
1-3 of a mile. It passes through 
a ledge of granite, and is for the 
ino5t part imperishable. Its cost 
was $13,860 ; and about $2,000 of 
its first income were appropriated 
towards clearing channels through 
Turkey falls, &c. Pop. 1830,1,065. 

Samuel Welch, the oldest native 
citizen of New Haaip^^hire, died in 
Bow on the 5th of April, 1S23, at 
the age of 113 year-. He was born 
at Kingston, Sept. 1-t, 1710, where 
he spent the early part of his life ; 
he lived subsequently a while at 
Pembroke ; but for 50 years preced- 
ing his death he resided at Bow, 
in an obscure corner, and steadily 
cultivated his little farm, till the 
frosts of a century had whitened 
his locks, and the chills of a hun- 
dred winters had benumbed his 
frame. His life was marked by no 
extraordinary vicissitude — he was 
never in battle, or in any public 
service ; he was a man of industry 
and temperance. 

Bo^ivbaclc Mount aijiL. 

See Stratford, JV. H. 

. Botvdoin, Me. 

Lincoln co. This agricultural 
township is bounded on the S. E. 
by Bowdoinham, and S. by Tops- 
ham. It was incorporated in 1788, 
and lies 17 miles \V. from Wiscas- 
set, 37 N. N. E. from Portland, and 


20 S. S. W. from Augusta. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 2,173. 

Bowdoiuliain, Me. 

Lincoln co. A pleasant town 
on the west side of Kennebec river, 
and north of Topsham. Here is 
considerable business in the lum- 
ber trade and ship building. Twen- 
ty miles S. by ^V. from Augusta, 
and 12 N. from Bath. Population, 
1837, 2,218. Incorporated, 1762. 

Box:1)orough, Mass. 

Middlesex co. Incorporated, 1783. 
Population, 1837, 433. Soxne shoe-s, 
palm-leaf hats and straw bonnets 
are manufactured in this town, and 
large quantities of hops are grown. 
It lies 25 miles N. W. by W. from 
Boston, and 9 W. by N. from Con- 
cord. Good lime-stone is found 

Bosford, Mass. 

Essex CO. This town lies 26 
miles N. from Boston, 13 S. W. 
from Newburyport, and 10 W. by 
N. from Ipswich. The annual 
amount of manufactures of cotton 
wicking, boots, shoes and ploughs 
is about $100,000. Population, 
1837, 984. Incorporated, 1635. 

Eoylstoii, Mass. 

Worcester co. Incorporated, 1736. 
Population, 1837,821. It lies 40 
miles W. from Bo-ton, and 8 N. by 
E. from Worcester. Boylston is 
watered by Nashua river, and has 
iron ore and a ledge of crystalized 
quartz. Here are some manufac- 
tures of combs, palm-leaf hats, 
boots and shoes ; — several ponds 
and fine fish. 

Bozrali, Ct. 

New London co. This town was 
taken from Norwich in 1786. It 
was formerly called New Concord. 
It lies 33 miles E. S. E. from Hart- 
ford, and 5 W. from Norwich. The 
soil is a gravelly loam, rich and fer- 
tile. It is watered by Y antic river, 

on which are two pleasant and 
flourishing villages, Bozraliville 
and Fitchville, at both of which 
are manufactories for cotton. 

This town experienced a terrible 
hail storm on the 15th of July, 1799, 
by which much property was lost 
and many cattle injured. The hail 
fell in immense quantities, some 
particles of which measured six 
inches in circumference. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,073. 

Bradford, Mc. 

Penobscot co. This town lies 
87 miles from Augusta. 4,944 bush- 
els of wheat was raised here in 
1837, with a population of 770. — 
See Barnard, Me. 

Bradford, IV. H. 

Merrimack co. Situated about mid- 
way between the Merrimack and 
Connecticut rivers, bounded N. by 
Newbury and Sutton, E. by Warner, 
S. by Henniker and Hillsborough, 
W. by Washington ; is 31 miles from 
Amherst, 25 from Concord, and 80 
from Boston. This town is watered 
by small streams, which principally 
issue from ponds, — of which the 
largest is Todd's pond, lying in 
Bradford and Nevvbuiy. This pond 
is supplied with water from the 
hills and mountains in Newbury. 
In it are a number of floating 
islands, which are deemed objects 
of curiosity. Its outlet forms the 
northern branch of Warner river. 
Pleasant, or Bradford pond, is on 
the E. side, of the town. It is about 
550 rods long and 150 wide. It 
communicates with Warner river 
by an outlet at the N. end of it. 
In this pond are several islands, 
which, with the rugged declivities 
on the E. bank, the waters below, 
and the cottages and cultivated 
fields on the west bank, present to 
view, in the summer season, a wild 
and variegated landscape. Many 
parts of Bradford are hilly. A large 
proportion of the town, however, 
lies in a valley, about three mile* 


bx width. Near the Sunapee moun- 
tains, on the N. W.,is an extensive 
plain, more than a mile long and 
about half a mile wide. The soil 
difTers in quality. It i:>i light, loamy 
or rough. In the easterly part are 
valuable stone quarrie?. Bradford 
was granted to John Peirce and 
George Jatfrcy, in 1765. Its firs^t 
settlement was made in 1771, by 
Dea. V/illiam Presbury and his 
family. They were soon followed 
by several inhabitants from Brad- 
ford in Mass., from which circum- 
stance it derived its name. It was 
incorporated Sept. 27, 1787, and is 
mentioned in the act as including 
New Bradford, Washington Gore, 
and part of Washington. Popula- 
tion in 1S30, 1,235. 

Bradford, Vt. 

Orange co. This town lies on 
the W. side of Connecticut river, 
25 miles S. E. from Montpelier, 7 
S. from Newbury, and 15 E. N. E. 
from Chelsea. Population, 1830, 
1,507. Bradford is a pleasant farm- 
ing town, of good soil, and is well 
watered by Wait's river. About 
4,500 sheep. 

Bi*adford, Mass. 

Essex CO. This is a very pleasant 
town on the south side of Merrimack 
river, and united lo Haverhill by a 
bridge of 650 feet in length. The 
surface of the town is uneven and 
the soil various ; but much of the 
land is of a superior quality. Sev- 
eral of the hills exhibit beautiful 
scenery. Bradford is celebrated for 
its excellent schools and seminaries 
of learning. Here are several ponds, 
good fishing, and a pleasant stream 
of water. Some bricks arc made 
here, and considerable leather tan- 
ned ; but the principal manufacture 
of the place is of boots and shoes, of 
which, during the year ending April 
1, 1837, the value of $381,748 was 
made. Total amount of manufactures 
that year,$394,448. Hands employ- 
ed, 1,096. Incorporated, 1675. Pop- 

ulation, 1837, 2275. This town lies 
23 miles N. from Boston, 10 W. S. 
W. from Newburyport, IS N. by W. 
from Salem, and about 13 miles N. 
E. from Lowell. A branch of the 
Boston and Lowell rail-road passes 
through Bradiordto Haverhill. 

Bradley, Me. 

Penobscot co. First settled, 1796. 
Incoi-porated, 1835. Population, 
1S37, 338. See Barnard, Me. 

Bradley-rale, Vt., 

An unincorporated township in 
Caledonia county, chartered in 1791, 
containing about 4000 acres. Moose 
river passes through it. It is bound- 
ed on the west by Kirby. Most of 
the land is on a mountain. It never 
had more than 21 inhabitants. 

Brain tree, Vt. 

Orange co. This is a good farm- 
ing town, and produces considerable 
butter, cheese, beef and pork. It 
lies 21 miles S. from Montpelier, 
and 14 W. by S. from Chelsea. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1209. Branches of 
White river pass through the town. 

Braiatree, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This town formerly 
included Quiucy and Randolph, and 
was first called Mount Wuilaston. 
It is celebrated for the antiquity of 
its settlement, (1625) and for the 
eminent men it has produced, both 
in church anl state. The surface 
of the town is variegated by hill 
and dale, presenting many delight- 
ful views of Boston, its harbor and 
the adjacent country. The soil is 
a strong gravelly loam, and very 
productive. Excellent granite 
abounds here, of which large quan- 
tities are annuallj-^ quarried and 
transported ; and some of the best 
merchant ships are built of native 
white oak and cedar. The holley 
tree (Ilex aquifoliuni) is indigenous. 
Indications of coal have been so 
strong as to warrant an attempt at 
mining. The Manatiquot river. 


whicli rises in Randolph, after 
meandering through this town and 
deceiving the waters of Great and 
Little ponds, meets the tide waters 
of Bonon harbor, at Braiatree land- 
ing, on Weymouth Fore river, i . 
miles from Boston. At this place 
there is considerable trade in lum- 
ber and bread stuffs, and some navi- 
gation is employed in the coasting 
trade and tisheries. The m.anufac- 
tures of Braintree consist of boots, 
shoes, cotton and woolen goods, pa- 
per, leather, nails, axes, cotton 
ginns, chocolate, carriages, gran- 
ite, straw bonnets, tin ware, and 
vessels. The value of these arti- 
cles of manufacture, for the year 
ending April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$371,937. The value of boots and 
shoes amounted to ;$;202,363, and 
gave employment to 850 persons. 
The Manatiquot affords this town 
excellent mill site-s ; some of which 
lie near ship navigation, and are 
very valuable. Braintree was in- 
corporated in 1640. It lies 10 miles 
S. by E. from Bo-,ton, and 12 S. E. 
from Dadham. Population, 1830, 
1,752; 1837, 2,237. 

Brandon, Vt. 

Thi« is a flourishing town in Rut- 
land county, 40 miles S. W. from 
Montpelier, 16 N. by W. from Rut- 
land, and 16 S. from Middlebury. 
It was first settled in 1775, and or- 
ganized in 1734. Population, 1330, 
l,9i0. Brandon is finely watered 
by Otter creek. Mill river, and 
Spring pond ; on which streams are 
good mill seats. Some of the land 
is level, with rather a light soil, hut 
that on Otter creek is the be^t allu- 
vial. Bog iron ore, of an excellent 
quality, is found here ; copperas and 
marble ai^e also found. There are 
two curious caverns in this town. 
The largest contains two apart- 
ments, each from 16 to 20 feet 
square. It is entered by descend- 
ing from the surface about 20 feet. 
They are formed of limestone. 

Brauford, Ct> 

New Haven co. An uneven 
township, of strong soil, on Long 
Island Sound, about 7 miles E. from 
New Haven. Thimble islands and 
Indian islands lie within the limits 
of the town. Here are fish of va- 
rious kinds, a small stream of wa- 
ter, a harbor, and some vessels en- 
gaged in the fishery. The town 
was settled in 1644. Population, 
1830, 2,332. A beautiful pond, 
called Saltonstall's lake, lies be- 
tween Branford and East Haven. 

Erattletoorougli, Vt. 

Windham co. This town is situ- 
ated in the southeasterly quarter of 
the state and county ; is bounded 
E. by Connecticut river, S. by Ver- 
non and Guilford, W. by Marlboro*, 
and N. by Dummerston. At the 
N. E. section of the town is the 
site of the once famous military 
post, Furt Dummer, nothing of 
which is now retained but the 
name, Dummer Meadows. At 
the mouth of Whetstone brook is a 
commodious landing place for river 
craft. Brattleborough is connected 
with Hinsdale and Chesterfield by 
a handsome covered bridge, span- 
ning the Connecticut, and terminat- 
ing at its western abutment in the 
east village, where the north, the 
south, the east, and the west lines 
of mail stages concentrate. The 
town and vicinity are noticed for 
their salubrious air, pure water, 
and fine mountain scenery. It is 
watered on the east by the Connec- 
ticut, and is intersected by West 
river, Whetstone brook, and nume- 
rous smaller streams. There are 
many sites for water power on the 
larger streams, unoccupied, and in- 
viting to enterprize. The east vil- 
lage is the general business mart 
for the surrounding towns. Of its 
own internal business and industry, 
one instance is given of many of 
less amount. "The Brattleboro* 


Typo;;raD!iic Co," was incorpoi-ated 
Oct. 26', "H:33. Capital, $15iJ,000. 
The Company i^ extennvely en- 
gaged in the manufactare of paper 
and books. Their paper mill is fur- 
nished with the best machinery, 
and is capable of turning out from 
40 to 50 ream? of the largest print- 
ing paper, or from 1.50 to 200 reams 
of letter paper per day. Their 
prin'ing ofiice contains eight power 
p.'-esses. There are employed in 
the establi«;hment from 60 to 70 
male and female operatives. So 
great are their facilities, that they 
have taken rags and manufactured 
them into paper, and printed it, on 
the same day. Probably there is no 
establishment in the count"y which 
combines so many facilities for car- 
rying on the book business as tliis. 
The Company publish a variety of 
bibles and other valuable works. 
The value of business done at this 
establishment, in 1S36, is stated to 
have amounted to ^500,000. 

It is presumed that this village, 
according to its size, is second to 
none in the state for business or 
wealth. The surface of the town 
is diversified by hills, vales, and 
plains ; is of good soil, and gene- 
rally well improved. It is 12 miles 
S. E. from Ncwfane, 96 S. from 
Montpelicr, 9C W. of Boston, and 
7ti E. N. E. from Albany. Popu- 
lation, 1820, 2,017—1330, 2,141. 

Breuieii, Me. 

Lincoln co. This town was for- 
merly a part of Bristol. It is bound- 
ed N. by Nobleborough, west by 
Bristol, south by Pemmaquid point 
in Bristol, and east by Muscongiis 
island in Muscongus bay. It lie; 
about 40 miles S. E. from Augusta, 
and 15 E. S. E. from Wiscasset, and 
possesses great navigable privi- 
leges. Population, 1837, 773. 

Brentivood, N. H. 

Rockingham co. Brentwood is 
bounded E. by Exeter, N. by Ep- 
pins, W. by Poplin, and S. by 

Kingston. The soil is better adapt- 
ed to grass than grain, although 
some improvements have been 
made in its qualities. Exeter river 
passes nearly through the centre 
of the town, and there are other 
streams of less magnitude connect- 
ing with it. Pick-pocket falls, oa 
flxeter river, are in this town, and 
near them are situated an exten- 
sive cotton factory, and a number 
of mills. A card factory has been 
established here, which promises 
to be of great utility ; and also an 
ii-on furnace for casting machinery. 
Quantities of iron ore have been 
found, and it was formerly worked 
with success. Vitriol, combined 
in masses with sulphur, has also 
been found here. Brentwood was 
incorporated June 26, 1742. Popu- 
lation, in 1830, 891. 

ltre"»ver, Me. 

Penobscot co. Brewer lies on 
the Penobscot river, opposite to the 
city of Bangor. It was taken from 
Orington in 1812. Population, in 
1837,1,622. It is watered by the 
Segeunkedunk, on which are mills 
of various kinds. Considerable 
quantities of lumber, hay, potatoes, 
tanners' bark and wood, are annu- 
ally exported from this town. The 
tov/n was named in compliment to 
Col. John Brewer, one of the tirst 
settlers, from AA'orcester, Mass. 
The navigable privileges at this 
place are equal to those at Bangor. 

Erc^vster, Mass. 

Barnstable co. This town was 
the Indian Sawkatucket. It was 
taken from Harwich, in 1830, and 
took its name from Elder Brewster, 
one of the first settlers of Ply- 
moutli ; a man of great learning and 
piety, who died, 1644. In com- 
mon with all the towns on Cape 
Cod, a large number of ship-mas- 
ters, sailing to foreign ports, belong 
here. From three ponds in this 
town, covering about 1,000 acres, a 
never-failing stream of water is pro- 


duced, on which are a cotton mill, 
cardinin; niill, niacliine sho]) and oth- 
er small mills. The value of the 
manufactures of cotton good-!, hoots, 
shoes, leather, axes, cliairs, cabinet 
and tin wares, lamphlack, Ep om 
and common salts, amounted, in one 
year, to ,4;.'52,()72. Product of the 
cod and mackerel fishery, ^9,050. 
Brewster lies on the north side of 
the Cape, IS miles E. by N. from 
Barnstable, and 6 N. N. W. from 
Chatham. Population, 1837, 1,534. 
Here are about 1,000 sheep. 

Bridgeport, Ct. 

Fairfield co. The town of Bridge- 
port was formerly a part of Strat- 
ford, and was incorpo;-ated by its 
present name in 1S21. It contains 
about 10 s(juare m.iles, of a strong 
and fertile soil, under excellent cul- 
tivation. That p irt of Bridgeport 
where the city now stands was 
called the village of Ncwtleld, un- 
til 1800, v/hen it was incorporated 
as a borough by its present name. 
In 18o() it became a city. This is 
one of those beautiful and flourish- 
ing places in New England, the 
pride of Yankees and the admira- 
tion of strangers. It is located on 
an elevated plain, on the west side 
of an arm of Long Island Sound, 
and commands extended vipws of 
Long Island and the surroundins; 
country. The city is huilt in a style 
of great neatness and some ele- 
gance. The harbor is safe, hut the 
navigation for large vessels is im- 
peded by a bar at its mouth, of 
about 13 feet draught of water at 
high tides. A large business is 
done here in the coasting trade ; 
some in foreign commerce, and 
some in the whale and o<her fish- 
eries. The ci<y is watered by the 
Pequanock, affording some water 
power. There is a comn.odiou-. 
biidge across the harl)or, 412 yards 
in length, with a draw for the 
passage of vessels. This is an im- 
portant manufacturing cify, par- 
ticularly of saddlery and carriages. 

of which a very large amount iq an- 
nually made and tran-^ported. A 
rail-road from thi? place is in con- 
templaiion, to pass up the Housa- 
tonick river, and meet the Boston 
an;l Albany rail-road at West Stock- 
bridge, in Mass. The population 
of tlie boroush of Bridgeport, in 
1830, was 1 ,800. The present pop- 
ulation of the city exceeds 4,000. 
Biidgeport lies 62 miles N. E. 
from New York, 17 S. W. from 
New Haven, and 4 E. by N. from 
Fairfield. The distance from this 
place to Setauket, on Long Island, 
across the Sound, is about 18 miles. 

Eridgeton, Me., 

Cumberland co., is pleasantly 
situated on the bolder of Long poncl, 
and near the head of navigation to 
Portland, by the Cumberland and 
Oxford canal. The distance fro-m 
this place to Portland, by navigable 
waters, is about 50 miles. Tlie soil 
of Biidgcton is food, and produced 
in 1837 4,000 bushels of wheat. 
Its location afibrds it great facilities 
for inland trade. Long pond is 
about 10 miles in length and 1 in 
breadth. It empties into Crooked 
river, which pa-f^es into Sebago 
pond. This town lies 74 miles S. 
\V. by W. from Augusta, and 40 
N. W. from Portland, by the road. 
Population, 1837, 1,863. 

Eridge'watcr, X. H. 

Orafion co. Originally part of 
New Chester; now Hill, was incor- 
porated, 1738. It is bounded N. 
by Plymouth and Hebron, on the E. 
by Penngewasset river, dividing it 
fi-om pai-t of Holdcrness pnd New 
Hampton, on the S. by Bri-^ol, and 
on tlic W. by Ncv.found pond, 
which separates it from Alexandria. 
The soil is well adapted to graz- 
ing, and fev/ towndiips in this vi- 
cinity exceed it in Ibis respect. 
The May hew turnpike passes 
fhrouph the Vv*. pait. near New- 
found pond. ;ind the ri;ain road from 
Concord to Plvmouth through the 


E. part near Pemigewasset river. 
The first settlement wa? made in 
1766, by Thomas Crawford, Esq., 
when the tract comprised the whole 
of New Chester, Bridgewater, and 
Bristol. Population, in 1830, 783. 

Bridgewater, Vt. 

Windsor CO. This town is bound- 
ed E. by Woodstock, and lies 45 
miles S. from Montpelier, 17 N. 
W. from Windsor, and 60 N. E. 
from Bennington. Population, 1820, 
1,125; 1830, 2,320. The settle- 
ment of the town commenced in 
1780. In 1785 the town was or- 
ganized. There are many good 
mill seats in this town, on Water- 
queechy river, and considerable 
fine intervale lies on the borders of 
that stream. The high lands are 
good, and produce valuable crops. 
It feeds about 6,000 sheep. Here 
are found iron ore, garnets, rock 
crystal, mica slate, gneiss, lime- 
stone, quartz, and excellent soap- 
stone. In 1822, a living frog was 
taken from 26 feet below the sur- 
face of the ground, about 30 rods 
from the river. 

Bridgewater, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This township 
was formerly very large. It is now 
divided into four distinct towns. 
Not content with attaching the car- 
dinal points of the compass to the 
names ot three divisions of this 
ancient and respectable town, this 
remnant of the old territory is often 
improperly called iSottf/i Bridgewa- 
ter. The Indian name of this town- 
ship was A'^unketcst. Bridgewa- 
ter contains some very good land, 
and is well watered by branches of 
Taunton river. It lies 27 miles S. 
by E. from Boston, 20 S. S. W. 
from Plymouth, and 17 S. from 
Weymouth landing. Population, 
1830, 1,855; 1837, 2,092. This 
town was first settled in 1651, and 
incorporated in 1656. The settle- 
ments were nearly all destroyed by 

the Indians, in 1676. Manufactur 
ing opciations commenced here at 
an early period. Hugh Orr, an 
eminent Scotchman, carried on the 
manuficture of cannon and small 
arms during the revolutionary war. 
The present manufactures consist 
of boots, shoes, hats, paper, anchors, 
bar iron (from native ore,) iroa 
castings, nails, tacks, axes, cotton 
ginns, straw bonnets, &c. The 
value of these manufictures, in 
one year, amounted to about $250,- 
000, and gave employment to 400 

Bridport, Vt. 

Addison co. Bridport was first 
settled in 1768, and organized as a 
town in 1785. It is bounded on the 
W. by lake Champlain, and is op- 
posite to Crown Point, in the state 
of New York. It is 12 miles W. 
by S. from Middlebury, 37 S. from 
Burlington, and 45 S. V/. from 
Montpelier. Population, 1830,1 ,774. 
The surface is nearly level, with 
a loamy soil and sandstone. The 
water is bad to the taste, and con- 
tains Epsom salts. It has a harbor 
on the lake, and the business of the 
town is considerable. Across the 
lake to Crown Point is about 2 
miles. A visit to the ruins of this 
ancient fortress, so renowned in the 
annals of the revolutionary war, and 
elevated 47 feet above the level of 
the lake, is a great treat to the 
contemplative traveller, or the lover 
of splendid scenery. From these 
warlike ruins to those of Ticondero- 
ga, is 15 miles, S. 

Briglitoni, Me. 

This town is situated in the 
county of Somerset and bound- 
ed by Athens on the S. It was in- 
corporated in 1816, and is 120 miles 
N. N. W. from Portland, 50 N. 
from Augusta, and about 30 W. 
from Dover. Population, 1837, 
798. The same year it produced 
5,203 bushels of wheat. 


BrljTiton, Vt. 

A to'.vn in E.scx county. Popi'a- 
tion, IJ.j'J, 105. See JJarnard. Jile. 

ISr'i^lxtoii, r;Ia3S. 

MitlJles?s CO. Ttiii wasforiTif>.r- 
ly a p »rt of Ca abridge, aa.l calieii 
•'Little Ca:ir)ri.l;j;3" unU i'.s incor- 
poration in 13)7. It lies 5 miles 
S. W. I'.-o.n Boston, 13 S. E. from 
Concoivl, 35 E. fi-o:n Worcester, S 
N. by E. from Dxlham, ami 15 xN. 
W. by N. fi'O'n WeyaiO'ith Ian lins;. 
Poj)ilafion, H?:), 972; HJ7, 1,3J7. 
The WBstcra an 1 northern boanda- 
ri'3^ of this town ai-e wa>hoJ by 
Chariot river. The poil i? excel- 
lent aa I hi'^Iily cultivated, and, in 
co:n;non \vi:h all tiio towns in the 
vicinity of {}o-;'on, Brighton has be- the re^ilcnce ot many peo- 
ple of wealth and taste, who po^^ess 
bcautif i! country seats and splen- 
did gardens. Windiip's garden 
i, noted throighout the counti-y fv)r 
its nursery of fruit-tree-; and shrub- 
bery, an I for its grand di-play of 
plants and (lowers of every variety. 
Brighton a the largest cattle market 
in New England. j\Ion lay i^ the 
market day, when seller^ and buyers 
meet in fhi-ong? to traific in live 
stock, both for slaughter and domes- 
tic u Hi. The sales ia 1330 and 1 J37 
are here given. 

13.J!>. A''o. Value. 

Beef cattle, 37,7f)7, $977,;)J'). 

Store do. l?,{)v>, 15l,5G4. 

Sheep, 132,^97, 215,<JIS. 

Swine, 19,a33, 7'),971. 

2;}J,733, $1,419,143. 

1S37. jYj. Value. 

Beef cattle, 32,.<k;4, $1,51)7,872. 

Store do. l;;,2ia, 4S3,4Si). 

Sheep, ll;),2av), 275,515. 

Swiiie, 17,052, 119,3^4. 

17a, 1 32, $2,449,231. 

HampJcn co. This lies It) 

miles E. by N. from Springfield, .50 
.7. N. •••/. frow t'rovidence, H. f., 
and 7:) W. by S. fro.n Uo ton. Pop- 
ulaiioii, 13 i7, 1,599. First settled, 
1714. Incorporated, 1731. Tliiuf 
a line farniing town, with a good 
soil, an 1 i^ well watered by Chick- 
opee and Quinobaugh rivers. The 
articles manufactured in this town, 
in one year, amounted to $l05,2o2. 
The manufactures consisted of cot- 
ton goods, bootti, shoes, leather, 
palm-leaf hats, chairs and cabinet 
ware. The value of wool grown, 
ia one year, was $4,0G7. 

Bristol Coiiaty, 3Iass. 

Taunton and JX^ew Bedford are 
the county town'. 

The .surface of this coun'y is 
somewhat broken, but generally 
level. Its soil in many p u-ts is of 
an inferior quality. There are 12,- 
4<J3 sheep. Area, 600 square miles, 
it has a maritime coast of consid- 
erable extent, and its people are ex- 
ten iively engaged in navigation. 
The tonnage of the two districts 
in this county (New Bedford and 
Digh'on) is 94,133 tons. This coun- 
ty gives rise to many important 
streauH thai fall into Massaciiusetts 
and Narraganset bays, and its wa- 
ter power is abundant in almoU ev- 
ery town. It abounds in excellent 
iron ore, and in rio section of our 
coun'ry, of its extent, arc more ex- 
ten dvc manufactures of that mate- 
rial, for alino>t a!l tiie use, of man. 
Thi^ coun*yis bouuiled N. by Nor- 
folk CO., E. by Plymouth oo., S. E. 
by Buzzard's bay, and W. by the 
counies of Providence, Brinol, 
and Newport, R. I. In king Phi- 
lip's lin\e thi^ part of the country 
was called Pawcunnawcutt. It 
was inco-porated in lo85. Popula- 
lion, in H2!), 40,90^; 1330,49,474; 
and in 1337,58,152: 97 inhabitants 
(o a square mile. Value of the man- 
ufactures, for the vear ending April 
I, 1837, $7,929,479. Pro luct of the 
fi^iery, $2,l8'!,tJ56. The 'l\iun'on 
and Pawtucket are its chief rivers. 


Bristol County, K. I. 

Bristol is ihe chief town. The 
territory of this smallest county in 
New England, except the county 
of Suffolk, in Massachusetts, be- 
longed to the colony of Massachu- 
setts until 1746. It is bounded on 
the N. by Bristol county, Mass., 
E. by Mount Hope bay, and S. and 
W. by the upper waters of Narra- 
ganset bay. Area, 23 square miles. 
The location of this county, on the 
beautiful waters of Mount Hope 
and Narragan set bays, affords it un- 
rivalled facilities for navigation. 
The soil is generally a deep gi-aveliy 
loam and very fertile, producing va- 
rious kinds of grain and fruits ; and 
has about 4,000 sheep. The rocks 
are mostly granite. Bristol county 
affords some of the best scenery in 
New England, and is otherwise in- 
teresting as being, for many years, 
the residence of the brave and cruel 
Philip. Population, 1830, 5,466: 
218 inhabitants to a square mile. 

Bristol, Me. 

Lincoln co. This town is bound- 
ed N. by Nobleborough and Bre- 
men, W. by Damariscotta river, S. 
by the sea, and E. by Muscongus 
bay. " Bristol Mills," so called, is 
the centre of the town, or the chief 
place of business. The town is 
finely watered by the Damariscotta 
and Pemmaquid, and possesses great 
hydraulic power and navigable fa- 
cilities. There are a number of 
islands in the waters around Bristol, 
which make a beautiful appearance; 
some of them are quite large, and 
inhabited. The surface of Bristol 
is not mountainous, but elevated, 
with a good soil. A number of 
square rigged vessels belong to this 
town ; about 20 sail are engaged in 
the coasting trade, and a great num- 
ber of smaller vessels are employ- 
ed in the bank and shore fisheries. 
Bristol lies 15 miles S. E. from Wis- 
casset, CO N. E. from Portland, and 
S2 S. £. from Augusta. Popula- 

tion, 1837, 2,788. This town wag 
incorporated in 1765. There was 
a temporary settlement here as ear- 
ly as 1625. In an old fort, on the 
banks of the Pemmaquid, once call- 
ed William Henry, and afterwards 
Frederick George, built of stone, in 
1692, and taken by the French in 
1696, " are found grave stones of a 
very early date, and streets regu- 
larly laid out and paved, in the vi- 
cinity of the fort. On the side of 
the river, opposite to the fort, tan 
pits have been discovered, the plank 
remaining in a state of preserva- 
tion., in other places colhns have 
been dug up, which bear indubi- 
table evidence of a remote antiqui- 
ty." "A considerable portion of 
the inhabitants of Bristol are of 
Irish extraction, a small part of 
Scotch, a few of German and Eng- 
lish. The predominant character- 
istics of the inhabitants are frank- 
ness and hospitality, a generous lib- 
erality of sentiment, and an ardent 
love of liberty and independence. 
There are few of that class of men 
who are esteemed opulent. The 
most wealthy are those who labor 
daily with their hands, and raise by 
their own individual exertions tho 
bread they consume. On the other 
hand, the population of the miser- 
ably poor is very small, and the 
town is burthened with but few 


Bristol was the resi- 

dence of Commodore Samuel Tuck- 
er, distinguished for his bravery in 
the revolutionary war. 

Bristol, IV. H. 

Bristol, in the S. E. part of Graf- 
ton county, is bounded N. by Bridge- 
water, E. by Peniigewasset river, 
and Hill. It is'lG miles S.from 
Plymouth, and .30 N. from Concord. 
The land is hilly, but has, in gen- 
eral, a good soil. Newfound pond, 
about 6 miles in length and from 
2 to 3 miles in width, lies in this 
town and in Hebron. Its waters 
arc discharged through Newfound 
river, a stream about 2 miles long 


and 100 feet wide, into Pemigcwas- 
set river. At the confluence of 
these rivers is a pleasant village, 
a cotton factory, and a number of 
valuable mill seats. Bri-itol was 
taken from Bridgewater and New 
Chester, and incorporated .June 24, 
IS 19. The lir:it settlement was 
made in 1770. Population, in 1830, 

Bristol, Vt. 

Addison co. It is 25 miles S. W. 
from Montpclier, UN. from Mid- 
dlebury, and 25 S. E. from Burling- 
ton. The town is mountainous; 
some parts of it, about the " Hog's 
Back" and " South Mountain," are 
unfit for cultivation. On the west 
side of the mountains is some fine 
land. About 2,200 sheep are kept 
here. Bristol is watered by New 
Haven river, Baldwin and Lewis' 
creek, and some beautiful natural 
ponds. Here is a good water pow- 
er, and some manufactures. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 1,247. 

Bristol, R. I. 

This is the chief town of Bristol 
county; the Pocanocket of the In- 
dians. It is delightfully situated 
on the waters of Narraganset and 
Mount Hope bays, in lat. 41"^ 39' 
53" N., Ion. 7F 19' W. It lies 15 
miles S. from Providence, 15 N. 
from Newport, and .56 S. S. W. 
from Boston. Its navigable advan- 
tages are unrivalled. The com- 
merce of this place is not so exten- 
sive as formerly; still there is con- 
siderable maritime trade. It has 
IS vessels engaged in the whale 
fishery, 15 or 20 sail in the mer- 
chant service, and a lara;e number 
in the coasting trade. The amount 
of tonnage in this district in 1837, 
was 16,627 tons. Much of the cap- 
ital of this town is employed in man- 
ufacturing concerns at other places. 
The town comprises an area of 
about 12 square miles, includins' 
Mount Hope, once the residence of 
the celebrated king Philip. The 

soil is a deep, gravelly loam, very 
fertile and productive. Great quan- 
tities of onions are produced here; 
the cultivation of which gives a 
lucrative employment to a great 
number of the inhabitants. Popu- 
lation, in 1830, 3,054. 

Mount Hope lies about 2 miles 
N, E. of the court house. It is of 
a conical form, and though not more 
than 300 feet above tide water, pre- 
sents a view of great interest and 

Mount Hope hay is an arm of 
Narraganset bay : it extends N. E. 
from Bristol to Fall river and Som- 
erset, and receives the waters of 
Taunton river. 

Bristol, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town was ta- 
ken from Farming-ton in 1735. It 
is watered by some streams which 
flow into Farmington river, and 
there are found witliin its limits 
iron and copper ores, and granite. 
The copper mine is very rich and 
productive, and will probably be- 
come a source of great wealth. 
" The surface of the town is une- 
ven and hilly, and the soil i > a grav- 
elly loam, and considerably fertile, 
producing all kinds of grain, grass 
and fruit, common to this region. 
This is a manulacturing town, and 
the inhabitants are distinguished 
for their enterprize and industry. 
There are at present sixteen clock 
factories, in which nearly 100,000 
brass and wooden clocks have been 
manufactured in a single year. 
The manufacture of buttons U also 
carried on in this place." Bristol 
is 16 miles W. by S. from Hartford, 
and 28 N. from New Haven. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,707; 1837, about 

Brookfield, N. II. 

Strafford co. It is 45 miles from 
Concord, and 90 from Boston; was 
oricinally a part of Middleton, from 
which it was separated and incor- 
porated Dec. 30, 1794. The soil is 


good. Cool-:'s pond is the source 
of the W. branch of Salmon-Fall 
river. There is also another small 
pond, coverins; about 15 acres, di- 
rectly on the top of ]\Ioo?e moun- 
tain, winch has always about the 
same quanUty of water, and a va- 
riety of tish in it. Population, in 
1830, 679. 

Brooklicld, Vt. 

Orange co. On the high lands 
between Onion and White rivers ; 
40 miles N. by W. from Windsor, 
16 S. from Montpelier, and bounded 
by Chelsea on the S. E. It is wa- 
tered by a number of ponds and 
springs, but has no important mill 
privileges. This is a line grazing 
town, and feeds about 10,000 sheep. 
The products of the dairy are con- 
siderable. Here are some manu- 
facturer, and an inexhaustible bed 
of marl, from which lime is made. 
The town was first settled in 1779, 
and organized in 1731. Population, 
1830, 1,677. 

Brooltiicld, Mass. 

Worcester co. The Indian Qua- 
boat^, a large, f;irtile and beautiful 
township, in two parishes, well wa- 
tered by several large ponds, which 
give rise to a principal branch of 
Chickopee river. For about forty 
years after its first settlement, in 
1060, this town suffered exceeding- 
ly by the Indian^. The ponds af- 
ford fine fish of various kinds, and 
in this town is a mineral spring of 
some celcbrily. It lies 58 miles 
W. from ]}o;ion, 18 W. from Wor- 
cesfcr, and 7 F. frotn Ware. In- 
corporated, 1673. Pop'ilation, 1830, 
2,342; 1837,2,514. The agricul- 
tural pro'!uct> of this town are but- 
ter, cheese, wool, and fine beef cat- 
tle. The manufactures con-;ist of 
boots. s!ioc<:, leath-:'r, iron castings, 
plough', chairs, cabinet ware, palm- 
leal hat'5, silver plate, shoe ma- 
ker> rolling and shingle machines, 
sleighs, carp'^nters' hammers, coach 
wrenches, sev/ing silli, and wooden 

legs. These manufactures, for the 
year ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $248,502, exclusive of the 

Brookfield, Ct. 

Fairfield co. This town lies 33 
miles S. W. fi-om New Haven, 24 
N. by W. from Fairfield, and 6 N. 
by E. from Danbury. It was taken 
f/om New Milford, Danbury, and 
Newtown, in 1788, and named af- 
ter the first minister, Rev. Thomas 
Brooks, who was ordained when 
the church was organized, in 1758. 
The surface of the town is some- 
what broken, but the soil is strong, 
and well adapted to the culture 
of grain. The rocks in many parts 
of the town are limestone, and af- 
ford marble. The N. E. boundary 
is washed by the Housatonick riv- 
er, over which is a bridge to Mil- 
ford ; and Still river passes nearly 
through its centre. Fish, particu- 
larly shad, are taken in its waters. 
Population, 1830, 1,261. 

Brookliue, X. H. 

Hillsborough co. On the S. line 
of the state. It is 7 miles from Am- 
herst, 35 from Concord, and 43 from 
Boston. Ni::itissit is the only river 
in Brookline. It rises in the N. E. 
part of Mason ; passes through the 
S. part of Milford into Brookline, 
pursuing a S. E. course to Potanipo 
pond. From the pond it runs S. E. 
to Hollis, passing through the S. W. 
corner of that town into Pcj)perell, 
where it enip'iesinfo Nasliua river. 
Potanipo, or Tanapus pond, is situ- 
ated near the meeting house. It is 
about a mile long and one third of a 
mile wide. Brookline formerly be- 
longed to Massachusetts. It was 
incorporated March 30, 1769, by 
the name of Raby. In Nov. 1798, 
the name was altered by an act of 
the legislature to Brookline. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 627. 

Brookline, Vt. 

Windham co. Set off from Put- 


ney and Athene in 179 i. The east- 
erly part of the town in elevated 
and unpioJuclive. A deep valley 
runs through the town, in which 
ii some good land. Its principal 
stream is Grassy brook, a branch of 
West river. An extensive bed of 
porcelain clay is found here. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 376. 3.5 miles S. 
from Windsor, 10 N. E. from New- 
fane, and 18 N. from Brattlebo- 

Brookliue, Mass* 

Norfolk CO. This delightful town 
is connected with Boston by the 
mill -dam across Charles river bay ; 
one of the most beautiful and ex- 
pensive avenues leading to the city. 
It is distant from Boston about 5 
miles S. W,, and from Dedham 5 
miles N.N.E. Incorporated, 1705. 
Population, 1S37, 1,083. This town 
is remarkable for its varied surface, 
high state of cultivation, elegant 
country seats and gardens, excel- 
lent roads, and for its rich and pic- 
turesque scenery. Many gentle- 
men of taste and fortune make this 
their residence. 

Brool£lyxi, Ct. 

Shire town of V/indham co. This 
town is finely watered by Quinne- 
baug river, and Blackwell's stream. 
It was taken from Pomfret and Can- 
terbury in 1786. The land is une- 
ven, and somewhat stony; but the 
soil is strong, producing in abund- 
ance all llie varieties common to 
a fertile grazing country. This 
town lies 30 miles E. from Hart- 
ford, 44 W, from Providence, R. I., 
and about 20 N. by E. from Nor- 
wich. Population, 1830, 1,451. — 
Good landscape ■ are obtained from 
the Gray Mare and Tetnuck hills. 
Here is a cave called the Lion''s 
Den, and a mineral spring of some 
notoriety. The celebrated hero, 
General Israel Putnam, lived many 
years and died in this town. He 
was born at Salem, Mass., Jan. 7, 
1718. He died May 29, 1790. 

Speaking of this brave man, Dr. 
Dwight observes, " During the gay- 
est and most thoughtless period of 
his life, he regarded religion with 
profound reverence, and read the 
scriptures with the greatest atten- 

Brooks, Me. 

Waldo CO. This town is 11 milea 
N. N. W. from Belfast, and 45 N. 
E. from Augusta. It produced in 
1837,3,475 bushels of wheat. From 
Paasaggassawakeag pond issues a 
stream of the same name, which 
passes into Belfast bay. First set- 
tled, 1798. Incorporated, 1816. 
Population, 1837, 800. 

Brooksville, Me. 

Hancock co. On the E. side of 
Penobscot bay, opposite to Islesbo- 
rough and Castine. It is bounded 
on the N. by an arm of that bay, 
and includes cape Rosico. This 
town is well located for navigation 
and the fisl^eries. It lies 80 miles E. 
from Augusta, and about 25 S. E. 
from Ellsworth. Population, 1837, 
1,192. Incorporated, 1817. 

BrowuJield, Me. 

Oxford CO. Bounded F. by Sacc 
river, and contains several ponds 
and streams; 81 miles S. E. from 
Augusta, and 30 S. W. from Paris. 
Incorporated, 1802. Population, 
1837, 1,178. 

BroAvuington, Vt. 

Orleans co. Willoughby river, a 
branch of Barton river, furnishes 
this town with a good mill stream. 
It lies 45 miles N. N. E. from Mont- 
pelier, and 57 N. E. from Burling- 
ton. Chartered, 1790. Population, 
1830, 412. It is divided from Iras- 
burg, on the W., by Barton river. 
In this town are about 1,500 sheep. 

BroAViiville, Me. 

Piscataquis co. Bounded on the 
N. and E. by Pleasant river, S. by 
Williamsburgh, and W. by Vaug- 


ban. Incorporated, 1S24. Popu- 
lation, 1337, 532. It lies about 20 
mile? N. from Dover, 97 N. N. E. 
from Au2;u-ta, and 171 N. N. E. 
from Portland. This is a good town- 
ship of Ian I, and produced, in 1837, 
3,252 bushels of wheat. 

BrunsAvick, Me« 

Cumberland co. This town is on 
the S. side of Androscoggin liver, 
and connected with Top>ham by a 
substantial bridge. It is 27 miles N. 
E. from Portland, 30 S. of Augusta, 
and 8 W. from Bath. Population, in 
1830,3,747; and in 1837, 4,13G. It 
lies at the head of the tide waters, 
where vessels of 400 tons are built. 
Vast quantities of timber and logs 
descend the Androscoggin to this 
place, and lumber of all kinds is 
sent to Bath in gondolas, or trans- 
ported by land to the sea board. A 
rail -road, of about 4 miles in length, 
is contemplated, for the transporta- 
tion of lumber. There are 30 board 
saw mills at this place, exclusive of 
tho>e in Topsham. Two cotton and 
woolen factories were erected here ; 
but they were both burnt in 1824. 
Another factory was built in 1834, 
calculated for 4,000 spindles. It is 
of stone, five stories high, and 174 
by 45 feet. Other factories are con- 
templated. This place, po.vsessing 
such an exhaustless water power, 
and situated on navigable waters, 
and on a large and beautiful river, 
extending 140 miles into the heart 
of a fertile and healthy country, 
cannot fail of very soon becoming 
one of our largest manufacturing- 

Brunswick was first settled in 
1627, and incorporated in 1739. It 
has been the scene of much savage 
aggression. See Register. 

Bruns'ivick, Vt> 

Essex CO. This town was first 
settled in 1730. Population, 1830, 
160. It lies on the W. side of 
Connecticut river, and has some 
excellent mill sites on the waters 

of Nulhegan river, and Wheeler 
and Paul's streams. There are 
some beautiful ponds in town, and 
a mineral spring said to contain me* 
dicinal virtues. It is 55 miles N. E. 
from Montpelier, 14 N. from Guild- 
hall, and opposite to Stratford, 
N. H. 

Buckiield, Me. 

Oxford CO. This town is finely 
watered by a branch of Androscog- 
gin river. It is bounded on the W. 
by Paris, and is 34 miles W. by S. 
from Augusta, and 50 N. by W. 
from Portland. Population, 1837, 
1,618. The soil of this town is very 
good. Among its agricultural pro- 
ductsin 1837, it yielded 5,613 bush- 
els of wheat. 

Buckland, Mass. 

Franklin co. This is a pleasant 
town and is separated from Charle* 
mont by Deerlicld river. It lies 
102 miles W. by N. from Boston, 
10 W. from Greenfield, and 20 E. 
S. E. from Adams. Incorporated, 
1779. Population, 1837, 1,051.— 
This is a good farming town, and 
produces a considerable quantity of 

Bucksport, Me. 

Hancock co. This town lies on 
the E. side of Penobscot river, 15 
miles below Bangor, 61 N. E. by 
E. from Augusta, and about 18 W. 
by N. from Ellsworth. It has a 
fine harbor for vessels of the larg- 
est class, and which is seldom ob- 
structed by ice. The soil is good, 
and the town is watered by a num- 
ber of ponds and streams. Consid- 
erable shipping belong to this place, 
and the trade is quite extensive, 
particularly in the lumber business. 
It has some manufactures. From 
1792 to 1816, Bucksport was called 
Buckstown. Ths m a very beauti- 
ful town, elevated, healthy, and 
flourishing. It is situated just 
above the head of Orphan's islaud, 


on which a fort is to be erected. 
Population, 1S3I), 2,237; 1837,2,825. 

Burke, Vt. 

Caledonia CO. A mountain, 3,500 
feet in height, divides this town 
from Victory, on the E. Branches 
of Passumpsic river pass through it, 
and afford a good water power. 
This is a place of some manufac- 
tures, particularly of oil stones. This 
stone (novaculite) is found on an 
island in Memphremagog lake. — 
The stones are brought in their 
rough state, and their quality is 
said to equal those from Turkey. 
The soil of the town is good, and 
abounds with hard-wood and ever- 
greens. A large number of sheep 
are kept here. Burke was first set- 
tled in 1780. Population, 1830, 
866. It lies 40 miles N. E. from 
Montpelier, and 19 N. E. from Dan- 

Burlington, Me. 

Penobscot co. The number of 
inhabitants in this town in 1S37, 
was 277. They produced the same 
year 2,106 bushels of wheat. See 
Barnard, Me. 

Burlington, Vt. 

This is the chief town in the 
county of Chittenden. It is de- 
lightfully situated upon the tongue 
of land formed by the confluence 
of the Winoo^ki,or Onion river, with 
lake Champlain. This is the most 
important town in Vermont. It 
lies in lat. 44° 27' N. and in Ion. 
73° 15' W. It is 38 miles W. N. 
W. from Montpelier, 62 S. by E. 
from St. Johns, L. C, 80 S. S. E. 
from Montreal, 70 N. from White- 
hall, 22 S. E. from Plattsburgh, 10 
miles across the lake to Port Kent, 
N. Y. and 440 from Washington. 

Although some beginnings were 
made before that event, no perma- 
nent settlement was effected in this 
township till about the close of the 
revolution in 1783. The town was 
organized by the election of town 

officers about the year 1786. The 
surface of the township is agreea- 
bly diversified, and is so much ele- 
vated above the lake that the air is 
pure and wholesome. 

This town is not surpassed in 
beauty of location by any one in 
New England. It lies on the east 
shore of Burlington bay, and occu- 
pies a gentle declivity, descending 
towards the west and terminated by 
the waters of the lake. The prin- 
cipal streets, running east and west 
are one mile in length, and these 
are intersected at right angles by 
streets running north and south, 
and cutting the whole village into 
regular squares. A large share of 
the business on lake Champlain 
centres at this place, and the town 
is rapidly increasing in wealth and 
consequence. There are regular 
daily lines of steam-boats between 
this place and Whitehall, between 
this and St. Johns and between this 
and Plattsburgh, besides numerous 
arrivals of irregular boats, sloops, 
&.C. Three extensive whai-ves, 
with store-houses, have been con- 
structed and most of the merchan- 
dize designed for the north-eastern 
section of Vermont is landed here. 
The trade is principally with the 
city of New York, although Mont- 
real and Troy have a share. For 
the safety of the navigation, a light- 
house has been erected on Juniper 
island, at the entrance of Burling- 
ton bay, and for the security of the 
harbor, a breakwater has been com- 
menced here at the expense of the 
general t^overnment. There are 
four lines of mail stages which ar- 
rive and depart daily, bc-ides three 
or four others which come in and 
go out twice or thrice a week. 

The public buildings are six 
churches, the University of Ver- 
mont, the Episcopal Institute, Iho 
court house, two banks, the Acad- 
emy and two female seminaries. 
The Universi'y consists of four 
spacious edifices, located upon the 
summit at the eastern extremity of 


the village, more than 250 feet 
above the level of the lake, and com- 
mands one of the finest pro-pects 
in the United States. The village, 
the lake, with its bays and islands 
— its steam-boats and sloops, — the 
Winooski river, dashing throvigh 
frightful chasms and then winding 
among the beautiful meadows, and 
the distant and lofty mountains 
which form the great outline, 
render the view from the dome of 
the University one of the most va- 
riegated and interesting to be met 
with in our country. 

As a part of Burlington may be 
mentioned the village called "Win- 
ooski City." It is situated on both 
sides of the Winooski river, partly 
in Burlington and partly in Col- 
chester, and is one mile from the 
village of Burlington. The water 
power here is sufficient for propel- 
ling almost any amount of machine- 
ry, and is beginning to be employed 
to some purpose. Besides two saw 
mills, a large grist mill, a machine 
shop and numerous smaller work?, 
there is a large satinet factory and 
an extensive block factory now in 
successful operation, and a woolen 
factory of the first class is to com- 
mence running the present season. 
A substantial covered bridge con- 
nects the two sides of the river ; a 
handsome church, and several stores 
have been erected, and 'Winooski 
City' bids fair to become a place of 
business and importance. See Reg- 
is ter. 

Burlington, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This town is wa- 
tered by Vine brook, a branch of 
the Shawsheen river. It lies 11 
miles S. E. from Lowell, 10 N. E. 
from Concord, and 13 N. AV. by N. 
from Bo>ton. Population, 1837, 
522. Some shoes are made here. 
The soil is light, and suitable for 
the growth of rye and hops. 

Burlington, Ct. 

Hartford co. An agricultural 

township, with a soil of gravelly 
loam, pleasantly diversified by hills 
and vales, 17 miles W. from Hart- 
ford, and 36 N. from New Haven. 
Population, 1830, 1,301. It is water 
ed by Farmington river, and was tak- 
en from Bristol in 1806. This town 
has some manufactures, and has 
been noted for the equality of its 
inhabitants, in regard to property. 

Eiirnliam, Me. 

Waldo CO. It lies 37 miles N. 
E. from Augusta, and about 30 N. 
W. from Belfast. It is bounded S. 
W. by Sebasticook river, and E. by 
Troy. Incorporated, 1824. Popu- 
lation, 1837, C02. It produced 
2,297 bushels of wheat in 1837. 

Biirnliam's River, N. H. 

See Lyman, JV*. //. 

Burnt Coat Island, Me. 

Hancock co. A large island, sur- 
rounded by others of a smaller 
size, lying off Blue Hill bay, E. by 
S. from Deer island about 13 miles, 
and about 6 miles S. by W. from 
the town of ^Mount Desert. It has 
a light-house and good harbors, and 
is a fine location for the shore fish- 

Burrilvillc, R. I. 

Providence co. This town was 
taken from Gloucester in 1806. It 
is finely watered by Branch river, 
with many branches ; one branch 
of which rises in Allum pond, part- 
ly in this town and partly in Doug- 
las, Mass. This river is an im- 
portant tributary to the Blackstone. 
Manufacturing villages are scatter- 
ed over this large town in almost 
every direction, and a vast amount 
of manufactures of various kinds is 
annually produced. The face of 
the town is rough, but the soil is 
adapted to grazing, and produces 
large quantities of beef, pork, but- 
ter, cheese, &c. Herring and Ed- 
dy's ponds are pleasant sheets of 
water. Burrilviile lies 24 milea 


N. W. from Providence, and 27 S. 
by E. from Worcester. Population, 
1830, 2,19o. 

Buxton, Me. 

York CO. This town is bounded 
on the S. W. by Saco river. At 
this place the Saco falls about SO 
feet, and produces a great hydrau- 
lic power, which is partly improv- 
ed for manufactuiino; establish- 
ments. It lies 8 miles N. W. from 
Saco, 16 N. E. from Alfred, 18 W. 
from Portland, and 71 S. W. from 
Augusta. Incorporated, 1772. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,S3S. 

Buzzard's Bay, Mass. 

This bay lies N. W. from Dukes 
county, W. from Barnstable county, 
and S. by E. from the counties of 
Plymouth and Bri^:tol. The length 
of the bay is about 30 miles from 
N. E. to S. W., and its average 
breadth about 7 miles. From the 
head of this bay, across Cape Cod 
to Massachusetts bay, (the place 
proposed for a canal,) is 5 miles. 

Byiield, Mass. 

See JVeiohury. 

Byxam River. 

See Greenwich, Ct. 

Byron, Mc. 
Oxford CO. See Barnard, Me. 

Calbot, Vt. 

Caledonia co. On the height of 
land between Onion and Connecti- 
cut rivers. " The Plain" is delight- 
fully situated, having the Green 
and White mountains in prospect. 
Several branches of the Onion riv- 
er water this town, and afford it 
some water power. Here is Jo 
and Molly's pond, and a sulphur 
spring. The surface is broken and 
hard, but good for sheep, of which 
about 6,000 are reared. The town 
was first settled in 1735. The first 
females who came here came on 
snow-shoes. This is the birth place 
of Zcrah Colhurn, the celebrated 

mathematician. Cabot lies 12 miles 
N. E. from Montpelier, and bound- 
ed E. by Danville. Population, 
1830, 1,304. 

Calais, Me. 

Washington co. At the head of 
navigation on the Schoodic, or St. 
Croix river, nearly opposite to St. 
Andrews, N. B. The Uj)per vil- 
lage, or Mill Town, is about two 
miles from tide water. At the 
Lower village, below the falls, is a 
bridge to the British side. Calais 
lies 28 miles above Eastport, about 
35 N. by E, from Machias, and 204 
E. N. E. from Augusta. This is a 
great mart for lumber of all kinds. 
About 40 saw mills and other ma- 
chinery are in operation by the 
great fall of the river. The tide 
rises here about 20 feet, and large 
vessels ascend to the lower village. 
A rail-road is in operation between 
the two villages; it is to extend to 
Baring. Incorporated, 1809. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,686; 1837, 3,027, 

Calais, Vt. 

Washington co. Abijah Whee- 
lock and others first settled this 
town in 17S7. It lies 36 miles E. 
by S. from Burlington, and 12 N. E. 
from Montpelier. Population, 1830, 
1,539. Calais has a number of 
streams, branches of Onion river, 
and several fine ponds. Two thou- 
sand pounds of trout have been tak- 
en in a season. There is some man- 
ufactuiing carried on in the town, 
and it feeds about 6,000 sheep. 

Cfiledouia County, Vt. 

Danville is the chief town. — 
Bounded E. by Connecticut river 
and Essex county ; S. by Orange 
county ; W. by Washington coun- 
ty, and N. by the county of Orleans. 
It contains about 700 square miles. 
Population, 1820, 16,669 ; 1830, 
19,943. Inhabitants to a square 
mile, 28. Incorporated, 1792, Tho 
eastern range of the Green moun- 
tains extends through the westera 


part of the county. It is watered 
by many fine sti-eams, but the Con- 
necticut and Passumpsic are its 
chief rivers. A large part of the 
county is hi2,h and good land ; that 
along the rivers is excellent. It 
produces wheat and other grain, 
beef cattle, horses, and about 60,- 
000 sheep. There are some sul- 
phur springs in this county ; lime- 
stone and granite are abundant. 

Cambridge, Me. 

Somerset co. In the year 1837 
the town had a population of 431, 
and raised, the same year, 2,890 
bushels of wheat. See Barnard, 

Cambridge, N. H., 

Coos CO., is an uninhabited town- 
ship, of 23,160 acres, granted May 
19, 1773, to Nathaniel Rogers and 
others. It is bounded N. by the 
township of Errol and Umbagog 
lake, E. by the state of Maine, S. 
by Success and Milan, and W. by 
Dummer. This tract has an une- 
ven surface, but might be advanta- 
geously cultivated. Several streams 
rise here, and fall into the Ameris- 
coggin, which passes through the 
N. W. part of the town. 

Cambridge, Vt. 

Lamoille co. It lies 30 miles N. 
W. from Montpelier, and about 16 
W. from Hydepark. Population, 
1830, 1,613. First settled, 17S3. 
The Lamoille and other streams 
afford this town a good water pow- 
er. There is some good intervale 
in the town, but the land is rough, 
and chiefly valuable for grazing: 
it feeds about 7,000 sheep. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This town may 
be divided into three parts : Old 
Cambridge, the scat of the most 
ancient and best endowed coIIclo, 
in the LTnited Slates, is 3 miles fiom 
West Boston bridge, which divides 
Cambridge from Boston. Catn- 

bridge-Port is a compact, flourish- 
ing village, about midway between 
the University and the bridge. East 
Cambridge is of newer growth, and 
is a very flourishing place. It is 
the seat of the county courts, and 
is immediately connected with Bos- 
ton by Canal bridge and the viaduct 
of the Boston and Lowell rail-road, 
over Charles river. This town was 
incorporated by the name of New- 
ton in 1630. It took the name of 
Cambridge in 1633. The first print- 
ing press in America was establish- 
ed here, by Stephen Day, in 1639. 
The first work printed was the 
" Freeman's Oath," In this town 
are various and extensive manu- 
factories. They consist of glass, 
hats, leather, boots and shoes, shoe 
blacking, tin ware, chairs and cabi- 
net ware, rail-road cars, chaises, 
coaches, and other carriages ; iron 
axletrees, harnesses, organs, car- 
penters' tools, clothing, pumps and 
blocks, cigars, brass and britannia 
ware, bricks, ropes and twine, soap, 
brushes, varnish, confectionary, 
stamped and stained paper, stoves, 
sheet iron, glue, pocket books, and 
medicine. The value of these man- 
ufactures the year cndins; April 1, 
1837, amounted to .$930,066. The 
amount of glass, which is consid- 
ered of admirable quality, exceed- 
ed $450,000. Cambridge is very 
pleasant, although not so elevated 
as some of the neighboring towns. 
Besides the buildings of tlie Uni- 
versity, it contains the United 
States' arsenal, other handsome pub- 
lic buildings, and many very ele- 
gant private residences. Pop. 1830, 
1,072 ; 1837, 7,631, See Register. 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, lies 
about a mile W, of the Univer- 
sity, in the towns of Cambridge and 
Watertown, It contains about 100 
acres of land, and is laid out with 
gravelled walks, and planted and 
embellished with all the varieties 
of trees, shrubbery, and flowers. 
Lots of ground, of 300 square feet, 


at suitable distances along; the I 
windinn; passages, are appropriated 
as family burial places, with the 
perpetual right to purchasers of 
enclosing, decorating, and using 
them for that purpose. Numerous 
monuments of exquisite workman- 
ship are already erected, which 
add, if possible, lo the melancholy 
grandeur of the scene. It is an en- 
chanting spot ; — a magnificent rest- 
ing place of the dead. This ceme- 
tery was dedicated Sept. 24, 1831. 

We cannot deny ourselves the 
gratiilcation of quoting a few lines 
from the descriptive part of Judge 
Story^s admirable address on that 

" A rural cemetery seems to com- 
bine in itself all the advantages 
which can be proposed to gratify 
human feelings, or tranquilize hij- 
man fears; to secure the best re- 
ligious influences, and to cherish 
all those associations which cast a 
cheerful light over the darkness of 
the grave. 

" And what spot can be more ap- 
propriate than this, for such a pur- 
pose ? Nature seems to point it out 
with significant energy, as the fa- 
vorite retirement for the dead. — 
There are around us all the varied 
features of her beauty and gran- 
deur — the forest-crowned height ; 
the abrupt acclivity ; the sheltered 
valley; the deep glen; the grassy 
glade, and the silent grove. Here 
are the lofty oak, the beech, that 
* wreaths its old fantastic roots so 
high,' the rustling pine, and the 
drooping willovv, — the tree, that 
sheds its pale leaves with every 
autumn, a (it emblem of our own 
transitory bloom ; and (he ever- 
green, with it< perennial shoots, in- 
structing us, that ' the wintry blast 
of death kills not (he buds of vir- 
tue.' Here is the thick shrubbery, 
to protect and conceal the new- 
made grave ; and there is the wild- 
flower creeping along the narrow 
path, and planting its seeds in the 
upturned earth. All around us 

there breaths a solemn calm, as if 
we were in the bosom of a wilder- 
ness, broken only by the breeze aa 
it murmurs through the tops of the 
forest, or by the notes of the warb- 
ler, pouring forth his matin or his 
evening song. 

" Ascend but a few steps, and 
what a change of scenery to sur- 
prise and delight us. Vie seem, as 
it were, in an instant, to pass from 
the confines of death to the bright 
and balmy regions of life. Below U3 
dows (he winding Charles, wi(h its 
rippling cun-ent, like the stream of 
time hastening to the ocean of eter- 
nity. In the distance, the city, — 
at once the object of our admiration 
and our love, — rears its proud emi- 
nences, its glittering spires, its lofty 
towers, its graceful mansions, its 
curling smoke, its crowded haunts 
of business and pleasure, which 
speak to the eye, and jet leave a 
noiseless loneliness on the ear. — 
Again we turn, and the walls of 
our venerable University rise be- 
fore us, with many a i-ecollection 
of happy days passed (here in the 
interchange of study and friend- 
ship, and many a gra(eful (bought 
of the affluence of its learning, 
which has adorned and nouiished 
the literature of our country. — 
Again we turn, and the cultivated 
farm, the neat cottage, the village 
church, the spaikling lake, the rich 
valley, and (he distant hills, are be- 
fore us through opening vistas ; and 
we breathe amidst the fresh and 
varied labors of n;an. 

"There is, therefcre. within our 
reach, every variety of natural and 
artilicia! scenery, which is fitted (o 
avv'aken en.otionsof (he hi2hes(and 
nios( affecting character. Vi'e stand, 
as it were, upon the borders of two 
worlds ; and as the mood of our 
minds may be, we may ga(her les- 
sons of profound wisdom by con- 
trasting the one with (he other, or 
indulge in (he dreams of hope and 
ambition, or solace our hearts by 
melancholy meditations." 


Camden, Me. 

"Waldo CO. This sea-port is fine- 
ly located for navigation, with two 
beautiful harbors, on the W. side of 
Penobscot bay, 10 miles N. from 
Thomaston, 17 S. from Belfast, and 
40 E. S. E. from Au2;usta. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 2,991. this place has 
some navigation engaged in the 
coasting trade and fisheries, and 
considerable ship building is carri- 
ed on ; but the pi-incipal business 
is the manufacture of lime from in- 
exhaustible quarries of marble, or 
lime stone. About 200,000 casks 
of lime is annually shipped from 
this place to all parts of the United 
States. This lime is noted for mak- 
ing a cement of a superior quality. 
The Megunticook river waters a 
part of the town, and gives it a 
great water power, which might 
be well applied to manufacturing 
purposes. From a mountain in the 
rear of the town a beautiful pros- 
pect is presented of Penobscot bay 
and its numerous islands. Camden 
is a pleasant retreat in summer 

Camel's Bade Mountain, Vt* 

This most elevated summit of the 
Green mountains lies in Hunting- 
ton, 17 miles W. from Montpelier, 
25 N. E. from Middlebury, and 20 
S. E. from Burlington. It is 4,188 
feet above the sea. 

Campion, IV. H., 

Grafton co., Is bounded N. by 
Thornton, E. by Sandwich, S. by 
Holderness and Plymouth, W. by 
Rumney; is 50 jniles from Con- 
cord, and 75 from Poitsmouth. Its 
surface is broken and uneven, 
abounding with rocky ledges, and 
having several mountainous tracts. 
Besides Pemigewasset river, run- 
ning N. and S. through neai-ly the 
centre of the town, it is watered by 
Mad and Beebe's rivers, which fail 
into the Pemigewasset on the E., 
and by West Branch river and Bog 

brook on the W. The land in the 
valleys is generally good, and there 
is some good intervale. The high 
land is good for grazing. The for- 
est trees are mostly deciduous. No 
white oak or pitch pine is found N. 
of the centre of the town. Iron 
ore of an inferior quality is found 
in some places. The towns of 
Campton and Rumney were both 
granted in Oct. 1761, to Capt. Jabez 
Spencer, of East Haddam. Conn., 
but he dying before a settlement 
was effected, his heirs, in conjunc- 
tion with others, obtained a new 
charter, Jan. 5, 1767. The first 
settlement was made in 1765, by 
two families of the names of Fox 
and Taylor. The proprietors held 
their first meeting Nov. 2, 1769, 
and the inhabitants theirs, Dec. 16, 
1771. From the circumstance of 
the first proprietors building a camp 
when they went to survey Camp- 
ton and Rumney, this town derives 
its name. In the revolutionary 
war, this town, though in its infan- 
cy, furnished nine or ten soldiers, 
five of vvhom died in the service, 
and three were living in 1322. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 1,318. 

Canaan, Me. 

Somerset co. This town was first 
settled in 1774, and incorporated in 
1788. It formerly embraced the 
territory of Skowhegan and Bloom- 
field. It is a good farming town, 
and produced, in 1837, 5,444 bushels 
of wheat. It lies on the east side 
of Kennebec river, 13 miles E. from 
Norridgewock, and 34 N. from Au- 
gusta. Population, 1837, 1,347. 

Canaan, N. H. 

Grafton co. Bounded N, by 
Dame's gore, which separates it 
from Dorchester, E. by Orange, S. 
by Enfield, and W. by Hanover, 
and is situated on the height of land 
between the rivers Connecticut and 
Merrimack. It is 16 miles E. from 
Dartmouth college, 30 S. E. from 
Haverhill, 25 S. W. from Plymouth, 


and 40 N. W. from Concord. The 
only stream of consequence is the 
Mascomy, which rises in the N.VV. 
part of Dorche-::.:;-, and after a me- 
andering course of 8 or 10 miles, 
falls into Mascomy pond in Enfield. 
Indian stream river rises in the S. 
E. corner of Dorchester, and j-un- 
ning about S miles, mingles with 
the waters of ivlascoray, near the 
centre of the town. Heart pond, 
so called from its figure, i^ situated 
in the centre of the town, and upon 
a swell of land so elevated that 
at a distance it presents the appear- 
ance of a sheet of water on a hill. 
It is about 500 rods in length and 
200 in width, and tlie only natural 
curiosity of any noto, is the mound, 
or bank of earth, which nearly sur- 
rounds this pond. It is fjom 4 to 
5 feet high, and from its uniform 
height and regular construction 
would seem to be the work of art; 
but from frequent annual observa- 
tion, it is found to have been pro- 
duced by the drifting of the ice 
when breaking up in the spring. 
Besides this, there are Goose, 
Clark's, Mud and Bear ponds. The 
land is not so broken as in some of 
the adjoining towns. There is but 
little not capable of cultivation. 
The soil is tolerabl}'' fertile, and 
produces wheat, rj^e, corn, flax, &.c. 
Canaan was giantcd by charter, 
July 9, 17'31, to 62 persons, all of 
whom except ten belonged to Con- 
necticut. It derived its name from 
Canaan in that state. The first per- 
manent settlement was made in the 
winter, in 1766 or 7, by John Sco- 
field, who conveyed what effects 
he possessed the distance of 14 miles 
over a crust of snow upon a hand- 
sled. Among others of the first 
settlers, were George Harris, Tho- 
mas Miner, Joshua Hariis, and 
Samuel Jones. The first proprie- 
tors' meeting was held July 19, 
1768. Population, in 1830, 1J423. 

Cauaan, Vt. 

Essex CO. Bounded N. by Can- 


ai'a, and E. by Stewartstown, N. 
H.; 31 miles N. fr^m Guildhall, 
and 112 N. E. from Montpelier. 
First settled, 173.5. Population, 
1330, 373. The land in this town 
is broken and cold. Leed's pond 
produces an abundance of fish. 
Canaan produces more fish than 

Canaan, Ct. 

Litchfield co. First settled in 
1733. Incorporated, 1739. Canaan 
lies 41 miles N. W. from Hartford, 
and 18 N. N. W. from Litchfield. 
Population, 1830, 2,301. The town 
lies on the E. side of Housatonick 
river, opposite to Salisbury. A 
ledge of limestone rocks crosses the 
river at thi^ place, about 30 rods in 
length, causing a perpendicular fall 
of 6!) feet. The river is rapid, both 
above and below thi? beautiful cata- 
ract. The whole descent of the 
river, in Canaan, is about 130 i'eet^ 
" nobly arranged and distributed, 
and comprehending a remarkable 
variety of beauty and grandeur.'* 
The township i? mountainous, with 
some arable land along the streams. 
About 4,000 sheep are kept here. 
This section of country is noted for 
its excellent mutton. Limestone 
and iron ore are abundant ; the lat- 
ter is of a very fine quality. Iron 
works, on an extensive scale, are 
established liere ; a satinet factory 
and other machinery. 

Canals in ]Ve\v £Iuglaud. 

See Register. 

Candia, "N. H.) 

•Rockingham co.. Was detached 
from the N. part of Chester and in- 
corporated, 1763. The soil is natu- 
rally hard of cultivation ; but the 
industry of the inhabitants has made 
it fruitful. It was originally cover- 
ed with a thick growth of oak, ash, 
maple, birch, &c. The site of this 
town is elevated, and commands 
an extensive view of the rich scene- 
ry of the adjacent country — the 


White Hills, the Wachusett, and 
other mountains, the lights on Plum 
island, and the ocean being visible. 
In the \V. part of the town is a 
ridge of land extending from N. to 
S., which is the highest elevation 
between Merrimack river and the 
ocean. On the E. side of this ridge, 
two branches of Lamprey river 
take their rise. Candia lies 15 
miles from Concord. This town 
among others contributed largely 
to the attainment of independence ; 
and the names of 69 soldiers of the 
revolution are found on its records. 
The inhabitants are mostly indus- 
trious farmers, many of whom are 
wealthy. Population, 1830, 1,362. 

Cauterliury, X. H. 

Merrimack co, Canterbury, 
though an uneven township, is not 
mountainous. The soil is generally 
good ; the more uneven parts af- 
fording excellent pasturage. There 
are no large streams in this town ; 
but several ponds give rise to smal- 
ler streams, furnishing good mill 
sites, and near which are cut great 
quantities of hay. Two bridges over 
the Merrimack connect this town 
with Eoscawen. The town was set- 
tled about 1727, and for along time 
the inhabitants were exposed to the 
inroads of the savages. The hus- 
bandman cleared and tilled his land 
under the protection of a guard, 
uncertain whether the seed he com- 
mitted to the ground might n5t be 
•watered by his blood, or that of an 
enemy. Canterbury lies 8 miles 
N. from Concord, Population, 
1836, 1663. 

The Hon. Abiel Foster de- 
serves a particular notice. He pos- 
sessed in a great degree the esteem 
and confidence of the people ; and 
soon after he left the pastoral care 
of the church, he was called to ar- 
duous duties as a magistrate and 
legislator. In 1783, he was elected 
to Congress ; and for three years 
was a member of that body under 
the old confederation. He was suc- 

cessively returned a member for 
nearly all the time until 1804 j 
when he retired to private life and 
domestic traquillity. He was an 
ardent lover of his country, and 
faithfully served his constituents — • 
by whom his memory will long be 
cherished. He died in Feb., 1806. 
Canterbury, from its elevated situa- 
tion, has ever been a healthy town. 
In the S. E. part of this town, 
on an elevated and beautiful site, is 
the village of the "Shakers." At 
present it consists of more than two 
hundred members. They have a 
meeting-house open at all times of 
public worship, where any discreet 
imd decent spectator is allowed to 
attend. They have a " Trustees' 
Office," where all their public busi- 
ness is transacted, and where stran- 
gers are at first received on their vis- 
its to the society. They have also 
neat dwelling-houses, of two and 
three stojies, and several work- 
shops both for men and women. 
Their mills and various kinds of 
m.achinery are moved by water on 
an artificial stream. They manu- 
facture many articles for sale, 
which are remarkable for neatness 
and durability. Their gardens are 
perhaps the most productive of any 
in the country ; and indeed all their 
improved lands exhibit the pleasing 
effects of industry and rural econ- 
omy. They cultivate garden seeds 
and take much pains to pro- 
pagate those of the best kind. — 
They occupy more than 1,500 acres 
of land, lying principally in a body, 
which they have ' consecrated to 
the Lord,' and which they enjoy 
in common. They cheerfully pay 
their proportion of public taxes, 
and share all the burthens of gov- 
ernment, except the bearing of 
arms, which they deem to be con- 
trary to the gospel ; and in return 
they claim fiom government only 
that protection and support guaran- 
tied to other citizens. The income 
of their manufactures, together 
with their agricultural products, 


yields their temporal support; and 
what they become possessed of 
more than is necessary to their 
wants, they devote to charitable 
purposes, agreeably to their church 
covenant. It should be mentioned 
as a practice highly creditable 
to this sect, that the members 
of their societies never make use 
of ardent spirits, except in cases of 
sickness, being aware of the evils 
intemperance brings upon society. 
Another practice not unworthy of 
imitation is, they refuse to be trust- 
ed even in the smallest sum. They 
ti-ansact their secular co.acerns with 
great uprightness ; and though they 
may have suffered roproach from 
their singularity of life and man- 
ners, they have become a proverb for 
industry, justice and benevolence. 
For a particular account of the re- 
ligious tenets of this singular peo- 
ple, see Religious Creeds and Sta- 

Canterbury, Ct. 

Windham CO. The first settlers 
of this town were principally from 
Dorchester, Mass. and its neighbor- 
hood. They came here about the 
year 1690, The soil of the town is 
a gravelly loam, generally fertile 
and productive. It lies 40 miles 
E. by S. from Hartford, and 6 S. 
from Brooklyn. Population, 18.30, 
1,881. The Quinnebaug is here 
a large and beautiful stream. It 
annually overflows its banks, and 
fertilizes a large tract upon its bor- 
ders. There is tine fishing in Bates' 
pond. Considerable excitement 
manifested itself in this town, in 
1832, in consequence of a Miss 
Crandall propo-ing to open a school 
for the instruction of " Young la- 
dies and little misses of color." — 
Although no one seemed to question 
the purity of Miss Crandall's mo- 
tives, yet the people doubted the 
expediency of the measure. 

Canton, Me. 

Oxf'jrd CO. Incorporated, 1321. 

Population, 18.37, 827. It lies on 
both sides of the Androscoggin riv- 
er, 32 miles W. N. VV. from Au- 
gusta, and 24 N. E. from Paris. 
Canton produced, in 1837, 3,114 
bushels of wheat. 

Canton, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. Neponset river and 
several large ponds give this town 
a great water power. It lies 15 
miles S. W. from Boston, and 5 S. 
by E. from Dedham. Incorporated, 
1797. Population, 1830, 1,517; 
1837, 2,185. The manufactures of 
Canton the year ending 1st of 
April, 1837, amounted to $695,- 
180. They consisted of cotton and 
woolen goods, shoes, palm-leaf hats, 
copper, wicking, thread, candle- 
sticks, hoes, iron castings, trying 
squares, and " shapes," The bells 
manufactured at this place are of 
superior metal and sound. This 
place is easily approached from the 
capital by the Boston and Provi- 
dence rail-road. The viaduct, or 
bridge, on that road at this place, 
cost the company about $80,000. 
It is of massive hewn granite, 600 
feet in length ; 63 feet above the 
foundation, on 6 arches, with a suc- 
cession of arches at top. It is an 
admirable piece of workmanship. 

Canton, Ct. 

Hartford co. First settled, 1740. 
Incorporated, 1806, Population, 
1830, 1,437. Colli nsville is the 
principal village in the town, at 
which a large amount of axes, of a 
superior quality, are annually made. 
It lies 16 miles N. W. by W. from 
Hartlbrd,and 16 N. E. from Litch- 
field, This village presents a beau- 
tiful appearance, and is a. noble 
specimen of individual enterprize. 
The soil of Canton is coarse and/ 
stony, and the surface hilly. Farm- 
ington river passes through its S. 
W. corner. 

Carlisle, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This town lies 


20 miles N. W. from Boston, and 5 
N. from Concord. Incorporated, 
1805. Population, 1837, 596. It 
is bounded S. E. by Concord river. 
This is a poor town, and its manu- 
factures are very trifling. 

Carmel, Me. 

Penobscot co. Population, 1837, 
610. Growth of wheat, same year, 
1,890 bushels. 71 miles from Au- 
gusta. See Soradabscook Stream. 

Carroll, N. H. 

A township in Coos county, ly- 
ing at the base of the White Moun- 
tains, on the N. W., having Jeffer- 
son and Whitefield N., Whitefield 
and Bethlehem W.,and the ungrant- 
ed lands, and Nash and Sawyer's 
Location on the S. It was granted 
Feb. 8, 1772, to Sir Thomas Went- 
wbrth, Bart., Rev. Samuel Langdon, 
and 31 others. Its surface i^ un- 
even, and its appearance dreary. — 
Population, in 1330, 103. 

Cartilage, Me. 

Franklin co. Incorporated, 1826. 
Population, 1337, 455. 46 miles 
from Augusta, and 73 from Port- 
land. See Barnard, Me. 

Carver, Mass. 

Plymouth CO. Setoff from Ply- 
mouth in 1790. Population, 1837, 
990. 38 miles S. E. from Boston, 
and S S. W. by S. from Plymouth. 
There are a number of pleasant 
ponds in (his town. The soil is not 
very productive. The manufac- 
tures of Carver con=;ist of iron cast- 
ings, boots, shoes, boxes, and wil- 
low baskets; annual amount about 

Casco Bay, Me. 

This is one of the finest bays on 
the American coast. Its western 
boundary is Cape Elizabeth ; its 
eastern. Cape Small Point. The 
diifance between those capes is 
about 20 miles. Its indentation does 
not exceed 15 miles. Within it are 

some of the best harbors in the 
world. It is said that Ca^co bay 
contains as many islands as there 
are days in the year ; however that 
may be, we know that they are 
very numerous, some very large, 
fertile, and well cultivated ; and 
that a survey of them from the high 
grounds in Portland, Falmouth, 
Cumberland, or Yarmouth, afford-sa 
treat of island and ocean scenery 
of transcendent beauty. 

Castine, Me. 

Hancock co. Castine derived its 
name from a French baron of that 
name, who resided here upwards of 
twenty years after 1667. This 
peninsula, jutting out into Belfast 
bay, at the mouth of Penobscot 
river, was formerly called " Major 
Biguyduce," pronounced, Baga- 
duce. The peninsula embraces 
2,500 acres of land, and was tirst 
settled by the English, in 1760. 
The British occupied this place in 
both of the wars with the U. S. It 
was the shire, or chief town, of the 
county from 1789 to 1838, when 
the courts were removed to Ells- 
worth. Castine possesses an excel- 
lent maritime position, but its trade 
from the country is limited, being 
cut off by the more inland towns. 
Its trade, however, is considerable. 
The lumber and coasting trade, 
with the fisheries, give active em- 
ployment to its people. 78 miles 
E. from Augusta, and about 25 S. 
W. from Ellsworth. Population, 
1830, 1,155; 1837, 1,168. 

Castleton, Vt. 

Rutland, co. This i'' a flourish- 
ing town, watered by a river of the 
same name ; 11 miles W. fiom Rut- 
land, 72 S. W. from MontpeUer, 
and 14 E. from Whitehall. Popu- 
la'ion, 1830, 1,783. First settled, 
1770. The surface of the town is 
rough and hilly, but tliere is some 
rich land. It' feeds about 9,000 
sheep. Mill streams abound in 
Castlcton, on which are a woolen 


and other manufacturing establish- 
ments. Lake Bombazine, 7 miles 
in length and 2 in breadth, is chiei- 
ly in this town. It is stored with 
fish, and has an island near its cen- 
ti-e of exqui.^ite beauty. The vil- 
lage of Castleton is elevated, neat- 
ly built, and presents a great vari- 
ety of rich and beautiful scenery, 

Cavei&disli, Vt. 

Windsor co. There are two flour- 
ishing villages in Cavendish, But- 
to7i's village and Proctorsville. ii 
is watered by Black river and Twen- 
ty Mile Stream, which afford a good 
hydraulic power. Here are in op- 
eration 4 large woolen factories, 
iron woi-ks, manufactures of tin, 
and many other branches of me- 
chanics. Along the streams tbe 
soil is excellent; the high land is 
good, but best adapted to grazing. 
Here are about 6,000 sheep. The 
channel of Black river, at the falls, 
has been worn down 100 feet. The 
effects of the water, at this place, 
are very curious. Hawk's moun- 
tain separates this town from Balti- 
more. Cavendish, in common with 
most of the towns in Vermont, pre- 
sents a great variety of mountain 
scenery. It lies 10 miles S. W. 
from Windsor, and 60 S. from Mont- 
pelier. First settled, 1769. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,498. 

Centre-Harbor, JiT. H., 

Strafford co,, is pleasantly situa- 
ted between Winnepisiogee and 
Squam lakes : distant from Concord, 
39 miles, Portsmouth 60, Boston 
104. Measley pond is partly in this 
town. Squam lake furnishes fine 
trout, and has several islands valu- 
able for grazing. The soil is very 
good, mostly a rich loam. Centre 
Harbor is adelightlul resting place, 
during the warm season, of tourists, 
to the White Mountains, and the 
great resort of those, vi^iiing the 
Winnepisiogee lake and the great 
natural cuiiosities in the adjoining 
town of Moultonborough. The 

first settlements were made by Eb- 
anezer Chamberlain, in 1765, and 
Col. Joseph Senter, in 1767. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 577. 

Cliaiuplaiii Lali^e. 

This delightful expanse of water 
is the boundary line between New 
York and Vermont, Vermont em- 
braces about two thirds of its sur- 
face. New York is on the W. side, 
and the counties of Franklin, Chit- 
tenden, Addison, and a part of Rut- 
land, in the state of Vermont, lie 
on the E. At the N. it extends a 
few miles into Lower Canada, and 
receives the waters of Pike river. 
It discharges into the St. Lawrence 
by the Richelieu, Sorel, or Chambly 
river. Among its tributaries from 
Vermont are the Missisque, Lam- 
oille, Onion, Otter, and Pawlet riv- 
ers. From New York it receives 
the waters of the Chazy, Saranac, 
Sable, Bouquet, and Wood rivers, 
and of Lake George. Its length is 
about 130 miles : its breadth vaiies 
from 1 to 12 miles : average breadth 
about 3 miles. It abounds with 
salmon, trout, pickerel and other 
fish. It is navigable for vessels 
of 90 tons burthen, and splen- 
did steamboats are continuc»lly ply- 
ing, in the season of navigation, 
from Wb.itehall, along it? beautiful 
shores, to St. John's in Canada. — 
This lake cont;;ins about 60 islands, 
is remaikable for its splendid scene- 
ry, and renowned in ancient and 
modern stories for its scenes of war- 
like achievements. Lake Cham- 
plain is a great resort, both for bu- 
siness and pleasure. 

In the Register, under Burling- 
ton, may be found some notes for 

Cliapliu, Ct. 

Windham co. Taken from Mans- 
field, Hampton and Windham, in 
1832. It is watered by Natchaug 
river, which passes nearly through 
its centre. The town is small, but 
the soil is good, and populated by 


industrious farmers, who, by their 
practice of keepino; a large number 
of sheep, seem to be convinced of 
the fact that wool is one of the most 
important staples of New England. 
It lies 10 miles W. by N. from 
Brooklyn, and 30 E. by N. from 

Cliarlemout; Mass. 

Franklin co. Deerfield river me- 
anders through this town, and gives 
it a good water power. Garrisons 
were erected here in 1734, against 
the savage French and Indians. 
Their remains are now visible. In- 
corporated, 176:5. Population, 1837, 
994. It lies 110 miles W. N. W. 
from Boston, and 14 W. by N. from 
Greenfield. Although this is a 
mountainous township, it contains 
much valuable land. It maintains 
about 5,000 merino and other sheep. 
Its manufactures consist of boots, 
shoes, leather, iron castings, axes, 
hoes, palm-leaf hats, saddlery, 
scythe snaiths, and lather boxes. 

Cliarles Rivers. 

Charles river, in Massachusetts, 
is the Quinobequin of the Indians. 
This river rises on the borders of 
Hopkinton and Milford, and after 
meandering through Bellingham, 
Franklin, Medway, Medfield','Sher- 
burne, Dover, Dedham, Need- 
ham, Natick, Newton, Waltham 
and Watertown, it meets the tide 
waters, and forms a part of Boston 
liarhor. It is navigable to Water- 
town, 7 miles W. from Boston. 

Charles river, in R. I., has its 
source in Warden's pond, in South 
Kingston, and empties into the 
Pawcatuck, at Westerly. 

Cliarlcstou, Me. 

Penobscot co. At the source of 
Pushaw lake. Bounded W. by Gar- 
land. It lies 25 miles S. W. from 
Belfast, and 73 N. W. from Augus- 
ta. This township is fine wheat 
land; ii yielded, in 1837, 7,606 

bushels. Incorporated, 18.11. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,140. 

Cliarleston, Vt. 

Orleans co. Echo pond, the out- 
let of lake Seymour, waters this 
town. Lake Seymour is a large 
sheet of water, and passes N. into 
lake Memphremagog. Charleston 
lies about 35 miles N.E. from Hyde- 
park, 55 N. N. E. from Montpelier, 
and 15 S. of Canada line. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 564. 

Cliarlestoivn, W. H., 

Sullivan co., is situated on Con- 
necticut river, 51 miles from Con- 
cord, 100 from Boston, 100 from 
Albany, 110 from Hartford, Conn., 
and 18 miles from AVindsor, Vt. 
The only rivers in Charlestown 
are the Connecticut and Little Su- 
gar rivers. In the former, there 
are three islands within the limits 
of this town, the largest of which 
contains about ten acres, and is call- 
ed Sartwell's island. The others 
contain about six acres each, and 
have a rich loamy soil. Sartwell's 
island is under a high cultivation. 
There are no falls in this river with- 
in the limits of Charlestown which 
interrupt the boat navigation, al- 
though some little inconvenience 
is experienced in low M^ater from 
what are called " Sugar river bars.'* 
Little Sugar river waters the north 
part of Charlestown, and empties 
into Connecticut river about two 
miles south of the S. line of Clare- 
mont. This town has but few fac- 
tory or mill privileges. The soil 
is extremely various. West of 
the great road leading from Wal- 
pole to Claremont, are not less than 
1,500 acres of fine intervale land, 
generally of a deep, rich and loamy 
soil, and favorable for the culture 
and growth of most of the various 
kinds of grass and grain. In the 
E. and N. E. parts of the town, the 
soil of the upland is good — the nat- 
ural growth of wood, consisting 


principally of beech, birch, oak, 
maple and hemlock. There is a 
ridge of hard, broken, and in some 
parts stony, land, east of the river 
road, extending almost the whole 
length of the town, and which is 
considered unfit for settlements. 
The south part of the town appears 
to have a different soil, and is favor- 
able for yielding the lighter grains. 
Charlestown contains two parishes, 
which are divided by a line run- 
ning from Cheshire bridge S. 87° 
E., to the corner of Acworth and 
Unity. In the south parish, there 
is a handsome village, delightfully 
situated, at the distance of about 
half a mile from Connecticut river, 
and parallel with it. In the north 
parish is a meeting-house and a 
small village. Cheshire bridge, 
about 2 miles N. of the S. meeting- 
house, connects this town with 
Springfield, Vt. From this bridge 
Cheshire turnpike leads southerly 
through the principal village, to 
Keene. Charlestown was granted 
by Massachusetts, Dec. 31, 1735, 
by the name of JVamher 4. which 
is sometimes applied to it at the 
present day. 

On the 2d July, 1753, No. 4 was 
incorporated by the name of Charles- 
town. The charter wa? granted by 
Gov. Benning Wentworth to Jo- 
seph Wells, Phinehas Stevens and 
others, who were purchasers under 
the old grantees. In 1754, the French 
war commenced — and the inhabit- 
ants were obliged to take up their 
residence in the fort. The first set- 
tlers of Charlestown, like the first 
inhabitants of almost every frontier 
town in New England, Avere, prior 
to 1760, the victims of savage cru- 
elty. For twenty years after the 
first settlement, their neighbors on 
the N. were the French in Canada, 
on the W. the Dutch, near the 
Hudson, on the E. the settlements 
on Merrimack river, and on the S. 
few were found until arrived at 
Northfield, in Massachusetts, a dis- 
tance (tX more than 40 miles. The 

Indians were at peace but a small 
portion of that time. From their 
infancy, the settlers had been fa- 
miliar with danger, and had acquir- 
ed a hardihood unknown to poster- 
ity. When they attended public 
worship, or cultivated their lands, 
they sallied from the fort prepared 
for battle, and worshipped or labor- 
ed under the protection of a senti- 
nel. In their warfare, the Indians 
preferred prisoners to scalps, and 
few were killed but those who at- 
tempted to escape, or appeared too 
formidable to be encountered with 
success. The first child born in 
Charlestown was Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Isaac Parker. She was 
born 1744, and died in 180G.— 
Charlestown has been favored with 
a number of eminent men, only 
one of which we have room to men- 
tion. Capt. Phinehas Stevens 
was one of the first settlers. The 
town when in its infancy was pro- 
tected by his intrepidity. He was 
a native of Sudbury, Mass., from 
whence his father removed to Rut- 
land. At the age of 16, while his 
father was making hay, he, with 
three little brothers, followed him 
to the meadows. They were am- 
bushed by tlio Indians, who killed 
two of his brothers, took him pris- 
oner, and were preparing to kill his 
youngest brother, a child four years 
old. He, by signs to the Indians, 
made them understand if they 
would spare him, he would carry 
him on his back — and he carried 
him to Canada. They were redeem- 
ed and both returned. He receiv- 
ed several commissions from Gov. 
Shirley, and rendered important 
services in protecting the frontiers. 
In 1747, when Charlestown was 
abandoned by the inhabitants, he 
was ordered to occupj'-the fort with 
30 men. On the 4th of April, ho 
was attacked by 400 French and In- 
dians, under Mons. Debeline. Tha 
assault lasted three days. Indian 
stratagem and French skill, with 
fire applied to every combustible 


about the fort, liad not the desired 
effect. The heroic band were not 
appalled. They refused to capitu- 
late. At length an interview be- 
tween the cominanders took place. 
The Frenchman shewed his forces, 
and described the horrid massacre 
that must ensue unless the fort was 
suirendered. " My men are not 
afraid to die," was the answei-made 
by Capt. Stevens. The attack con- 
tinued with increased fury until 
tlie end of the third day, when the 
enemy returned to Canada, and left 
Capt. Stevens in posse.■!^ion of the 
fort. Capt. Stevens, for liis gallant- 
ry on tliis occasion, was presented 
by Sir Charles Knowles with an el- 
egant sword; and from this circum- 
stance the township, when it was 
incorj)orated, in 1753, took the name 
of Charlestown. Population, in 
1830, 1,778. 

Cliarlesto^vn, Mass. 

Middlesex co. The Indian name 
of this town was Mishaivun. First 
settled, 1628. Incoiporated, 1629. 
Population, 1320, 6,591 ; 1S30, 
8,787; 1837,10,101. Charlestown 
is a peninsula, formed by Charles 
and Mystic rivers, and is united 
to Boston by Charles and Warren 
bridges. It is also united to Boston 
as a port of entry, and in its various 
commercial and manufacturing pur- 
suits. This town is noted lor its 
sacrifices in the cause of liberty ; 
and its soil will ever be dear to the 
patriot's bosom. The town is not 
so regularly laid out as Philadel- 
phia, yet it is neatly built, and con- 
tains many elegant public and pri- 
vate edifices. The streets are wide 
and airy, and many of them have 
recently been planted with trees 
for shade. Considerable shipping 
is owned here, engaged in foreign 
and domestic commerce. The an- 
nual value of the cod and mackerel 
fisheries is about $40,000. The 
value of the manufactures, in 
Charlestown, the year ending April 
1, 1837, exclusive of a large amount 

of leather, was $390,000. The ar 
tides manufactured were as fol- 
lows : poap, candles, boots, shoes, 
hats, morocco, chairs, cabinet ware, 
vessels, combs, tin ware, and spirit.?. 

The United States' JVavy Yard 
was first established in this town 
about the year 1798. The yard is 
situated on the N. side of Charles 
river, on a plot of ground of about 
60 acres. It is enclosed by a high 
wall of durable masonry, and con- 
tains several ware-houses, dwell- 
ing-houses for the officers, and a 
large amount of naval stores, live 
oak and other timber. It also con- 
tains three large ship-houses, in 
which are the Vermont and Caro- 
lina of 74, and the Cumberland 
frigate of 44 guns. These ships 
can be launched and ready for sea 
in a very short time. 

The dry dock at this place is of 
hewn granite, and of unrivalled 
masonrj'. It is 341 feet in length, 
SO in width, and 30 in depth. It 
cost $670,089. This dock was com- 
pleted and received the Constitu- 
tion on the 24th of June, 18.33.— 
Connected with this establishment 
are a naval hospital and magazine, 
at Chelsea, and a large ropewalk in 
the 5' ard ; other additions are con- 
templated. This is considered one 
of the best naval depots in the Uni- 
ted States. 

McLean Asylum. This estab- 
lishment is located on a beautiful 
rise of ground, in Charlestown, near 
East Cambridge, and about a mile 
and a half from the City Hall, in 
Boston. The buildings are large, 
and exceedingly well adapted to 
their philanthropic design. They 
cost about $186,000. this House 
was opened for patients on the 6th 
of October, 1818. 

Belonging to, and surrounding; 
this Asylum, are about 15 acres of 
land, appropriated to courts and gar- 
dens. These are laid out with grav- 
elled walks. The former are furnish* 


ed with summer houses, and the 
latter are ornamented with groves 
of fruit and ornamental trees, shrub- 
bery and Howers. Surrounding the 
lower garden and within the enclo- 
sure, is a carriage path, where pa- 
tients are taken to ride. In the 
centre is a small fresh water pond, 
containing several hundred gold and 
silver fish, and immediately contig- 
uous is a summer house, where the 
patients at time3 resort for games 
and amusements. 

The system of moral treatment 
adopted and pursued, is founded up- 
on principles of elevated benevo- 
lence and philanthropy, and an ac- 
quaintance v/ith human nature and 
the capabilities and Avants of the 
insane. The previous tastes, hab- 
its and pursuits, and the present in- 
clinations and feelings of each in- 
dividual, are habitually consulted. 
A library for the use of the patients 
has been purchased, and those of 
them who are disposed to read, are 
permitted at stated periods to send 
in their names and the number of 
the book desired ; the list is exam- 
ined and approved by the physician, 
and the books are distributed by the 
librarian. In the same way, writ- 
ing materials are distributed, and 
patients are engaged in keeping 
journals — wriiing sketches of their 
lives — poetry — addressing letters to 
their friends, drawing, &c. Some 
engage in games, as bowling — 
throwing the ring — battledore — gra- 
ces — ^jumping the rope — chess — 
draughts — back gammon, &c., or 
are occupied in walking and riding 
into the country, or in making fish- 
ing excursion-! in the company of 
their attendants ; while others are 
working on the farm and in the 
garden. The female patients, bo- 
pides being employed in various 
kinds of needle and orna/nental 
work, are engaged in various do- 
mestic labors. The quiet and con- 
valescent patients regularly attend 
the religious exercises of the fam- 
ily, and a portion of thera join in 


the vocal and instrumental music 
of the occasion ; a part of this num- 
ber also attend church on the Sabr 
bath, in company with the nurses 
and attendants, and dine with the 
family. A regulated intercourse 
with the family and society is re- 
garded as an important auxiliary in 
the means of cure, and on suitable 
occasions they are invited into the 
house, where parties are made for 
their special amusement and bene- 

John McLleax, Esq., late of 
Boston, an eminent merchant, be- 
queathed a large amount of prop- 
erty to this institution ; hence its 

Bunker Hill Monument. On the 
17th of June, 1S25, the cbrner stone 
of an Obelisk was laid on the heights 
in tliis town, by the illustrious La 
Fayette, to commemorate the battle 
between the Americans and Brit- 
ish on the 17th of June, 1775. In 
that battle, 419 Americans and 
1,055 Britons were slain, Charles- 
town was burnt by the British the 
same day. The site of the Monu- 
ment is 62 feet above the level of 
the sea. It is of hewn granite, 
and, when completed, will be 30 
feet square at the base, 15 feet 
square at the top. and 220 feet in 
height. It is now raised about 60 
feet, and will probably be complet- 
ed in one or two years. The cost 
of it will be about $100,000. 

The State Prison. This institu- 
tion was founded in 1800, and soon 
after located on a point of land in 
this town, near East Cambridge, 
and which is connected with Canal 
bridge by a lateral bridge of 1,820 
feet in length. After having strug- 
gled with many and great difficul- 
ties attendant on the establishment 
of an institution so entirely new, 
the state, by the agency of suitable 
men, have so placed it as to e/fect 
all the objects proposed, without 
any expense to the commonwealth. 


Charlesto-wn, R. I. 

Washington co. Charlestownlies 
on the sea, opposite to Block Island. 
It has five large ponds, which cov- 
er an area of 7 square miles. — 
Charlestown and Conaquetogue 
ponds are salt water, and Posquis- 
settjWatchaug and Cochumpaug are 
fresh water. These waters at!brd a 
great variety of lish. Near the 
sea, the land is arable, but the inte- 
rior of the town is more fit for the 
growth of wood. This town con- 
tains the graves of the remnant of 
the tribe of the once powerful and 
dreaded Naraganset Indians. They 
possessed a considerable tract of 
land in this town, but owing to 
jt dislike to agricultural pursuits, 
end by intermarriages with the 
whites and negroes, their race as a 
distinct people has long since be- 
come extinct. Charles river pas- 
ses through the town, and gives it 
mill privileges. Charlestown lies 
about 8 miles W. S. W. from South 
Kingston, and 40 S. W. from Provi- 
dence. Population, 1330, 1,234. 

Chiarlotte, Me. 

Washington co. Incorporated, 
1825. Population, 1837, 612. About 
25 miles N. W. from Machias, and 
184 E. by N. from Augusta. Char- 
lotte contains a pond, the waters 
of which pass through Dennysville 
and empty in Cobscook bay. 

Cliarlotte, Vt. 

This is a pleasant town, in Chit- 
tenden county, on lake Cham- 
plain, and opposite to Esiex, N. 
y. In Essex, about 3 miles across 
the lake, is Split Mock, a great nat- 
ural curiosity. Charlotte lies 49 
miles W. of Montpelier, 11 S. of 
Burlington and 21 N. W. of Mid- 
dlebury. A part of this town grad- 
ually slopes toward the lake, and 
Is very productive. Its trade is 
chiefly with Canada. From the 
principal village, " The Four Cor- 

ners," the lake, and the mountains 
that skirt its borders, present a very 
romantic appearance. Population, 
in 1830, 1,702. 

Cliarlion, Mass. 

Worcester co. Charlton was set 
off from Oxford, 1754. It lies 53 
miles S. W. from Boston, and 12 
W. N. W. from Worcester. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,469. There is a 
cotton mill in this town, and some 
manufactures of leather and shoes. 

Chatliam, W. H., 

Strafford co., is situated on the 
E. side of the V»'hite Mountains, 
and adjoining the line which divides 
this state from Maine. It has Con- 
way on the S., Bartlett and Jackson 
on the W., Mount Royse on the 
N. Chatham was granted to Peter 
Livius and others, Feb. 7, 1767. 
There are several ponds in Chat- 
ham, and some considerable streams. 
The surface is mountainous and 
rocky, and can never sustain a 
great population. Between Chat- 
ham and Jackson, Carter's moun- 
tain rises so high as to prevent the 
opening a road between the two 
towns ; so that in holding an inter- 
course with the rest of the county, 
the inhabitants are obliged to pass 
through part of the state of Maii^e, 
Population, in 1830, 419. 

Cliatliam, Mass., 

Barnstable co., lies on the el- 
bow of Cape Cod, south side. Pleas- 
ant bay, inside of Chatham beach, 
forms a good harbor. Chatham is 
20 miles E. from Barnstable, and 
32 S. S. E. from Provincetown. 
Incorporated, 1712. Population, 
1837, 2,271. The value of the cod 
and mackerel fisheries, for the year 
ending April 1, 1837, was $56,- 
100;— value of salt made, $8,220; 
— value of boots and shoes made, 
$1,500. There are, belonging to 
this place, about 20 sail of fisher- 
men and 30 coasters. 


Cliatliam, Ct. 

Middlesex co. The township of 
Chatham embraces Chatham par- 
ish, (formerly East Middletown,) 
the greater part of Middle Haddam 
parish, the parish of East Hampton 
and a part of the parish of West 
Chester. It lies 16 miles S. from 
Hartford, and opposite to Middle- 
town, from which it was taken in 
1767. Population, 1830, 3,646. 
Chatham is watered by Salmon and 
Pine brooks and several ponds. — 
Job''s pond, about 2 miles in cir- 
cumference, has no outlet. It rises 
and falls about 15 feet. It rises for 
six or twelve months, and then falls 
about the same period. It is high- 
est in the driest season of the ycAv, 
and lowest when there is most rain. 
It is from 40 to 60 feet deep. Chat- 
ham is noted for its valuai)le quar- 
ries of freestone. " For forty years 
past it has been extensively improv- 
ed, and the stone, to the depth of 
thirty feet from the surface, are now 
removed over an area of an acre 
and a half, back from the river. 
The stone in this quarry is covered 
in some places with four or five 
feet of earth, and in others with 
four or five feet more of shelly rock. 
It Is not perfectly solid, but lies in 
blocks, eight or ten feet thick, and 
fifty and sixty feet long. The seams 
and joints facilitate the process of 
removing these from their beds; 
and when removed, they are reduc- 
ed by the wedge and chisel to any 
size or form which is wished. In 
this quarry thirty hands have been 
employed for several years, eight 
months in the year, and from four 
to six teams. The quantity of stone 
prepasred for market, and sold to the 
inhabitants of this and the neigh- 
boring towns, and exported to dis- 
tant parts of the country, has been 
very great; and has yielded a hand- 
some profit. Fifty rods south of 
this quarry an opening was made 
about 1783, now spreading over 
half an acre. Here the stone is 

covered with about ten feet of 
earth. In this opening as many as 
twelve hands have been sometimes 
employed. Vessels come to this 
and the above quarry, and load from 
the bank. The bed of stone in 
which these and the smaller open- 
ings in fhe neighborhood have been 
made is immense, and lies at differ- 
ent depths from the surface in dif- 
ferent places. It has been discov- 
ered in sinking wells, for half a 
mile in northern and southern di- 
rections, and has been opened at a 
greater distance eastward. Where- 
ever found, the stone possesses the 
same general properties, but varies, 
like the freestone in Middletown, 
in the fineness of its texture." 

Clielmsford, Mass. 

Middlesex co. On the south sida 
of Merrimack river, and connect- 
ed with Dracut by a bridge. — 
First settled, 1753, Incorporated, 
1655. Population, 1837, 1,613. It 
lies 25 miles N. W. from Boston, 
and 4 S. W. from Lowell. Chelms- 
ford abounds in limestone and gran- 
ite ; considerable of the latter is 
transported to Boston by the Mid- 
dlesex canal, which passes through 
the town. The manufactures of 
this town, during the year ending 
April 1, 1837, amounted to about 
,<^100,000 ; — principally of glass and 

Chelsea, Vt. 

County town of Orange county. 
First settled, 1785. Chelsea is a 
township of good land, with a pleas- 
ant village in the centre. It is wa- 
tered by the head branches of White 
river and has a good hydraulic pow- 
er. Its manufactures consist of 
cassimere, satinet, leather, iron, &c. 
Chelsea produces all the various 
commodities common to the climate, 
and feeds about 6,000 sheep. It lies 
20 miles S. by E. from Montpelier. 
Population, 1830, 1,958. 


Clielsea) Mass. 

Suffolk CO. This toTvn was for- 
merly a ward of Boston. Incor- 
porated, 173S. Population, 1837, 
1,659. The centre of the town lies 
from Boston about 3 miles N. E., 
across Charles river, and 3 miles 
E. of Charlestown. The manufac- 
tures of Chelsea consist of uphol- 
stery, stone ware, snuff, segars, 
wood and copper engravings, car- 
riages, bricks, vessels, salt, boots, 
shoes, &.C. ; — annual value, about 

The United States Marine Hos- 
pital in this town, is on a large plot 
of ground, in a delightful and airy 
situation, and affords a comfortable 
retreat for sick and disabled seamen. 
Point Shirley, extending southeast- 
erly, forms the northern part of Bos- 
ton harbor. Winnesimet Ferry, lead- 
ing from the foot of Hanover street, 
in Boston, to this town, is probably 
the oldest establishment of the kind 
in America. The first grant was 
given to Thomas Williams, in 1631. 
The distance across Charles river is 
about a mile and a half. Neat and 
commodious steam-boats are con- 
tinually running across this delight- 
ful stream, making the JVinnesi- 
met of the Indians the Hoboken of 

Clierryfield, Me. 

Washington co. At the head of 
tide water, on both sides of Narra- 
guagus river, with a handsome vil- 
lage, and considerable trade. Incor- 
• porated, 1815. Population, 1837, 
1,000. 116 miles E. by N. from 
Augusta, and about 35 W. from 

Clieslilre County, N. H. 

Cheshire is one of the western 
counties in this state. Its length 
is 31 miles: its greatest breadth 26 
miles: and its least breadth 15. It 
is bounded N. by the county of 
Sullivan, E. by Hillsborough coun- 
ty, S. by the state of Massachu- 

{ setts, and W. by Vermont. This 
county contains 727 square miles. 
Throughout the whole extent on 
the west, it is watered by the Con- 
necticut, the western bank of which 
forms the boundary line between 
New Hampshire and Vermont. 
Asliuelot river is a considerable 
stream, and is tributary to Connec- 
ticut river. It has its source from 
a pond in Washington, aiid after re- 
ceiving two branches in Kcene and 
Swanzey, and several smaller 
streams in Winchester, empties 
into Connecticut river at Hinsdale. 
Spafford's I^ake, a beautiful collec- 
tion of water, of about 8 miles in 
circumference, is situated in Ches- 
terfield. There is a pleasant island 
in the lake, contaiuini'; about eight 
acres. The Grand Monadnock, in 
Dublin and Jaffrc} , is the highest 
mountain, its attitude having been 
repeatedly found to be more than 
3,000 feet above the level of the 
sea. Bellows" Falls' in Connecti- 
cut i-iver, at Walpole, have been 
regaz'ded as one of the greatest nat- 
ural curiosities in this county. 

The earliest settlement in this 
county was made about the yeai 
1732, at Hinsdale, then a part of 
Northfield, and under the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts. The coun- 
ty was formed March 19, 1771, and 
it probably received its name from 
Cheshire, one of the western coun- 
ties in England. The population 
of Cheshire county in 1790, was 
19,665, in 1800, 24,238, in 1810, 
24,673, in 1820, 26,843, in 1330, 
27,016. It has 22 towns :— 39 in- 
habitants to a square mile. KeenCy 
the chief town, is nearly in the 
centre of the county, and lies in 
N. lat. 42° 57'. 

Clicsliire, Mass. 

Berkshire co. Cheshire has ren- 
dered itself worthy of its name by 
its production of cheese of fine fla- 
vor and quality. In 1801, the good 
people of this place sent a cheese 
to Mr. Jefferson, weighing about 


1200 pounds. The value of wool, 
the growth of 1S36, sold for ,'j>5,522. 
TheHoosack river passes through 
the town. Al'.l.ough a mountain- 
ous townsi)ip, the soil has been 
rendered productive by the industry 
of the people. It has some manu- 
factures of leather and shoes. 125 
miles W. N. W. from Boston, and 
16 N. by E. from Lenox. Popula- 
tion, 1337, 924. Incorporated, 1793. 

Cliesliirc, Ct. 

New Haven co. Taken from 
Wallingford in 1780. It lies It 
miles N. from New Haven, and 25 
S. E. from Hartford. Population, 
1830, 1,780. The Quinnipiac river 
and Farmington canal pass through 
the town. Cheshire has an un- 
even, but good soil, with a very 
pleasant village, and an Episcopal 
academy, 51 by 34 feet; — a brick 
building of considerable taste. Ag- 
riculture is the chief occupation of 
the inhabitants. 

Cliester, Me. 

Penobscot CO. Incorporated, 1834. 
Pop\ilation, 1337, 323. See Bar- 
nard, Me. 

Cliester, IV. H., 

Rockingham co., is 17 miles W. S. 
W. from Exeter, 30 W. S. W. from 
Portsmouth, 17 N. W. from Haver- 
hill, and 23 S. E. from Concord. 
A branch of Exeter river, called 
"The Branch," flows through the 
N. E. part of Chester, beside which 
there is no stream deserving men- 
tion. IVIassabesick pond is the larg- 
est body of fresh water in the coun- 
ty, and contains about 1,500 acres. 
The line between this town and 
Manchester passes more than 2 
miles through the westerly part of 
this pond. The Indians had a set- 
tlement of 10 or 12 wigwams on an 
island in this pond, vestiges of 
which, it is said, may still be seen. 
A considerable portion of the town 
possesses a good soil, and many of 
the large swells yield in fertility to 


none in the state. There are sever- 
al large and valuable meadows. In 
this town are two caves, sometimes 
visited by strangers. That which 
was earliest noticed, is situated ia 
Mine hill, near the east side of 
Ma-sabcijick pond. The entrance 
is about 5 feet high and 2 1-2 wide. 
The cavern extends into the hill, in 
a northern direction, about 80 feet, 
of suiiicient dimensions to admit a 
per-on to pass. Its form is very ir- 
regular, and its height and breadth 
various, from 2 to 12 feet. The oth- 
er is in the westerly side of Rattle- 
snake hill, in the S. W. part of the 
town, in a ledge of coarse granite, 
nearly 40 feet high. It has two 
entrances. The north entrance is 
about 11 feet high and 4 broad. 
Native sulphur is found in this town 
in small quantities, imbedded in 
tremolite. Granite and gneiss are 
the prevailing rocks, and handsome 
specimens of graphic granite ai'e 
sometimes found. The village in 
this town is pleasant, and stands 
chiefly on a long street. It is the 
principal place of business in this 
part of the county, and is situated 
on an elevated rise, commanding 
one of the most extensive prospects 
in New England. From this hill, 
the ocean, though more than 20 
miles distant, ma}'', in a clear day, 
be distinctly seen. Population, 
1830, 2,039. Incorporated, 1722. 

Cliester, Vt. 

Windsor co. First settled, 1764. 
Population, 1830, 2,320. Three 
considerable streams form \yilliam's 
river and give Chester a good water 
power. The land is uneven, but 
fertile and productive. This is a 
very pleasant town, with two hand- 
some villages, manufactures of va- 
rious kinds, and about 10,000 sheep. 
This is a great thoroughfare for trav- 
ellers from the eastern part of New 
England to the Hudson river, near 
Troy, N. Y. The passage over the 
Green Mountains, from Ch*^ster to 
Manchester, is considered the best 


in this part of the state. Chester 
lies 16 miles S. S. W. from Wind- 
sor, 79 S. from Montpelier, and 
about 30 E. N. E. from Manchester. 

Cbester, Mass. 

Hampden co. This is a moun- 
tainous township,but ^ood for graz- 
ing. In 1837, it had 3,720 sheep ; 
their wool weighed 10,325 pounds, 
and sold for §5,818. There are 
2 cotton mills in Chester, 3 tanne- 
ries, and a window blind factory. 
Total amount of manufactures, in 
one year, $47,975. Branches of 
Westtield river pass through the 
town. Incorporated, 1735. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,290. 115 miles W. 
by S. fi-om Bo?ton, and 20 N. W. 
from Springfield. 

Cliestcrileltl, N. H., 

Cheshire co., is 11 miles S. W. 
i;., from Keene, and 65 S. W. from 
Concord. Few towns on Connec- 
ticut river have so little intervale 
land. For the whole six miles that 
it lies upon the river, the hills ap- 
proach near the river's side. There 
is much good upland, well adapted 
for grazing and the production of 
Indian corn. The chief articles 
carried to market are beef, pork, 
butter and cheese. Cat's Bane 
brook is a stream of great import- 
ance, as it furnishes many mill seats. 
Spalford's lake is a beautiful collec- 
tion of water, situated about one 
mile N. from the meeting-house! 
it contains a surface of about 526 
acres. It is fed by springs in its 
bosom. Its waters are remarkably 
clear and pure, its bed being a white 
sand. In this lake there is an isl- 
and of about six acres, which forms 
a delightful retreat. On its E. side 
issues a stream called Partridge's 
brook, sufficiently large to carry 
the machinery of a cotton factory, 
saw-mills, &.C. West river moun- 
tain lies in this town and Hinsdale. 
It is supposed to have been once 
subject to a volcanic eruption, and 

there is at present a considerable 
quantity of lava near its crater. It 
is said by those who live near the 
mountain, "that it frequently trem- 
bles, and a rumbling noise is heard 
in its bowels. Chesterfield has 3 
villages. The principal one, lead- 
ing from Hartford to Hanover, is sit- 
uated near the centre of the town, 
and 3 miles E. from Connecticut riv- 
er. Here are several dwelling- 
houses, the meeting-house and a 
flourishing academy, which was 
opened Aug. 14, 1794. The first 
settlement was made Nov. 25, 1761, 
on the banks of the Connecticut, by 
Moses Smith and William Thomas, 
with their families. At that peri- 
od, the river afforded abundance of 
shad and salmon, and the forests 
were well stocked with deer, bears 
and other game, so that the inhab- 
itants did not experience those pri- 
vations so common in new settle- 
ments. Population, 1830, 2,040. 

Cliesterlielcl, Mass. 

Hampshire co. A township of 
rough, elevated land, 97 miles Wk 
from Boston, and 11 W. N. W. from 
Northampton ; watered by a branch 
of Westfield river. It has a good 
Vv'ater power, 1 woolen mill, 2 tan- 
neries, some curious minerals, and 
a water course, worn very deep 
through solid rock. Population, 
1S37, 1,158. There were sheared 
in Chesterfield, in 1837, 7,100 
sheep, producing 20,800 pounds of 
wool, valued at $12,480. A noble 

CliesterTille, Me. 

Franklin cO. Wilson's stream 
passes through this town, and emp- 
ties below the falls of Sandy river. 
First settled, 1782. Incorporated, 
1802. Population, 1837, 1,040.— 
This is an excellent township of 
land. It yielded, in 1837, 4,046 
bushels of wheat, it lies about 24 
miles N. E. from Augusta, and 12 
N. E. from Farmins:ton. 


Cliesuncook Lake, Me., 

In the county of Piscataquis, is 
a large sheet of water through 
which the Penobscot river passes. 
It also receives the Kahkoguamook 
and Uinbazookskus rivers. This 
lake is about 25 miles long and 3 
miles wide. The country around 
this fine lake is very fertile, and as 
well adapted to the growing of wool 
and wheat as any portion of the 
globe. Its central point is about 
130 miles W. N. W. from Augusta. 

Cliicliester, N. H., 

Merrimack co., is situated 8 miles 
E. from Concord. It was granted 
May 20, 1727, to NathaniefGookin 
and others ; but the settlement was 
not commenced until 1758, when 
Paul Morrill settled in the woods. 
The soil is good, and richly repays 
the cultivator. There is little waste 
land, nor are there any considerable 
elevations. The east part of the 
town is watered by the Suncook 
river, which affords its mill seats 
and some productive intervale. — 
Population, 1830, 1,081. In vari- 
ous parts of the town are still to be 
seen traces of Indian settlements ; 
and implements of stone, chisels, 
axes, &c., have frequently been 
found. The vicinity was once the 
residence of a powerful tribe, the 
Penacooks, and their plantations of 
corn, &c., were made on the banks 
of the Suncook. 

Chickopee River, Mass. 

This river rises in Spencer, Lei- 
cester and Paxton, and receives the 
waters of Quaboag pond, in Hrook- 
field. It passes through Warren. 
At Palmer it receives the waters 
of Ware and Swift rivers, and en- 
ters the Connecticut, at the N. part 
of Springfield, 7 miles S. from South 

Cliilmark, Blass. 

Dukes CO. This town lies on the 
S. and W. part of Martha's Vine- 

yard. Gay Head, in this town, 
is the south point of the island ; it 
is 150 feet above the sea, and is 
crowned with one of the five light- 
houses in this county. 

Gay Head is about 60 miles E 
N. E. of Montauk, on Long Island, 
and bears marks of having been 
subject to volcanic eruptions. The 
place abounds in specimens of min- 
erals worthy the notice of geolo- 
gists. This part of the island is in- 
habited by some descendants of the 
native Indians, who own part of the 
lands. There is some salt manufac- 
tured at this place, and about 7,000 
sheep are kept. Chilmark was in- 
corporated in 1714. Population, 
1S37, 700. It lies 92 miles S. E. 
from Boston, 33 W. from Nantucket, 
23 S. E. by S. from New Bedford, 
and 12 S. W. by S. from Edgarton. 

Cliina, Me. 

Kennebec co. This is a town- 
ship of excellent land, which pro- 
duced, in 1837, 12,953 bushels of 
wheat. China is watered by a lake, 
or " Twelve Mile Pond," a fine 
miniature of the beautiful Skane- 
ateles, in the state of New York. 
At the outlet of this pond, into the 
Kennebec, are excellent mill priv- 
ileges. On the bank of the pond 
is a very flourishing village, a steam 
saw-mill, and an academy. A vis- 
it to this place, Albion, Clinton, 
Dixmont, and the neighboring 
towns, where wheat is worth a dol- 
lar and a half a bushel in the barn, 
is a good specific against the west- 
ern/ever. A trip from Boston to 
China and back again may be per- 
formed in the same number of hours 
that it takes to go up either of the 
canals 100 miles, towards an un- 
seen country. China lies 20 miles 
N. E. from Augusta, 48 S. W. from 
Bangor, and 138 from Boston. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,G41. 

Chittcndeu County, Vt. 

Burlington is the chief town. 
This county is bounded N. by 


Franklin county, E. by Washina;- 
ton county, S. by Addison county, 
and W. by Champlain lake. Area, 
600 square miles. Population, i82U, 
16,055; 1830, 21,765. Population 
to a square mile, about 44. A 
few settlements commenced in this 
county before the revolution, but 
they were all abandoned during the 
war. Incorporated, 1732. Its soil 
varies from rich alluvial meadows 
to light and sandy plains. The 
beautiful Champlain washing its 
western boundary gives it great fa- 
cilities for trade to New York and 
Canada. Its agricultural and man- 
ufacturing products are consider- 
able. In 1S37 there were in this 
county about 80,000 sheep. La- 
moille river passes through its N.W. 
corner, and Onion river pierces its 
centre. These streams, with sever- 
al others of smaller size, afford the 
county a good water power. 

Cliittcudeu, Vt. 

Rutland co. Most of the lands 
in this town lie on the Green moun- 
tains. Some of the branches of 
White river pass through it. Near 
the head of the Philadelphia branch, 
so called, is a mineral spring, said 
to contain some good qualities. — 
Manganese of an excellent quality 
is found here. In 1837 there were 
in Chittenden about 700 people, and 
3,000 sheep. About 12 miles N. 
by E. from Rutland, and 40 N. by 
E. from Montpelier. 

Claremout, N. H., 

Sullivan co., is 12 miles N. from 
Charlestown, 8 W. from Newport, 
47 N. N. W. from Concord, and 97 
W. N. W. from Portsmouth. This 
town ii watered by Connecticut and 
Sugar rivers, besides numerous 
Drooks and rivulets. Claremont is 
a fine undulating tract of territory, 
covered with a rich gravelly loam, 
converted into the best meadows 
and pastures. The hills are sloping 
acclivities, crowned with elegant 
Bummits. The intervales on the 

rivers are rich and luxuriant. The 
agricultural products are large and 
valuable. The houses and build- 
ings present a very favorable ap- 
pearance, and indicate the wealth 
and prosperity of the town. In this 
town are a number of manufacto- 
ries of cloth, paper, leather, &c. 
Claremont was granted in 1764. — 
In this town are fine beds of iron 
ore and limestone. It received 
its name from the country seat of 
Lord Clive, an English general. 
The first settlement was made in 
1762, by Moses Spafford and David 
Lynde. Many eminent men have 
resided in this town. The Hon. Ca- 
leb Ellis came to reside in Clare- 
mont about 1800. In 1804, he was 
chosen a member of congress from 
this state ; in 1809 and 1810, a mem- 
ber of the executive council : in 
1812, an elector of pres^ident and 
vice-president of the U. S. In 1813, 
he was appointed judge of the su- 
perior court, in which office he re- 
mained till his death. May 9, 1816, 
aged 49. Population, 1830, 2,526. 

Clarendeii, Vt. 

Rutland co. Otter creek, Milf 
and Cold rivers and several brooks 
give this town good mill privileges. 
Here are good marble, a mineral 
spring, and a curious cave. The 
soil is a gravelly loam, with con- 
siderable alluvial meadow along its 
streams. There are some manu- 
facturing establishments in Claren- 
den, and about 13,000 sheep. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,585. It lies 55 miles 
S. from Montpelier, and 7 S. from 

darlvsl>urgli, Mass. 

Berkshire co. A branch of Hoo- 
sick river passes through this moun- 
tainous township. It lies 125 miles 
W. by N. from Boston, and 27 N. 
by E. from Lenox. Incorpora- 
ted, 1798. Population, 1837, 386. 
Clai'ksburgh has a small cotton mill, 
5 saw mills, and 255 sheep. 


ClarksTille, ]V. H. . 

This (own was incorporated in 
1S32. It had before that time borne 
the name of the First College 
Grant. It was granted to the trus- 
tees of Dartn:outh College, Feb. 5, 
1789. It contains 40,960 acres, and 
is situated on Connecticut river, in 
Coos county, N. of Stewartstown. 
Its population, in 1830, was 88. 

Clmtou, Mc. 

Kennebec co. This fine town- 
ship is bounded on the E. by Ken- 
nebec river. The Scbasticook pass- 
es through the toAVn, and, at the 
falls on that liver, aflbrds it a great 
hydraulic power. It has a neat and 
pleasant village on the bank of the 
Sebasticook, some manufactures, 
and large agricultural products. In 
1837 this town produced a consid- 
erable quantity of wool, and 10,807 
bushels of wheat. Incorporated, 
1795. Population, 1837, 2,642. 
Clinton lies 24 miles N. by E. from 
Augusta, and about 12 S. by E. 
from Skowhegan. 

Ccbbcssccontce "Waters, Me. 

The pond is a fine sheet of wa- 
ter, lying W, of Ilallowell, and 
connected with smaller ponds in 
Monmouth, Winthrop, Readfield, 
and Mount Vernon. The outlet 
of the pond is a river of the same 
name, which passes into a beauti- 
ful pond we see on the stage road in 
Richmond, and empties into the 
Kennebec at Gardiner. These wa- 
ters afford a great hydraulic power, 
an abundance of fish, and much de- 
lightful scenery. 

Cobscook Eay, Me, 

A large baj', the recipient of a 
number of large ponds, on the S. 
W. side of Easlport, in Passama- 
quoddy bay. See Eastjyort. 

Coil, Ca«)e and Eay. 

Having briefly described this 
cape, under Barnstable county, Ave 

have only to add that Cape Cod light 
is in N*. lat. 42° 2' 22" ; W. Ion. 
70° 4' 22". 

Cape Cod bay is in Massachu- 
setts bay, and is formed by the half 
extended arm of the cape. See 
Barnatable county. 

Coliasset, Ma^s. 

Norfolk CO. A town on Massa- 
chusetts bay, noted for its rocky 
coast and numerous shipwrecks. 6 
miles E. from Hingham, 20 E. by 
S. from Dedham, and about 16 S. 
E. from Boston, by water. Incor- 
porated, 1770. Population, 1837, 
1,331. This place has about 40 sail 
of merchant, coasting and fishing 
vessels, and a large tide- water pow- 
er. Cohasset has become a great 
resort for citizens and strangers, in 
summer months, to enjoy the ma- 
rine scenery, exhilarating air, and 
all those pleasures for which JVa- 
hant is celebrated. The value of 
the fisheries, for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, was $75,536. The 
value of salt, vessels, boots, shoes, 
and wooden ware manufactured, 
was $35,920. 

Colcliester, Vt., 

Chittenden CO., is pleasantly sit- 
uated at the head of a bay on the 
E. side of lake Champlain, 36 miles 
N. W. from Montpclier, and 6 N. 
from Burlington. This town is well 
Avatered by Onion river, and some 
smaller streams. Colchester has 
some good and some poor land, some 
trade on the lake, and about 4,000 
sheep. First settled by Gen. Ira 
Allen, in 1774. Population, 1830, 

Colchester, Ct. 

New London co. This is a plea- 
sant town ; the site of Bacon acad- 
emy. It lies 20 miles N. W. from 
New London, and 23 S. E. from 
Hartford. First settled, 1701. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,068. The surface 
of the town is uneven, with a strong 


gravelly soil. Excellent iron ore 
is found here. 

Rev. John Bulkley, a grandson 
of president Chauncy, was the first 
settled minister in this place. Mr. 
Bulkley was a very tiiitinguished 
scholar. He died in 1731. He 
published a curious treatise, in 
which he contended that the In- 
dians had no just claims to any lands 
but such as they had subdued and 
improved by their own labor. The 
following story is told in an old book. 

" The^Rev. Mr. Bulkley of Col- 
chester, Conn., Avas famous in his 
day as a casuist and sage counsel- 
lor. A church in his neighborhood 
had fallen into unhappy divisions 
and contentions, which they were 
unable to adjust among themselves. 
They deputed one of their number 
to the venerable Bulkley, for his 
services, with a request that he 
would send it to them in writing. 
The matters were taken into serious 
consideration, and the advice, with 
much deliberation, committed to 
writing. It so happened, that Mr. 
Bulkley had a farm in an extreme 
part of the town, upon which he 
entrusted a tenant. In superscrib- 
ing the two letters, the one for the 
church was directed to the tenant, 
and the one for the tenant to the 
church. The church was conven- 
ed to hear the advice which was to 
settle all their disputes. The mod- 
erator read as follows : Vou will see 
to the repair of the fences, that they 
be huilt high and strong, and you 
will take special care of the old 
black bull. This mystical advice 
puzzled the church at first, but an 
interpreter among the more dis- 
cerning ones was soon found, who 
said, Brethren, this is the very ad- 
vice we most need; the directions 
to repair the fences is to admonish 
us to take good heed in the admis- 
sion and government of our mem- 
bers : we must 'guard the church 
by our Master's laws, and keep out 
strange cattle from the fold. And 
we must in a particular manner set 

a watchful guard over the Devil, 
the old black bull, who has done so 
much hurt of late. All perceived 
the wisdom and fitness of Mr. Bulk- 
ley's advice, and resolved to be gov- 
erned by it. The consequence was, 
all the animosities subsided, and 
harmony was restored to the long 
atliicted church." 

Colebroolc, N. H., 

Coos CO., on Connecticut river, 
about 35 miles N. of Lancaster. It 
is Avatered by the Mohawk river 
and Beaver brook. The soil here 
is rich, and capable of culture. In- 
tervales of good quality stretch 
along the Connecticut. Colebrook 
was originally granted to Sir George 
Colebrook and others, and was in- 
corporated Dec. 1, 1790. There is 
an academy in this town, incorpo- 
rated in 1833. Population, 1S30, 

Colebrook, Ct. 

Litchfield co. An elevated town- 
ship of a hard gravelly soil and un- 
even surface, on the line of Mas- 
sachusetts ; 31 miles N. W. from 
Hartford, and 18 N. E. from Litch- 
field. The eastern part of the town 
is watered by Farmington river. 
Here are a number of good mill 
seats, and a manufactory of broad- 
cloth. The village is very plea- 
sant, having Mount Pisgah in the 
rear. First settled, 1765. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,332. 

Coleraine, Mass. 

Franklin co. This town was first 
settled by a colony from the north 
of Ireland, about the year 1736. It 
lies 105 miles N. W. from Boston, 
and 9 N. W. from Greenfield. It 
is watered by a branch of Deerfield 
river, which produces a water pow- 
er for 3 cotton mills and several 
other manufactories. The manu- 
factures consist of cotton goods, irou 
castings, leather, hat.-s, chairs, cab- 
inet ware, ploughs, spades, shovels, 
forks, and hoes ; total value, in one 


year, $91,000. This is a fine graz- 
ina; township, and produced, in 
1837, 16,123 pounds of wool, valu- 
ed at $9,133, the fleeces of 5,754 
sheep. Population, 1837, 1,998. 

Colleges ill New England. 

See Register. 

Coliimbia, Me> 

Washington co. At the head of 
tide water, on the W. side of Plea- 
sant river. It is a very large town- 
ship, well provided with mill seats, 
and was settled soon after the rev- 
olutionary W'ar. It lies 15 miles W. 
from Machias, and 120 E. by N. 
from Augusta. Columbia has con- 
siderable trade, particularly in lum- 
ber. Population, 1837, 793. 

ColiiMibiaj 37. H., 

In the county of Coos, lies on the 
E. bank of Connecticut river, 30 
miles N. of Lancaster, and 147 N. 
of Concord. The surface of the 
town is quite uneven, the moun- 
tains of Stratford lying along the 
S. From these a number of streams 
descend north-westerly in:o the 
Connecticut, furnishing many tine 
mill seats. There are al?o several 
small ponds in town. On the bor- 
ders of one, called Lime pond, vast 
quantities of shells arc found, from 
which a species of lime is made 
that answers for some uses. It 
was incorporated 1797. Population, 
1830, 442. 

Coliimljia, Ct. 

Tolland co. Taken from Leba- 
non, in 1800. It is 22 miles E. from 
Hartford, and about 14 S. by E. 
f;om Tolland. Population, 1830, 
9(52. Columbia is watered by a 
branch of the "VVillimantic, and has 
a satinet factory, and other ope- 
rations by water. The surface is 
uneven ; the soil hard and gravelly, 
but excellent for grazing. In this 
place, about the year 1741, the Rev. 
Dr. Eleazar Wheelock, the first 
president of Dartmouth College, 

opened a school for the instruction 
of Indian youth. He removed his 
family and pupils to Hanover, N. 
H., in the autumn of 1770. The 
snow was very deep, and Hanover 
was a wilderness. " Sometimes 
standing in the open air, at the head 
of his numerous fami-ly. Dr. V/hee- 
lock presented to God their morn- 
ing and evening prayers : the sur- 
rounding forests, for the first time, 
reverberated the solemn sounds of 
supplication and praise." This good 
man died in 1779, aged 69. 

Concord, Me. 

Somerset co. Incorporated in 
1821. Population, 1837, 524. Con- 
cord lies on the W. side of Kenne- 
bec river, 55 miles N. from Augus- 
ta, and about 20 N. from Norridge- 
wock. This is a good township, 
and produced, in 1837, 3,121 bush- 
els of wheat. 

Concord, N. H., 

The capitolof the state, and shire 
town of the county of Merrimack. 
It lies on both sides of the Merri- 
mack river, in N. lat. 43<^ 12' 29", 
and W. Ion. 71° 29'; and is 146 
miles S. W. from Augusta, Me. ; 
97 S. E. from Montpelier, Vt.; 153 
N. E. from Albany, N. Y. ; 65 N. 
N. W. from Boston, Mass. ; 103 N. 
from Providence, R. I. ; 139 N. N. 
E. from Hartford, Conn., and 474 
N. E. by E. from Washington. 
There are five ponds in Concord, 
the largest of which are Turkey, in 
the S. W., and Long pond in the 
N. W. parts of the town, on the 
streams passing from which are 
-ome valuable mills and privileges. 
The Contoocook river enters the W. 
corner of the town, and uniting 
with the Merrimack on the N. W. 
line, forms at its junction the cel- 
ebrated Duston's Island. On the 
borders of the Merrimack, which 
is the principal river of this region, 
are rich intervale lands, highly val- 
ued by the inhabitants, and well 
cultivated. Soon after entering 


Concord, the river passes over Sew- 
fill's falls, or rapids, below which i= 
Sewall's island. From thence the 
river has no natural obstruction un- 
til it reaches the falls at the S. E. 
extremity of the town, where is a 
water power, now owned by the 
Amoskeag Manufacturing Compa- 
ny, almost sufficient to move the 
machinery of another Lowell, — 
Locks are here constructed, and 
navigation by boats has been open 
since 1815 during the boating sea- 
son, adding much to the business and 
importance of tlie place. The riv- 
er is about 100 yards wide opposite 
the town; but during the great 
freshets which sometimes occur 
here, the river rises 20 feet above 
the ordinary level, presenting to 
the eye a body of water a mile in 
width. There are two handsome 
bridges thrown across the river. 

The principal village, and seat 
of most of the business of the town, 
is on the western side of the river, 
extending nearly two miles between 
the two bridges ; and is one of the 
most healtliy and pleasantly situa- 
ted villages in New England. The 
state house, state prison and court 
louse, and live very commodious 
End handsome structures for public 
worship, are in this village. The 
state house occupies a beautiful site 
in the centre of the village, and is 
constructed of hewn granite. It is 
126 feet in length, 49 in width, 50 
feet of the centre of the building 
having a projection of 4 feet on 
each front. It rises two stories 
above the basement. The height 
from the ground to the eagle on the 
top of the cupola is 120 feet. The 
cost of the building and appenda- 
ges, ^30,000. The state prison is 
also a solid structure of n assive 
granite. On the east side of the 
river is the second principal village, 
where the Sewall's Falls Locks and 
Canal Company, recently chartered, 
have commenced their work^, 
whicli, by taking the waters of the 
river in a canal from Sewall's falls. 

will create a vast and valuable wa- 
ter power at this village, that must 
ultimately prove of immense im- 
portance to the town. Another 
handsome village has grown up in 
the west part of the town. The 
intercourse with Lowell and Boston, 
by way of the canal on the Merri- 
mack, has been open since 1815, 
and a very large amount of busi- 
ness in freights has been done on 
the river. The Concord rail-road, 
to connect with the Lowell rail- 
road, has also been surveyed, and 
will doubtless soon be put in pro- 
gress. This is a link in the great 
chain of northern railways, which 
must ultimately extend from Kostcn 
to connect with the v»estern waters 
at the outlet of lake Ontario. The 
importance of extending the rail- 
road to the heart of New Hamp- 
shire has by no means been fully 
estimated by the public. Concord 
is the great thoroughfare for trav- 
ellers fiom the north, and the freight 
by horses and baggage wagons is 

The soil of this town is general- 
ly good, and the intervales very 
productive. Large masses of gran- 
ite suitable for the purposes of build- 
ing exist here, the mobt in portant of 
which is The J\^cv} Hampshire 
Ledge, a name by which in an act of 
incorporation an imir.ense mass of 
granite in the N. Vt'. part of the town 
has been designated. This ledge is 
situated about 1 1-2 miles N. V . of 
the state house, and about 200 rods 
distant from Merrimaciw liver, Vvhich 
is navigable to this place with 1 oafs. 
The course of the ledge is fiom N. 
E. to S. W. and its lise about 45° 
fiom a plane of the hoiizon, and its 
height al^out 350 feet. It presents 
a suiface of massive piinJtive 
granite, of more than 4,500 square 
rods. The rift of this stone is very 
perfect, smooth and regular; .splits 
are easily n:ade to the depth of 12 
to 20 feet, and cf almost any re- 
quired length. And unlike much 
01 the building sloiie now in ths 

&' '^ i^y^''^ 

'**»'yi "^'-"^ 


market, it has been ascertained by 
a recent examination (made by Mr. 
A. H. Hayes, of Roxbury, Mass., 
and other eminent chemists and 
geologists,) that the stone from this 
quarry is perfectly free from those 
oxides, or other mineral substances, 
which on exposure to the atmos- 
phere, mar the beauty of much of 
the New England granite. This 
stone quarries easily ; the great ele- 
vation and dip of the ledge, and its 
proximity to the river, giving it facil- 
ities of working and transportation, 
it is believed unequalled. From the 
base of the ledge to the bank of the 
Merrimack, a rail- way is contem- 
plated, the proprietors of the ledge 
having already obtained a charter 
for that purpose. As the great fa- 
cility of transportation by way of 
the river to the markets, becomes 
known, together with the fact, that 
the upward freight would, during a 
great portion of the year, go far 
towards remunerating the cost of 
transporiation of this stone to the 
seaboard — the situation, extent, and 
value of this quarry will be seen 
and appreciated. On several large 
perpendicular faces of the ledge, 
protected by shelving rocks from 
vegetable stains, but exposed for 
ages perhaps to the atmosphere, the 
stone is found to be entirely free 
from any coloring or stain, preserv- 
ing its natural color. The amount 
of the whole mass, when wrought, 
can scarcely be estimated. This 
representation is derived from gen- 
tlemen of Concord not at all in- 
terested in the quarry, and is here 
given, with the sole qualiflcation, 
that if the quality of the stone is as 
pure as is stated, there is no danger 
of over-estimating the value of the 
quarry. A specimen of this granite 
is with the editor for examination. 
Concord, originally called Pena- 
cook, vvivs granted by Massachu- 
setts to a company of settlers, 17th 
Jan., 1725, and the settlement began 
the year following. In 1733, the 
plantation was incorporated by the 


name of Rumford, which name 
it retained until 7th June, 1765, 
when the town was incorporated 
by its present name. This town 
suffered much from incursions of 
the savages. Several of the inhab- 
itants were killed, and others taken 
into captivity, between the years 
1740 and 1750. The manufactures 
of Concord are numerous and val- 
uable. They consist of books, fur- 
niture of all kinds, boots, shoes, 
granite, lumber, and a variety ot 
other articles. The manufacture 
of books is very extensive, and an- 
nually increasing. 

Population in 1775, 1,052 ; in 1790, 
1,747; in 1800, 2,052; in 1810, 
2,393 ; in 1820, 2,838 ; and in 1830, 
3,727. The present population is 
between 4 and 5 thousand. 

Among the early inhabitants and 
distinguished citizens of this town, 
may be mentioned the following : 

Hon. Timothy Walker, son 
of the first minister of Concord, an 
active patriot during the revolution, 
member of the convention of 1784, 
a legislator, and judge of the com- 
mon pleas. He died May 5, 1822, 
aged 85. 

Dr. Philip Carrigaikt, an 
eminent physician, who died in 

Hon. Thomas W. Thompson, 
a distinguished lawyer and politi- 
cian, who died 1 Oct., 1821, aged 

Sir Benjamin" Thompson" 
(known to the world as Count 
Rumford) settled and married 
here in early life. 

John Farmer, Esq., an emin- 
ent antiquary and genealogist, re- 
sided here for the last seventeen 
years of his life, and died 13 Aug., 
1838, aged 49. Mr. Farmer's health 
was always exceedingly delicate : 
he therefore, partly of necessity and 
partly of choice, adopted a very 
sedentary mode of life. He col- 
lected around him books of ancient 
date — gathered together early rec- 
ords of towns — notices of the first 


settlers of the country — inquired 
into the names, ages, characters, 
and deaths of distinguished men of 
every profession — entered into ex- 
tensive correspondence with men 
who might be able to furnish him 
with facts relative to the subjects of 
his inquiry. In short, JNIr. Farmer 
soon became known as an Anti- 
quarian, distinguished far beyond 
all his fellow citizens, for exact 
knowledge of facts and events rel- 
ative to the history of New Eng- 
land. His mind was a wonderful 
repository of names and dates and 
particular incidents, not stored up 
indeed for private gratiiication, but 
always open for the benefit of oth- 
ers. So general and well establish- 
ed was his reputation for accuracy, 
that his authority was relied on, as 
decisive in historical and genealog- 
ical facts. 

Feelings of personal attachment 
and obligations for numerous inval- 
uable tokens of friendship, received 
by the editor, would seem to require 
a full length portrait of the charac- 
ter of this distinguished man and 
estimable christian — even in a work 
of this kind; and it should be giv- 
en, had not an abler pen performed 
that act of justice. See American 
Quarterly Register. 

Concord, Vt. 

Essex CO. First settled, 1788. 
Population, J830, 1,031. On the 
W. side of Connecticut river: 38 
miles E. by N. from Montpelier, 
and 18 S. W. from Guildhall. Moose 
river, a branch of the Passump^ic, 
waters the north part of the town. 
Hall's and Mile ponds are beau- 
tiful sheets of water, and aflford a 
variety of fish. The soil of the town 
is pretty good, and keeps about 3,000 

Concord, Mass. 

One of the chief towns of Mid- 

dlesex county. This town is situ- 
ated on the river of the same name, 
17 rniles W. N. W. from Boston, 
14 S. S. W. from Lowell, and 30 E. 
N. E. from Worcester. Incorpo- 
rated, 1635. Population, 1820, 
1,788; 1837,2.023. This town was 
the first inland settlement in the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay. The 
township was originally six miles 
square, and derives its name from 
the harmony in which it was pur- 
chased of the natives. Its Indian 
title was Muskeiaquid. It took an 
active part in the prosecution of the 
war against king Philip, in 1675-6, 
and in April of the latter year, 10 
or 12 of its citizens were killed, in 
the attack made by the Indians on 
the neighboring town of Sudbury. 
The general court has frequently 
held its sessions in this town, and 
in the year 1774 the provincial con- 
gress selected it as their place of 
meeting. On the 19th of April, 
1775, a detachment of British troops, 
sent out by Gen. Gage for the pur- 
pose of seizing a quantity of mili- 
tary stores W'hich were deposited 
here by the province, w^ere met at 
the North bridge by the citizens of 
Concord and the neighboring towns, 
and forcibly repulsed. It was at 
this spot that the first regular and 
effectual resistance was made, and 
the first British life was taken, in 
the war of the revolution. The 
graves of two of the British soldiers, 
who were killed at this place, are 
still marked, and a suitable monu- 
ment is erected near the site of the 
biidge, to commemorate the event. 
The monument is of granite, in the 
form of an obelisk; its height about 
25 feet; the base, which is square, 
is a large block 5 1-2 feet broad, 
and about 3 in height. On the west 
side of the next block, is inlaid a 
slab of white Italian marble, on 
which is engraved the following in- 
scription : — 



On the 19th of April, 


Was made 

The first forcible resistance 

To British aggression. 

On the opposite Bank, 

Siood the American Militia. 

Here stood the invading Army, 

And on tliis spot 

The first of tiie enemy fell 

In the War of that Revolution 

Wiiich gave 


To these United States. 

In gratitude to God, 


In the love of freedom, 

This Monument 

Was erected 

A. D. 133(}. 

The manufactures of Concord 

consist of cotton goods, satinet and 
flannel, boots, shoes, hats, ploughs, 
lead pipe, chairs and cabinet ware. 
The whole value, in one year, ex- 
clusive of cotton goods, amounted to 

Concord River. 

This river is formed by the uniott 
of Assabet and Sudbury rivers at 
Concord : after passing through the 
towns of Bedford, Billerica, aad 
Chelmsford, it falls into the Mer- 
rimack between Lowell and Tewks- 
bury. This river furnishes the Mid- 
dlesex canal with most of its wa- 

Connanicut Island. 

See Jamestown, R. I. 


This state is bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. by Rhode Island, 
S. by Lung Island Sound, and W. by New York. Situated between 
40° 58' and 42° 1' N. lat. and 72° 37' and 71° 43' W. Ion. 


The territory of Connecticut was formerly two colonies — Connecticut 
and JVew Haven. The colony of Connecticut was planted by citizens 
of Massachusetts, at Windsor, in 1633, and at Hartford and Wethersfield, 
in 1635 and 1636. Th« colony of New Haven was settled by English- 
men, in 163S. In 1665, the two colonies were united by a charter 
granted by Charles the Second. This charter was the basis of the gov- 
ernment till 1818, when the present constitution was formed. 

The executive power of this State is vested in a Governor, and a Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, who is also President of the Senate. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and a House of Represen- 
tatives, which together are called The General Assembly. The Senate 
consists of not less than 18 and not more than 24 members. Most of the 
towns may choose two Representatives ; the others one each. All the 
above are elected annually by the people on the first Monday of April. 
The General Assembly has one stated session in each year, commencing 
on the first Wednesday in May. These sessions are held alternately, in 
the years of even numbers; at New Haven, and in liie years of odd num- 
bers at Hartford. 

The elec?:ors are all the white male citizen;;, of twenty-one years of 
age, who have resided in the town in which tliey vote six months next 
preceding, and have a freehold estate of the value of seven dollars; or 
who have performed regular military duty in sa* ....... 'cr oae year next 

previous to the voting ; or who shall have paid a tax within a year of his 
voting. Those entitled to be electors, before voting must be qualified by 
taking the oath prescribed by law. 

No person is obliged to join any religious society ; but having joined 
one he is liable by law to pay his proportion of the charges for its sup- 
port. He may separate himself from such society by leaving with the 
clerk thereof notice of his determination to close his connextion with 

The judicial department of the government embraces the Supreme 
Court of Errors, the Superior Court, a County Court in each county, a 
City Court in each city, a Court of Probate in each probate district, and 
as in other states in New England, an indefinite number of Justices of 
the Peace in each county. 

The Supreme Court of Errors consists of five Judges, who are ap- 
pointed by the General Assembly, and hold their offices during good 
behavior, but not after seventy years of age. They are subject to re- 
moval by impeachment, and by the Governor, on the address of two thirds 
of the members of each House of the General Assembly. This court 
has final and exclusive jurisdiction of writs of error, brought to revise 
the judgment on decrees of the Superior Court, in law or equity, wherein 


the errors complained of appear from the files and records. It holds one 
term in each county annually. Though this body, as a court, has cog- 
nizance only of writs of error, yet, as all the members are Judges of the 
Superior Court, a convenient opportunity is afforded, while they are 
thus assembled, for hearing argumencs on motions for new trials and cases 
stated. These, of course, occupy a considerable portion of the term 
The opinions of the Judges upon them are given by way of advice to 
the Superior Court, in which the cases are respectively pending. This 
advice is always followed, it being understood as settling the law. 

A Judge of the Superior Court of Eri-ors, designated by that court 
for the purpose, constitutes the Superior Court; two terms of which are 
held in each county annually. This court has cognizance of civil actions 
at law brought by appeal from the County, City, and Probate Courts, 
and of suits for relief in chancery, wherein the value of the matter in 
demand exceeds $335. In criminal causes it has exclusive jurisdiction 
of offences punishable with death or imprisonment for life ; and, concur- 
rent with the County Courts, of all other offences not committed to the 
jurisdiction of the Justices of the Peace. It has also cognizance of 
writs of error brought to revise the decisions of inferior tribunal i ; of 
petitions for divorce, and of writs of scire facias, audita querela, and 
petitions for new trials relative to matters in or issuing from the court. 
In capital cases, the Judge holding the court is to call to his assistance 
one or more of the other Judges. 

The County Courts consist of one Chief Judge and two Associate 
Judges, who are appointed annually by the General Assembly. This 
court has original jurisdiction of all civil actions at law, wherein tlie 
value of the matter in demand exceeds $35, and appellate jurisdiction 
of all such actions wherein the value in demand exceeds ^7. It has 
also original and final jurisdiction of suits for relief in equity, wherein 
the value in demand does not exceed $335, except suits for relief against 
a judgment rendered on a cause depending at law in the Superior 

In criminal jurisdiction, it has cognizance of all offences above the 
jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace, and not exclusively within that 
of the Superior Court. It is also vested with powers relative to the 
laying out of roads, granting licences, the appointment of survey- 
ors, &.C. 

Justices of the Peace have cognizance of all actions at law of a civil 
nature, wherein the value in demand does not fexceed $35, and of all 
offences and crimes punishable by fine not exceeding $7, or by impris- 
onment not exceeding thirty days, or both. 

In each of the six cities — Hartford, New Haven, New London, Nor- 


wich^ Middletown, and Bridgeport— there is a City Court, consisting of 
the Mayor and two senior Aldermen, having cognizance of all civil 
actions wherein the title of land is not concerned. 

Succession of Governors since the Union of the Colonies under 
the Charter in 16G5. 

John Winthrop, 1665—1676. William Leet, 1676— 16S3. Robert 
Treat, 1683— 169S. Fitz-John Winthrop, 1693—1707. Gurdon Sal- 
tonstall, 1708—1724. Joseph Talcott, 1725—1741. Jonathan Law, 
1742—1751. Roger Wolcott, 1751—1754. Thomas Fitch, 1754—1766. 
William Pitkin, 1766—1769. Jonathan Trumbull, 1769—1784. Mat- 
thew Griswold, 1784—1786. Samuel Huntington, 1786-1795. Oliver 
Wolcott, 1796,1797. Jonathan Trumbull, 1798— 1809. John Treadwell, 
1809—1811. Roger Griswold, 1811, 1812. John Cotton Smith, 1813— 
1817. Oliver Wolcott, 1817—1827. Gideon Tomlinson, 1827—1831. 
John S. Peters, 1831—1833. Henry W. Edwards, 1833, 1834. Samuel 
A. Foot, 1834—1836. Henry W. Edwards, 1836— 

Succession of Chief Justices. 

Richard Law, 1785—1789. Eliphalet Dyer, 1789—1793. Andrew 
Adams, 1793—1797. Jesse Root, 1798—1807. Stephen M. Mitchell, 
1807—1814. Tapping Reeve, 1814, 1815. Zephaniah Swift, 1815— 
1819. Stephen T. Hosmer, 1819—1833. David Daggett, 1833—1835. 
Thomas S. Williams, 1835— 

Connecticut is divided into the eight following counties — Hartford, 
New Haven, New London, Fairfield, Windham, Litchfield, Middlesex, 
and Tolland. The face of the state is greatly diversified by hills and 
valleys. In general it is so exceeding undulating or uneven, as to pre- 
sent an everchanging variety of objects. The ranges of mountains from 
the north, which terminate near New Haven, are not remarkable for their 
elevation in this state. Connecticut is finely watered by the noble river 
from which it derives its name, by the Thames, Housatonick, Nauga- 
tuck, and other smaller streams. The soil varies from a gravelly loam 
on the hills, to a rich and exceedingly fertile alluvial in the valleys. The 
former is more particularly adapted to grazing, the latter to tillage. These 
lands, in possession of an industrious class of freemen, yield, in great 
abundance, all the varieties of products common to a northern climate. 
The mineral resources of the state are not yet fully developed; but 
iron and copper ores of excellent qualities are found ; also, lead, cobalt, 
marble and freestone. The mineral waters at Stafford are the most 
celebrated. Manufacturing establishments are scattered over the slate. 


on its numerous delightful streams ; and foreign commerce, the coasting 
trade, and fisheries, enjoy an enviable position on the waters of Long 
Island Sound. 

Blessed with a salubrious climate and fertile country, the people 
of Connecticut probably enjoy as much happiness as is allotted to 
any part of the human family. Her population is always full, and although 
her domain is not extensive, no Atlantic state has sent so many of her 
children, or so large a share of intellectual wealth, to the western 
country, as Connecticut. 

If the love of liberty, literature and the arts, of social feeling and 
moral worth has an asylum on earth, Connecticut may boast that it is 
to be found within her bosom. See Register. 

Connecticut River. 

This beautiful river, the Quonek- 
tacut of the Indians, and the pride 
of the Yankees, has it sources in 
New Hampshire and the moun- 
tainous tracts in Lower Canada. Its 
name in the Indian language is said 
to signify Long River, or, as some 
render it. River of Pities. Its 
general course is north and south. 
After forming the boundary line 
between New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, it crosses the western part of 
Massachusetts, passes the state of 
Connecticut, nearly in its centre ; 
and, after a fall of 1,6 JO feet, from 
its head, north of latitude 45°, it falls 
into Long Island Sound, in latitude 
41° 16'. The breadth of this river, 
at its entrance into Vermont, is 
about 150 feet, and in its course of 
60 miles it increases to about 390 
feet. In Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, its breadth may be esti- 
mated from 450 to 1,050 feet. It is 
navigable to Hartford, 45 miles, for 
vessels of considerable burthen, and 
to Middletown, .30 miles from the 
sea, for vessels drawing 12 feet of 
water. By means of canals and oth- 
er improvements, it has been made 
navigable for boats to Fifteen Mile 
Falls, nearly 250 miles above Hart- 
ford. The most considerable rapids 
in this river, are Bellows' Falls, the 

falls of Queechy, just below the 
mouth of Waterqueecby river ; the 
White river falls, below Hanover, 
and the Fifteen Mile Falls, in N.H. 
and Vt.; — the falls at ISIontague and 
South Hadley, in Mass., and the 
falls at Enfield, in Ct., where it 
meets the tide water. The perpen- 
dicular height of the falls which 
have been overcome by dams and 
locks between Springfield, in Mass., 
and Hanover, in N. H., a distance 
of 130 miles, is 240 feet. Bars of 
sand and gravel extend across this 
river in various places, over which 
boats with difficulty pass in low 
water. The most important tribu- 
taries to the Connecticut, in New 
Hampshire, are Upper and Lower 
Amonoosuck, Israel's, John's, Mas- 
coiny. Sugar, and Ashuelot rivers: 
in Vermont, Nulhegan,Passun)p3ic, 
Wells, Wait's, Onipomponoosuck, 
White, Waterqueecby, Black, W^il- 
liams, Sexton's, and West rivers : 
in Massachusetts, Miller's, Deer- 
field, Agawam, Chickopee, and 
Westfield rivers ; and the Farming- 
ton, in Connecticut. 

The intervales are generally 
spread upon one or both sides of the 
river, nearly on a level with its 
banks, and extending from half a 
mile to five miles in breadth ; but 
its borders are in some places high, 


TOcVy and precipitous. In the 
spring it overtlovvs its banks, and, 
through its winding course of nearly 
400 miles, forms and fertilizes a 
vast tract of rich meadow. In point 
of length, utility, and beauty, tiiis 
river forms a distinguished feature 
of New England. 

Large quantities of shad are taken 
in this" river, but the salmon, which 
formerly were very plenty, have 
entirely disappeared. Connecticut 
river passes through a ba^^in or val- 
ley of about 12,000 square miles ; 
it is decorated, on each side, with 
towns and villages of superior 
beauty, and presents to the eye a 
wonderful variety of enchanting 

Connecticut Liake, 

The source of one of the princi- 
pal branches of Connecticut river, 
is situated in lali'ude 45"^ 2' ; and is 
5 1-2 miles in length, and 2 1-2 in 
width. It is supplied by several 
small streams, rising in the high- 
lands north of the lake. 

Contoocook River, N. H., 

A stream of considerable length 
and importance, waters most of the 
tow^n: in the W. part of the county 
of Hillsborough. It has its origin 
from several ponds in Jaffrey and 
Rindge, and in its course north re- 
ceives numerous streams from Dub- 
lin, Peterborough, Sharon, Nel- 
son, Stoddard, Washington, Antrim, 
Dcerins, and Hillsborough. In 
Hillsborough it takes a N. E. and 
easterly direclion, and proceeds 
through Henniker to Hop'dnfon, 
where it receives Warner and Black- 
water rivers. From Hopkinton, 
it pursues a meandering course 
through Concord, and discharges 
itself into Ihe Merrimack between 
Concord and Poscawen. Near the 
moutb of this river is Dustoii's 
7s/artf/, celebrated as (he ppot where 
Mrs. Duston destroyed several In- 
dians, in 1698. 

Contvay, N. H., 

- Strafford co., on Saco river, is 72 
miles N.N. E. from Concord, 60 
N. by W. from Dover, and 57 N . W. 
from Portland, Me. Swift river, a 
considerable and very rapid stream, 
Pequawkett river, and a stream tak- 
ing its rise in Walker's pond, the 
two last affording mill privileges, 
discharge themselves into Saco riv- 
er in this town. Saco river here is 
from 10 to 12 rods wide, and about 
2 feet deep ; its current rapid and 
broken by falls. This river has 
been known to rise 27 and even 
30 feet in the course of 24 hours. 
The largest collections of water in 
Conway are a part of "Walker's 
pond, and Little Pequawkett pond, 
which lie in the south part of the 
town. There is a detached block 
of granite on the southern side of 
Pine hill, the largest perhaps in the 
state. A spring near the centre of 
the town,on t)ie bank of Cold brook, 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, 
ha^ been visited frequently by the 
infirm, and in many in-tances found 
beneficial. There are also in this 
town large quantities of magnesia 
and fuller's earth. The intervale 
along the river is from 50 to 220 
rods^wide. The plain, when prop- 
erly cultivated, produces large 
crops of corn and rye. Conway is 
quite a resort for travellers from the 
east and south to the White Moun- 
tains. From Conway village to 
Crawford's house, at the Notch, is 
34 miles N. V\\ Daniel Foster, in 
1765, obtained a grant of this town- 
ship, confaining"21,040 acres, on 
condition that each grantee should 
pay a rent of one ear of Indian corn 
annually for the space often years, 
if demanded. Pop. liiSO, 1,601. 

ConAvay, Mass. 
Franklin co. This town is divid- 
ed from Shelburne, on the north, 
hyDeerfield river. It lies 100 miles 
W. by N. from Bo-ton, and 7 S. W. 
from Greenfield. Incorporated, 


1767. Population, 1837, 1,445. A 
tributary of Deerfield river passes 
its northern border. The manu- 
factures of Conway consist of cotton 
and woolen goods, leather, boots, 
shoes, hats, chairs and cabinet 
ware. Total amount, year ending- 
April 1, 1837, $22,475. The value 
of wool grown, the same year, was 
^5,072, comprising 4,830 fleeces, 
weighing 14,490 pounds. 

Cooper, Me. 

Washington co. Denny's river, 
emptying in(o Meddybcmps lake, 
and both discharoino- into the river 
St. Croix at Baring, water the north 
part of this town. It lies 164 miles 
E. N. E. from Augusta, and about 
36 miles N. from Machias. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 571. 

Coos County, N. H. 

Coos is the largest county in New 
Hampshire, and within its limits 
are situated the contested Indian 
Stream territory and the greater 
part of the ungranted lands. Large 
portions of this county are exceed- 
ingly mountainous, cannot be culti- 
vated, and will probably never be 
settled. This county extends from 
lat. 43° 58' to the extreme north 
part of the state — being 76 miles in 
length, and having a mean width 
of about 20 miles. The area of 
this county is estimated to contain 
1600 square miles, or, in round 
numbers, 1,000,000 of acres. It i? 
bounded N. by Lower Canada, E. 
by Maine, S. by the county of 
Strafford, W. by Grafton county 
and the state of Vermont. Besides 
the stupendous pile of the White 
Mountains, which distinguishes this 
county, there are several other 
mountains of no inconsiderable 
height. Those in Shelburne, Jack- 
son and Chatham, on the east side 
of the White Mountains, are bold 
and abrupt. The Peak and Bow- 
back mountains in Stratford ; the 
elevations in Dixville, Columbia 

and Kilkenny; Pilot and Mill moun- 
tains in Stark ; Cape Horn in North- 
umberland, and Pondicherrj', S. W. 
of JefTerson, are all of considerable 
magnitude, and partake of the gran- 
deur of the White Hills. In the 
neighborhood of high mountains are 
generally found the sources of our 
greater rivers. Three of the prin- 
cipal rivers of New England, the 
Connecticut, Androscoggin and Sa- 
co, take their rise in this county. 
There are numerous other streams 
which become tributary to these 
rivers, the principal of which are 
the Mohawk, Amonoosuck, Israel's 
and John's rivers. The Margalla- 
way, after receiving the waters of 
Dead and Diamond rivers, unites 
with the Androscoggin, near Um- 
bagog lake. This lake lies princi- 
pally in Maine. Lake Connecti- 
cut is situated north of the 45th de- 
gree of latitude, and is one of the 
sources of Connecticut river. The 
largest pond in this county lies N. 
of lake Connecticut, and is connect- 
ed with it by an outlet. 

The first settlement in the coun- 
ty was made at LancasteV in 1763. 
The county was incorporated Dec. 
24, 1803, and the name is of Indian 
origin, although the same name oc- 
curs in the New Testament. The 
population in 1820 was 5,549 ; and 
in 1830, 8,390. Coos contains 23 
towns, and five inhabitants to a 
square mile. Lancaster, Shiretown. 

Coriniia, Me. 

Somerset co. Situated 53 miles 
W. N. W. from Augusta, and about 
35 N. W, from Norridgewock. In- 
corporated, 1816. Population, 1837, 
1,513. In 18.37,8,864 bushels of 
wheat were raised in this valuable 

Corintli, Me. 

Penobscot co. This delightful 
township lies 81 miles N. W. by W. 
from Augusta, and about 25 S. W. 
from Bangor. It is watered by 


Kenduskeag stream, and produced, 
in 1S37, 9,017 bushels of wheat. 
Population, same year, 1,232. 

Coriutli, Vt. 

Orange co. Two branches of 
Wait's river water this town. It is 
20 miles S. E. from Montpelier, and 
10 N. E. from Chelsea. First set- 
tled, 1777. Population, 1S30, 1,953. 
Corinth is pleasant, with a rough, 
strong soil, and very healthy ; it 
has some water power and keeps 
&bout 7,000 sheep. 

Coruisli, Me. 

York CO. Bounded N. by the Saco 
and Great Ossipee rivers. 83 miles 
S. W. from Augusta, 32 W. by N. 
from Portland, and 2.5 N. from Al- 
fred. Incorporated, 1794. Popula- 
tion, 1337, 1,180. Cornish produces 
good crops of wheat and some wool. 

Cornisli, N. H., 

Sullivan co., is 17 miles N. 
from Charlestown, 50 N. W. by W. 
from Concord, and 12 N. W. from 
Newport. Connecticut river waters 
the west part of this town, and by 
means of a bridge connects Cornish 
with Windsor, Vt. The soil is gen- 
erally fertile. The town is hilly, 
with the exception of that part 
which lies on the river. Blow-me- 
down and Bryant's brooks are the 
only streams of any magnitude — 
these afford good mill privileges, 
which are improved for a woolen 
factory, a large number of saw, and 
other mills. The agricultural pro- 
ducts of this town are very consid- 
erable. Cornish was granted June 
21, 1763, to Rev. Samuel McClin- 
tock, of Greenland, and 69 others. 
The town was settled in 1765. — 
Population, 1S30, 1,687. 

Cornville, Me. 

Somerset co. This town is well 
watered by the Wessaransett river, 
a branch of the Kennebec. There 
is much choice land in Cornville. A 
few of the inhabitants, in 1837, by 

way of experiment, raised 7000 
bushels of wheat. Incorporated, 
1793. Population, 1837, 2,112. 
Bounded S. by Skowhegan: 33 miles 
N. from Augusta, and about 13 N. 
E. from Norridgewock. 

Corn^vall, Vt. 

Addison CO. This is a level town- 
ship of excellent laud, watered by 
Otter creek and Lemonfair river, but 
without any good mill sites. Not- 
withstanding there is a very large 
swamp in this town, the people are 
healthy, and many live to a very 
great age. Very beautiful calca- 
reous spar, in rhomboidal crystals, is 
found here. The population of 
Cornwall, in 1830, was 1,264. The 
number of sheep, in 1837, was about 
16,000. It lies 60 miles S. W. from 
Montpelier, and bounded N. E. by 
Middlebury. First settled, 1774. 

Coi'uwall, Ct. 

Litchfield CO. This mountainous 
township lies on the east side of 
Housatonick river, 38 miles W. 
fi'om Hartford, 48 N. from New Ha- 
ven, and 13 N. by W. from Litch- 
field. First settled, 1740. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,714. The scenery 
about the south village is very beau- 
tiful. " The cheerful appearance 
of the church and the little cluster 
of white buildings surrounding it, 
at the bottom of a deep valley, is 
uncommonly pleasing. The moun- 
tains and lofty hills which rise im- 
mediately on almost every side, 
shutting out, in a sense, the most of 
the world from this apparently re- 
tired spot, present a bold and most 
striking feature in the landscape." 
Tliis villnge is the place where a 
Foreign Mission School was estab- 
lished in 1318. "This school had 
its rise from the attempt to qualify 
Obookiah, a pious Owyheean youth, 
and others, for missionaries to their 
native lands. Ohookiah was brought 
to this country in 1808, and came to 
New Haven. While here, Samuel 
J. Mills, a student in Yale Col- 


lege, and other pious persons, com- 
miserating his condition, instructed 
him in the Christian religion. — 
Obookiah soon became hopefully 
pious, and strongly advocated a mis- 
sion to his countrymen. Other na- 
tives of his island were found, and 
a school was established for their 
benefit at Cornwall. In 1820, the 
•number of pupils in this school was 
29, of whom 19 were American In- 
dians, and 6 from the islands of the 
Pacific ocean, Obookiah sickened 
and died in Cornwall in 1818. The 
following is the inscription on his 
monument in the village grave 

"In memory of Henry Obookiah, 
a native of Owyhee. His arrival in 
this country gave rise to the For- 
eign Mission School, of which he 
was a worthy member. He was 
once an Idolater, and was designed 
for a Pagan Priest ; but by the grace 
of God, and by the prayers and in- 
structions of pious friends, he became 
a Christian, He was eminent for 
piety and missionary zeal. When 
almost prepared to return to his na- 
tive isle to preach the gospel, God 
took him to himself. In his last 
sickness he wept and prayed for 
Owyhee, but was submissive. He 
died without fear, with a heavenly 
smile on his countenance and glory 
in his soul, Feb. 17th, 1818, aged 

Coventry, K". H., 

Grafton co., is 70 miles N. N. 
W. from Concord, and 12 E. S. E. 
from Haverhill. This town is wa- 
tered by branches of Olivcrian brook 
and Wild Amonoosuck rivers. In 
the S. E. part of Coventry is Moose- 
hillock mountain. Owl-head moun- 
tain lies in the W. part of this town. 
Coventry presents a rough and 
mountainous aspect, and the soil in 
several parts is not capable of cul- 
tivation. This town was granted 
Jan, 31, 1764, to Theophilus Fitch 
and others, and was settled after the 

commencement of the revolutionary 
war. Population, 1S30, -141. 

Coventry, Vt. 

Orleans co. This is a good town- 
ship of land, and is watered by Bar- 
ton's and Black rivers, two good 
mill streams, running north into 
Memphremagog lake. First set- 
tled, 1800. Population, 1830, 728. 
The south part of the lake lies in 
Coventry, and gives it some trade 
to Canada. Here are about 2,500 
sheep. Coventry lies 47 miles N. 
by E. from Montpelier, and has Iras- 
burgh on the south. 

Coventry, R. I. 

Kent CO. This is a very large 
township, extending to the north 
line of Connecticut, and admirably 
watered by numerous ponds and by 
Flat river, an important branch of 
the Pawtucket. Coventry has long 
been noted for the number and va- 
riety of its manufactures, particu- 
larly of cotton and wool. The soil 
of the town is well adapted to agri- 
cultural pursuits : it is well improv- 
ed, and a large amount of the pro- 
ducts of the dairy, &c., is annually 
produced. There are a number of 
pleasant villages in Coventry, all 
of which are flourishing, both in 
manufacturing and trade. This 
town was distinguished for its pat- 
riotism during the revolutionary 
contest. Coventry was incorpora- 
ted in 1742. It lies 10 miles S. W, 
from Providence, and 8 N. W. from 
East Greenwich. Population, 1830, 

Coventry, Ct. 

Tolland co. The Wangombog, a 
beautiful pond, and the Skungamug, 
Hop and Willimantic rivers, give 
Coventry a good water power. In 
the south part of the town are two 
cotton and two woolen manufacto- 
ries, a machine shop and other im- 
portant mechanical operations by 
water. This town was the gift of 


Mohegan Sachem, and was first set- 
tled in 1700. The surface is un- 
even, and the soil a gravelly loam. 
Coventry lies 18 miles E. from 
Hartford, and bounded N. by Tol- 
land. Population, 1830,2,119. This 
town is celebrated as the birth place 
of Capt. Nathan Hale, who vol- 
unteered his services to Washington 
to discover the position of the ene- 
my on Long Island. He fell a mar- 
tyr to American liberty, Sept. 22, 
1776, aged 22. 

LoRKNzo Dow, an itinerant 
preacher, celebrated for his eccen- 
tricity was born in Coventry, Octo- 
ber, 16, 1777. It is said that during 
the 38 years of his ministry he travel- 
led in this and foreign countries two 
hundred thousand miles. He died at 
Georgetown, D. C, Feb. 2, 1834. 

Craftsbuiry, Vt. 

Orleans CO. Col. Ebenezer Crafts 
was the father of this little repub- 
lic. He died, much honored, in 
1810, aged 70. Craftsbury was 
settled in 1789. It lies 25 miles S. 
of the Canada line, 25 miles N. from 
Montpelier, and about 15 S. S. W. 
from Irasburgh. Population, 1830, 
982. This town is finely watered 
by Black river. Wild Branch, and 
5 large natural ponds well stored 
with trout. The village in the cen- 
tre of the town is elevated, com- 
manding a delightful prospect. 

Cranljerry Islands. 

Hancock co. These islands were 
attached to the town of Mount 
Desert until 1830, when they wore 
incorporated. They lie a few miles 
E. by S. from Mount Desert, and 
embrace Great and Little Cranber- 
ry, Sutton's and Baker's islands. 
These islands afford good harbors, 
and are well located for the shore 
fishery. Population, 1837, 183. 

Cranston, R. I. 

Providence co. The soil of this 
town is more favorable for the pro- 

duction of fruits and vegetables 
than for grain. Some parts of the 
town are very fertile, but considera- 
ble of the land is rough and uneven. 
Providence m.arket is supplied with 
a considerable amount of the pro- 
ducts of the town. The manufac- 
ture of cotton is very extensively 
pursued. The water power of the 
Pawtuxet and Powchasset are con- 
stant and abundant. Cranston is a 
very pleasant town, audits proxim- 
ity to Pjovidence, (only five miles 
south west) gives it peculiar privi- 
leges. Population, 1830, 2,653. 

Cra-wford, Me. 

Washington co. Incorporated, 
1828. This is a good township of 
land, and was formerly called Ad- 
ams. A large pond in Crawford 
and a part of another are the sour- 
ces of a branch of East Machias 
river. Population, 1837, 311. Lo- 
cated about SO miles N. from Ma- 
chias and 140 E. N. E. from Au- 

Croolced River, Me., 

Rises in ponds in Oxford county; 
passes through Harrison, Otisfield, 
and Raymond, and joins the outlet 
of Long pond into Sebago lake. 

Ci'oss Island, Me. 

A large island, off Machias bay, 
attached to the town of Cutler. 

Croydon, N. H., 

Sullivan co., is 44 miles N. N. 
W. from Concord, and 8 N. from 
Newport. The N. branch of Su- 
gar river waters this town. On this 
stream is a woolen factory and other 
mills. Croydon mountain is of con- 
siderable elevation, on which are 
two small ponds. The soil of Croy- 
don is moist and rocky, and produ- 
ces valuable crops. Croydon was 
granted by charter to Samuel Chase, 
and others. May 31, 1763. It was 
settled in 1766. Population, 1830, 


Ciunberland County, Me. 

Portland^ chief town. Bounded 
N. by Oxford county, E. by Lin- 
coin county, S. by the Atlantic 
ocean, and W. by York county and 
a part of Oxford. Area about 990 
square miles. Population, 1820, 
49,445; 1330,60,11.3; 1837,67,619. 
This is an excellent county of land, 
and under good cultivation. The 
commerce and manufactures of 
Portland and neighl)oring towns 
is very extensive. Casco bay is 
within the county, and aflbi'ds it 
unrivalled privileges for navigation 
and the fisheries, it is watered by 
several large mill streams; and the 
Cumberland and Oxford canal to 
Sebago lake, within the county, 
gives to its chief town considerable 
inland trade. In 1837 there were 
37,803 bushels of wheat raised in 
the county, and it contained 71,01)0 

CiimberlaiKl, "Je. 

Cumberland co. Set Oii" from the 
westerly part of North Yarmouth 
in lS2l'. Population, 1837, 1,525. 
54 miles S. W. from Augusta, and 
10 N. from Portland. Cumberland 
ispiea-antly situated on Casco bay, 
and enjoys many navigable facili- 

Ciiinl}erland, £i. I. 

Providence co. The manufac- 
ture of cotton and boat bui';!in<^ hi 
extensively pursued in this town. 
Pawtucket, Mill and Peter's rivers, 
and Abbot's run, afford the town 
a good hydraulic power, Tliere is 
some good land in Cumberland, 
producing a variety of articles for 
Providence market ; from which it 
is distant 8 miles N. Population, 
1S30, 3,675. See Smithjield. 

Cuiumington, Mass. 

Hampshire CO. Located 110 miles 
W. from Boston, and 20 W. N. Vv\ 
from Northampton. Incorporated, 
1779. Population, 1837, 1,204. In 
this town are good mill seats on 


Westfield river. It is a mountain- 
ous township but excellent for graz- 
ing. It produced, in 1837, 12,486 
pounds of merino wool, the weight 
of 4,162 fleeces, valued at j^7,492. 
The manufactures of Cummington 
consist of cotton and woolen goods, 
leather, palm-leaf hats, and scythe 
snaiths. Total value, in one year, 
$98,000. Iron ore and soapstone. 

Cusliiiig, Me. 

Lincoln co. Situated on Saint 
George's river, opposite to the town 
of St. George ; 45 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and about 12 miles S. from 
Warren. This place was settled by 
emigrants from Ireland, as early as 
1733. Here was the celebrated 
stone fort, erected by Maj. Burton. 
Incorporated, 1789. Population, 
1837, 732. 

Cutler, Me. 

"Washington co. Bounded S. by 
the Atlantic Ocean, and about 20 
miles S. W. from W. Quoddy Head. 
It contains Little Machias bay and 
Little river, and is bounded W. by 
Machias bay. Cutler has a good 
harbor, and a population of 667 
164 miles E. by N. from Augusta, 
and 10 S. E. from Machias. 

OaltoM, 1^. H., 

Coos CO., lies between Lancas- 
ter and Littleton, on Connecticut 
river, and is 110 miles N. by W. 
from Concord. The Great, or Fif- 
teen Mile Fails, on Connecticut 
river, commence in Dalton, and 
rush tumultuously along its north- 
west boundary. The town is also 
watered by John's i-iver and sever- 
al large brooks. The western and 
southern parts of this town are hilly. 
Along the borders of John's river 
the majestic white pine abounds. 
The soil on the highlands is deep, 
and well adapted to grazing — is 
generally good, and in some parts 
easy of cultivation. Blake's pond, 
the only one in town, lies at the S. 
E. corner. Moses Blake and Wal- 


ter Bloss were the first settlers of 
Dalton, and, with their families, for 
a long time the only inhabitants. 
Dalton was incorporated Nov. 4, 
1784. Population, 1830, 532. 

Blake was a famous hunter, and 
the moose which frequented the 
pond called by his name often fell 
by the accuracy of his shots. Blake 
and Capt. Bucknam, (one of the 
first settlers of Lancaster,) on a 
hunting excuz'sion, fired at a mark, 
on a small bet. Bucknam fired first, 
and cut, at the distance of twenty 
rods, near the centre of a mark 
not larger than a dollar. Blake 
then lired, and on going to the tree 
on which the mark was made, no 
trace of the ball could be discover- 
ed. Bucknam exulted : " Cut out 
your ball," said Blake, " and you'll 
find mine o'top on't." The opera- 
tion being performed, the two balls 
were found, the one safely lodged 
upon the other. 

Dalton, Mass. 

Berkshire co. Dalton lies 120 
miles W. from Boston, and 13 N. 
by E. from Lenox, Incorporated, 
1784. Population, 1837, S30. It 
is watered by the E. branch of Hou- 
satonick river. Its manufactures 
consist of woolen cloth, iron cast- 
ings, paper, (^37,500,) leather, 
boots and shoes. Total amount in 
one year, $47,815. In 1837, the 
product of 4,238 sheep was 11,852 
pounds of wool, valued at $5,725. 

Dauiariscotta River, Ble. 

This river has its source in ponds 
in Jefferson and Nobleborough ; its 
general course is southerly between 
Newcastle, Edgecomb and Booth- 
hay, on the west, and Bristol on the 
east. It is navigable for vessels of 
any burthen 16 miles, to the bridge 
which crosses it between New- 
castle and Nobleborough. Large 
quantities of lumber descend, and 
many merchant ships are built on 
this broad and navigable arm of the 

Dana, Mass. 

Worcester CO. Dana lies 65 miles 
W. from Boston, and 27 W. N. W. 
from Worcester. A branch of Swift 
river passes through the town. — 
Some leather is tanned in Dana; 
and 70,000 palm-leaf hats were 
made in 1836, valued at $10,500. 
Incorporated, 1781. Population, 
1837, 660. 

Banbury, X. H., 

Is in the S. part of Grafton county, 
and lies in the form of a diamond. 
It is 16 miles S. by W. from Ply- 
mouth, and 30 N. W. from Concord. 
This town is generally hilly, al- 
though there are some intervales. 
In the N, E. part is a large hill. 
The eastern section is watered by 
Smith's river. The first settle- 
ment was made in Nov. 1771, and 
incorporated June 18, 1795. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 786. 

Banljiiry, C't. 

One of the shire towns of Fair- 
field county. Danbxiry, the Pah- 
qidoque of the Indians, was first 
settled in 1684. The soil of the 
town is good, and agreeably diver- 
sified by hills and valleys. The 
borough or village is very pleasant- 
ly situated in a vallej'^, and is me- 
morable for its sacrifices in the 
revolutionary war. It was nearly 
destroyed by the British, with a 
large amount of continental stores, 
April, 1777. It lies 22 miles N. 
from Norwalk, 36 S. S. W. from 
Litchfield, and 55 S. W. by W. 
from Hartford. 

Robert Saxdemaa:. the foun- 
der of a religious sect, died atDanbu- 
ry in 1771, aged 53. See Bethel, Ct. 

Dantoy, Vt. 

Rutland co. Situated near the 
head waters of Otter creek, 17 miles 
f . from Rutland, and QS S. S. W. 
from Montpelier. First settled, 
1768. Population, 1830, 1,362.— 
The surface of the town is rough 


and mountainous, but productive 
of extraordinary feed for cattle. 
Some of the best dairies in tJie 
country are in Danby. Large quan- 
tities of butter and cheese, of supe- 
rior quality, are annually sent to 
market. There are some curious 
caverns in this town, — one of great 

Danvers, Mass* 

Essex CO. This flourishing town 
lies 2 miles N. W. from Salem, to 
which it was attached until 1757, 
and called " Salem Village." It is 
very pleasant, and has some mill and 
navigable privileges. The manu- 
factures, for the year ending April 
1, 1837, amounted to $854,300. 
The articles manufactured w^ere 
boots and shoes (^435,900,) leather, 
($264,400,) nails, bricks, pottery 
ware, glue, lasts, morocco, choco- 
late, shoe pegs, shoe and soap boxes, 
soap and candles. Population, 1830, 
4,228 ; 1837, 4,804. 

Danville; Me. 

Cumberland co. This town, for- 
merly called Pejepsco, was set off 
from the westerly part of North 
Yarmouth, in 1802. Population, 
1837,1,282. It lies 32 miles S. W. 
from Augusta, and 29 N. from Port- 
land. Farming is the principal 
business of the inhabitants ; — they 
raised, in 1837, 1,218 bushels of 

Danville, N. H. 

Rockingham CO. It was incorpo- 
rated February 22, 1760 ; formerly 
a part of Kingston, and until re- 
cently known by the name of 
Hawke. The soil is uneven, but in 
some parts good. Acchusnut river 
passes over the north west corner. 
Long pond lies in the east part, and 
Cub pond on the west side. The 
first settlements were made by Jon- 
athan Sanborn, Jacob Hook, and 
others, between 1735 and 1739. 
Panville lies 33 miles S. E.of Con- 

cord, and 10 S. W. of Exeter. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 528. 

DanvUle, Vt. 

Chief town of Caledonia county. 
Danville village is very pleasantly 
situated near the centre of the town, 
and is surrounded by a beautiful 
farming country : first settled, 1784. 
Charles Racket brought the first 
woman into town, in 1785. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 2,631. It lies 28 miles 
N. E. from Montpelier. Here is a 
medicinal spring ; and Jo's pond, 
covering 1,000 acres, lies mostly 
in the town. Several tributaries of 
the Passumpsic give the town a good 
water power. This is a place of 
considerable manufactures and do- 
mestic trade. 

Darieu, Ct. 

Fairfield co. Until 1820, Darien 
was a parish in the town of Stam- 
ford. The soil is excellent, and well 
adapted to tillage and grazing. It 
lies 5 miles W. from Norwalk, and 
42 S. W. from New Haven. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,201. 

During divine service, on Sun- 
day, 22d of July, 1781, a party of 
British troops surrounded the meet- 
ing house at this place, and made 
the whole congregation prisoners. 
The males were tied, two and two, 
and the Rev. Moses Mather, D. D., 
a man distinguished for his learning 
and piety, placed at their head.. 
They were marched to the shore, 
taken to Long Island, and after- 
wards to New York, where they 
suffered a cruel imprisonment. — 
Some of them never returned. 

Dartiuoutli, Mass. 

Bristol CO. The Apcniganset of 
the Indians. A sea-port on Buz- 
zard'^s bay, on the W. side of Ac- 
cushnet river, 56 miles S. from Bos- 
ton, and 3 W. from New Bedford. 
Incorporated, 1664. Population, 
1837, 3,958. There are 5 vessels 
belonging to this place engaged in 



the whaling business, and a num- 
ber in coasting, and other fisheries. 
The product of the whale, cod and 
mackerel fisheries the 5'^ear end- 
ing April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$93,103. The value of wool grown 
was $2,110. The value of salt 
manufactured, of vessels built, of 
leather tanned, and of boots and 
shoes made, was $27,910. 

Dead Rivers. 

Dead river, in Maine, is an im- 
portant tributary to the Kennebec. 
It rises on the border of Lower 
Canada, in the county of Franklin. 
It passes in a S. E. direction 40 or 
50 miles; then N. about 10 ; it then 
changes to the E., and after passing 
about 15 miles it falls into the Ken- 
nebec, about 20 miles below Moose 
Head lake. The lands on Dead 
river and its numerous tributaries 
are very fertile and heavily wooded. 

Dead Stream, in Maine, is a con- 
siderable tributary to the Penob- 
scot, from the west. It empties at 
Orono, opposite to the Indian vil- 

Dead river, in New Hampshire, 
rises in the N. W. corner of the 
state, in Coos countj% and after re- 
ceiving several tributaries it falls 
into the Margallaway. 

Deaniield, Me. 

Located at the N. W. corner 
of Hancock county, between Pas- 
sad umkeag river and Olammon 
stream. See Barnard., Me. 

Dearborn, Me. 

Kennebec co. The soil of this 
town is excellent, par'dcularly 
around Great pond, which covers 
a large portion of the surface, and 
has a number of islands of great 
beauty. This pond is connected 
with other large sheets of water 
in Belgrade, Mount Vernon, and 
Rome, which render this part of 
the county highly picturesque. 
Dej^rborn was incorporated in 1812. 

Population, 1837, 799. 15 miles 

N. from Augusta. 

DedliaiU) Me. 

Hancock co. Incorporated, 1837. 
It is bounded on the W. by Ells- 
worth. Union river passes through 
its N. W. corner. In 1837 it had 
a population of 427, and produced 
1,550 bushels of wheat. 

Dedliam, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. County town. This 
town is on Charles river, with a good 
water power. It is 10 miles S. W, 
from Boston, 35 E. from Worcester, 
35 N. W. from Plymouth, 26 N. by 
W. from Taunton, and 30 N. E. 
from Providence. It has a beauti- 
ful court house of hewn granite. 
Its Indian name was Tiot. A rail- 
road from the centre of the towa 
meets the Boston and Providence 
rail-road, about two miles at the 
eastward. The manufactures of 
Dedham the year ending April 1, 
1S37, amounted to $510,755. They 
consisted of cotton^ad woolen goods, 
leather, boots, shoes, paper, mar- 
bled paper, iron castings, chairs, 
cabinet wares, straw bonnets, palm- 
leaf hats, and silk goods. The val- 
ue of silk goods manufactured was 
,^10,000. Dedham village is very 
pleasant, and possesses every in- 
ducement to render it a desirable 
residence for the mechanic or man 
of leisure. Population, 1837, 3,532. 

Deerfield, N. H., 

Rockingham co., is 18 miles E. 
S. E. from Concord, and .30 W. by 
N. from Portsmouth. This town 
has a number of very pleasant ponds 
which afford fish of various kinds. 
Moultou's pond is situated at the 
W. part of the town. Th^s pond, 
although small, is noted on account 
of its having no visible inlet, and 
therefore is supposed to be supplied 
by a subterraneous passage, as the 
water is always of nearly an equal 
depth. The outlets of the pond run 


in opposite directions. This pond 
is also remarkable on account of 
having been often sounded with- 
out discovering any bottom. A 
branch of Lamprey river passes S. 
and S. E, through Deerfield. The 
surface of this town is uneven, the 
soil durable and fertile, although 
hard to cultivate. The Tuckaway, 
between Deerlield and Notting- 
ham, the Saddlebackjbetween Deer- 
iield and Northwood, and Fort 
mountain on the W., are the prin- 
cipal elevations. In the W. part 
of this town, on the southerly side 
of a ridge of rocks which extend 
3-4 of a mile, is a natural formation 
in the rock, for sixty years desig- 
nated as the " Indian Camp." Its 
sides are irregular, and the top is 
covered by a canopy of granite 
projecting about 14 feet, affording 
a shelter from the sun and rain. 
On the E, side of this camp is a 
natural flight of steps, or stones 
resembling steps, by which per- 
sons may easily ascend to the top 
of the rock. Deerfield was once 
a place of favorite resort for deer, 
great numbers of which were tak- 
en. While the petition for the 
town was pending, a Mr. Batchel- 
der killed a deer, and presenting it 
to Gov. Wentworth, obtained the 
act under the name of Deer-field. 
The town was settled in 1756 and 
1758, by John Robertson, Benja- 
min Batchelder and others. ' Dur- 
ing the Indian wars the inhabitants 
lived in garrisons, but no serious 
mischiefs were experienced. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,086. 

Deerfield, Mass. 

Franklin co. At the junction of 
Connecticut and Deerfield rivers, 
on the west side of the former, and 
on both sides of the latter. The 
Pocumtuck of the Indians. It is 
95 miles W. by N. from Boston, 4 
S. from Greenfield, and 17 N. from 
Northampton. First settled, 1668. 
Incorporated, 1682. Population, in 
1837, 1,952. A very pleasant town, 


and a place of considerable com- 
merce. The manufactures of this 
place, for one year, amounted to. 
$147,190. They consisted of leath- 
er, boots, shoes, cutlery, ($100,000) 
chairs, cabinet ware, palm-leaf hats» 
lead pipe, haircloth and beds, wag- 
ons and carriages, pocket books, 
wallets, and corn-brooms. The val- 
ue of wool grown., the same year, 
(1836) was $2,708. From the 
mountains in this vicinity, delight- 
ful views are obtained. Deerfield 
Mountain is 700 feet above the 
plain. Sugar Loaf Mountain rears 
its conical peak of red sandstone 500 
feet above the river, and overlooks 
the ground of many sanguinary 
battles between the whites and In- 
dians. This is a place of great in- 
terest. While the traveller lingers 
here, enjoying the beautiful scene- 
ry, and hospitality of the people of 
this quiet town, he cannot fail of 
contrasting the present scenes with 
those of former years ; particularly 
with that at Bloody Brook, in 1675, 
when a company of 90 young men 
from the county of Essex were slain 
by ruthless savages. A monument, 
commemorating this event, was 
erected in 1838. 

Deerfield River* 

This beautiful and important In- 
dian stream joins the Connecti- 
cut between Greenfield and Deer- 
field. It rises in the high grounds 
of Windham county, near Strata 
ton, Dover and Somerset, Ver- 
mont ; and proceeding in a S. E. 
course, it passes through Monroe, 
Florida, Rowe, Charlemont, Haw- 
Jey, Bucklaad, Shelburne and Con-, 
way. The most important tributa- 
ries to this stream are Cold river; 
a river from Heath and Coleraine ; 
one from Leyden, via Greenfield, 
and a river from Conway. Its whole 
length is about 50 miles. In some 
places Deerfield river is rapid, and 
its banks very precipitous. Its pas- 
sage through the mountains is very 
curious and romantic. 


Deering, N. II., 

Hillsborough co., 23 miles S. W. 
from Concord, and 22 N. W. from 
Amherst. It is diversitied with 
hills and valleys ; is well watered, 
and its soil is favorable to the seve- 
ral purposes of agriculture. There 
are three ponds, Dudley, Pecker's, 
and Fulton's, The two former are 
sources of the N. branch of Piscat- 
aquog river. There are some man- 
ufactures in this town, and bricks 
are made in a considerable quanti- 
ty. Deering was incorporated Jan. 
17, 1774. The name was given by 
Gov. John Went worth, in honor of 
his wife, whose maiden name was 
Dering. The first permanent set- 
tlement was made in 176o,byAlex- 
Hnder Robinson. Population, 1830, 

Deei* Isle, Me. 

Hancock co. This town is con- 
stituted of three principal Islands — 
Deer Island, Little Deer Island, 
and the Isle of Haut. They com- 
prise about 17,000 acres, and were 
inhabited before the revolutionary 
war. Incorporated, 1789. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 2,473. The principal 
island lies about 2 miles S. W. from 
Sedgewick harbor, and 95 miles E. 
by S. from Augusta. These islands 
have good harbors, and are well lo- 
cated for the shore fishery. Al- 
though they are situated near the 
sea they produce good crops and 

Deer Islaiids, N. H. 

In Connecticut river, between 
Lyman and Barnet, Vt,, are five 
in number. The largest contains 
38 acres. 

Denmark, Me. 

Oxford CO. Incorporated, 1807. 
Population, 1837, 1,082. It lies 85 
miles S. W. by W. from Augusta, 
about 28 S. W. from Paris, and 47 
N. W. from Portland. Denmark is 
finely watered by Saco river and 

several beautiful ponds. The prin- 
cipal business of the inhabitants is 
agricultural, for which they have 
a fertile soil, and which produced, 
in 1837, 2,560 bushels of wheat. 

Dennis, Mass. 

Barnstable co. This town crosses 
the cape, and was taken from Yar- 
mouth in 1793. Population, 1837, 
2,750. It lies 8 miles E. by N. 
from Barnstable, and 7 W, from 
Harwich. The first salt produced 
by solar evaporation in this country 
was made in this town, by John 
Sears and others, in 1776. About 
7,000 tons of shipping belong to this 
town, principally engaged in fish- 
ing and coasting, and all manned by 
natives of the town. Bass river, 
rising from a pond, affords a small 
water power. 150 ship-masters be- 
long to this town, sailing from va- 
rious ports in the Union. The pro- 
ducts of the cod and mackerel fish- 
ing, in one year, amounted to $50,- 
899. The manufacture of com- 
mon salt, Epsom salts, vessels, and 
lampblack, amounted to $25,975. 

Deianysville, Me. 

Washington co. This town is 
bounded on the S. by Cobscook 
bay, and watered by a river of the 
same name. It lies 172 miles E. 
N. E. from Augusta, and 22 N. E. 
from Machias. Population, 1837, 

Derby, Vt. 

Orleans co. First settled, 1795. 
It is bounded on the N. by Lower 
Canada, and on the Wr by Mem- 
phremagog lake. Clyde river, the 
outlet of Salem pond, affords it a 
good water power. This town is 
very pleasant, level and fertile ; — 
it has some manuf^xctures ; — the 
farmers are industrious and rear a 
large number of sheep. Derby is 
50 miles N. N. E. from Montpe- 
lier, and 15 N. N.E. from Irasburgh. 
Population, 1830, 1,469. 


Derby, Ct. 

New Haven co. The Indian 
name of this town was Paugasset. 
It was purchased of the Indians, 
and incorporated in 1675. The sur- 
face of the town is uneven, with 
some fertile meadow on the banks of 
the rivers. Derby is watered by the 
Housatonick and Naugatuck rivers. 
Derby Landing, Smithville and 
Humphreysville, are the principal 
places of business. 

The Landing is on the east side 
of the Housatonick, just below the 
junction of that river with the 
Naugatuck, and is 8 miles N. W. 
from New Haven, and 14 from the 
mouth of the river at Stratford, on 
Long Island Sound. Vessels of 10 
feet draught of water can pass to 
the Landing, fi-om which wood and 
other commodities are transported 
by water. 

Smithville is located in view of 
the Landing, and commands a beau- 
tiful prospect. It has extensive 
manufactures of copper, in sheets 
and wire, augurs, carriage springs 
and axletrees, nails and tacks, flan- 
nels, satinets, and other operations 
by the waters of the Naugatuck, 
passing through a canal of aI)out 
a mile in length. This village was 
commenced in 1834, and is very 

Humphreysville is located in a 
small valley, on the Naugatuck 
river, about 4 miles from the Land- 
ing. The Humphreysville Ivlanu- 
facturing Company was incorpora- 
ted in 1810. The'building is 4 sto- 
ries high and 100 feet long. In this 
village and around it is some of the 
most beautiful and romantic scene- 
ry in New England. This village 
derived its name from the Hon. 
David Humphreys, a native of 
Derby, a poet, an aid to Washing- 
ton, and a minister to Spain. He 
died at New Haven, February 21, 
1818, aged 66. 

Derry, JT. H. 

' Rockingham co. A fine grazing 

township, taken from Londonderry 
in 1828. The principal manufac- 
tures are linen thread and cloth, 
palm-leaf hats and shoes. The 
village is very handsome, and a 
great thoroughfare for travellers. 
The soil is very productive, and the 
inhabitants are remarkable for their 
industry, general wealth and lon- 
gevity. Derry lies 18 miles W. 
S. W. from Exeter, and 25 S. E. 
from Concord. Population, 1830, 

Dexter, Me. 

Penobscot co. This town was 
iirst settled in 1801. Incorporated, 
1815. It lies 67 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 35 N. W. from Ban- 
gor. Population, 1S37, 1,401. Dex- 
ter is a valuable tov.'nship of land. 
The farmers reap a rich reward for 
their labors. In 1837, 7000 bushels 
of wheat was raised. In this town 
is a pond covering 500 acres, at 
the outlet of which are mills and a 
beautiful village. 

Diamond River, Hi. H. 

Diamond river has its principal 
source in Diamond pond, in Stew- 
artstown. From thence it passes 
through Dixville, and after receiv- 
ing several tributaries, falls into the 
Dead river near its junction with 
the Margallaway. 

Diglitoii, Mass. 

Bristol CO. A port of entry, on 
the west side of Taunton river, oppo- 
site to Berkley. Population, 1837, 
1,453. 40 miles S. from Boston, 8 
S. from Taun:on, and 20 N. W. by 
W. from New Bedfo;d. There are 
in this place three cotton factories, 
a woolen mill, a furnace, and other 
iron works. Tonnage of the dis- 
trict, 9,032 tons. The noted " Digh- 
ton Rock," so called, on which are 
inscriptions difficult to decypher, 
in fact lies on the Berkley side of 
the river. The value of cotton and 
woolen goods, boots and shoes, 
pig iron and wooden ware manu- 


factured, and vessels built in Digh- 
ton, in one year, was $30,000. 

Dixfield, Me. 

Oxford CO. This is a good farming 
town on the north bank of the An- 
droscoggin river, 42 miles N. W. 
by W. from Augusta, and 25 N. by 
E. from Paris. Incorporated, 1803. 
Population, 1837, 1,148. In 1837, 
5,522 bushels of wheat was raised 
in Dixfield. 

Dixmont, Me. 

Penobscot co. This town deriv- 
ed its name from Dr. Elijah Dix, 
late of Boston, one of the original 
proprietors, and from a hill or moun- 
tain in the town, beautifully wood- 
ed to its summit. It is on the height 
of land between the Kennebec and 
Penobscot. The surface of the 
town is undulating; the soil excel- 
lent and of easy cultivation. It an- 
nually produces large quantities of 
hay, some corn, rye and vrool. — 
In 1837, a bounty of $649 40 was 
obtained for raising 932 1-2 bushels 
of wheat. There is a pond in the 
town and some mill privileges. 
Dixmont lies 44 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 24 S. W. from Ban- 
gor. Incorporated, 1807. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,323. 

Dixville, N. H., 

Coos CO., was granted in 1805, 
to the late Col. Timothy Dix, 
jr., of Boscawen. It comprises 
31,023 acres of uneven land. Nu- 
merous streams meander through 
this town from the surrounding 
heights. Dixville lies about 40 
miles N. N. E. from Lancaster. 
In 1810 it had a population of 12 ; 
and in 1830, of only 2. 

Dorcliester, N. II., 

Grafton co., is situated on the 
highlands between Connecticut 
and Merrimack rivers, 12 miles 
from the former, and 8 from the 
latter. It is 23 miles S. by E. 
from Haverhill, 50 N. W. from 

Concord, and 90 N. W. by W. from 
Portsmouth. The principal streams 
are the S. branch of Baker's river, 
a branch of Mascomy, and Rocky 
branch. There are two considera- 
ble ponds, both in the W. part of 
the town. The soil in same parts 
is very fertile ; particularly the in- 
tervales on the branch of Baker's 
river. The highlands are very un- 
even, and the greater part rocky. 
First settled about the year 1772. 
Population, 1830, 702. 

Dorcliester, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This ancient and 
respectable town lies on Dorches- 
ter bay, in Boston harbor, 5 miles S. 
from Boston, and 7 N. E. from Ded- 
ham. Population, 1837, 4,564. It 
was first settled by a party of Puri- 
tans from England. These pilgrims 
landed from the ship Mary and 
John, at Nantasket, on the 11th of 
June, 1630, and on the 17th day of 
that month they located themselves 
at the Indian Mattapan, and called 
it Dorchester, in honor of their pi- 
ous and learned friend, the Rev. 
John White, of Dorchester, 120 
miles W. from London. The town 
was incorporated on the 7th of 
September following, and included 
most of the territory of the towns 
of Milton, Canton, Stoughton, Sha- 
ron, and that part of Boston on which 
stand " Dorchester Heights," me- 
morable for their sudden conversion 
into a fortress, for the protection of 
Boston harbor, by order of Wash- 
ington, on the night of March 4, 
1776. These lands were obtained 
from the Indians by purchase, not 
by combat. The present limits of 
the town are about 6 by 3 1-2 
miles. Dorchester furnished pio- 
neers for the settlement of many 
parts of the country. A party from 
this town crossed the trackless wil- 
derness in 14 days, and settled Hart- 
ford, on Connecticut river, in 1635. 
In 1695, another party emigrated 
from this place, and settled Dor- 
chester, in South Carolina, and af- 


terwards Medway, in Georgia. The 
soil of Dorchester is rocky, but ve- 
ry fertile and under a liii!,h state of 
cultivation. It is exceedingly pro- 
ductive, particularly of vegetables, 
fruits and flowers. Its surface is 
greatly variegated, presenting a 
continual succession of picturesque 
and delightful views of the coun- 
try, city, and sea. Its hill-tops and 
valleys are decked with farm hou- 
ses and tasteful villas, and no where 
can be found the unio^ of town and 
country enjoyments more complete. 
The beautiful Neponset washes the 
whole of the southern border of 
the town, and besides its navigable 
privileges, affords it a large and val- 
uable water power. The first wa- 
ter mill in America was erected in 
this town, in 1633 ; and here, about 
the same time, the cod fishery, the 
boast of New England, was first 
commenced. There are now 4 ves- 
sels employed in the whale, and 16 
in the cod and other fisheries. To- 
tal tonnage, 2,210 tons. Capital 
invested, $190,000. Product, in 
one year, $138,349. The manu- 
factures of Dorchester consist of 
cotton goods, boots, shoes, hats, pa- 
per, c.ihinet ware, block tin, tin 
ware, leather, wearing appnrel, 
soap, candies, chocolate, and play- 
ing cards; the aggregate amount of 
which, in one year, was <S;457,400. 
The fii-st settlers of Dorchester 
came a regularly organized church, 
with its pastor and officers. They 
soon erected a house of public wor- 
ship ; but it is a singular fact that 
" none can tell the precise spot 
where the first meeting-house was 
located, nor does a single stone re- 
main to designate the site of the 
original burying ground." There 
are, however, some mementos of 
olden times. The earliest date in 
the present ancient cemetery that 
can be distinctly traced,is 1644. We 
copy the following from among ma- 
ny singular effusions, found on the 
grave-stones in that cemetery, in 
commemoration of the dead. 

'' Here lies our Captain and Major of 
Suffolk was withal, 

A Godly Magistrate was he and Ma- 
jor General, 

Two troops of horse with him here 
came, such worth his love did crave, 

Ten companies of foot also, mourning 
marched to his crave. 

Let all that read be sure to keep the 
faith as he lias done 3 

With Clirist he lives now crowned, his 
name was Humphrey Atherton." 

On the grave of three brothers, hy 
the name of Clarke. 

"Here lies three Clarks, their accounts 
are even, 

Entered on earth, carried up to heav- 

Johnson, in his " Wonder Work- 
ing Providence," thus speaks of 
Dorchester in 1654. 

" The forme of this Towne is al- 
most like a Serpent turning her 
head to the Northward ; over 
against Tomp?on's Island, and the 
Castle, her body and wings being 
chiefly built on, are filled sojne- 
whrtt thick of Houses, onely that 
one of her V/ ings is clift, herTayle 
being of such large extent that 
Shce can hardiy draw it after her. 
Her houses for dwelling are about 
one hundred and forty ; Orchards 
and Gardens, full of Fruit-trees, 
plenty of Come Land, although 
much of it hath been long in tillage, 
yet hath it ordinarily good crops ; 
the number of trees are near upon 
1500. Cowes and other Cattell of 
that kinde about 450. Thus hath 
the Lord been pleased to increase 
his poore dispersed people, whose 
number in this Flock are n^ar about 
150. Their first Pastor called to 
feede them was the Reverend and 
godly Mr. Maveruck." 

Among the first settlers of Dor- 
chester was George Minot, a rul- 
ing elder of the church for thirty 
years. He erected a dwelling-house 
in that part of Dorchester where 
the pleasant village of Neponset 
now stands. That house is now 
standing, and is doubtless one of 


the oldest houses in the country. 
It is in good repair, and has ever 
remained in possession of Mr. Mi- 
not's lineal descendants. Mr. Mi- 
not died December 24, 1671, aged 
78. This house is more celebrated 
for the female heroism displayed 
within its walls, than for its anti- 
quity. A party of Narraganset In- 
dians, hunting on the borders of Ne- 
ponset river, stopped at elder Mi- 
not's house and demanded food and 
drink. On being refused they 
threatened vengeance, and the sa- 
chem, or chief of the party, left an 
Indian in ambush to watch an op- 
portunity to effect it. Soon after, 
in the absence of all the family, 
except a young woman and two 
small children, the Indian attacked 
the house and fired at the young 
woman, but missed his mark. The 
girl placed the children under two 
brass kettles and bade them be si- 
lent. She then loaded Mr. Minot's 
gun and shot the Indian in the 
shoulder. He again attacked the 
house, and in attempting to enter 
the window, the girl threw a shovel 
full of live coals into his face and 
lodged them in his blanket. On 
this the Indian fled. The next day 
he was found dead in the woods. 
The Indian's name was Chicka- 
taubut, but not the Narraganset sa- 
chem of that name. The govern- 
ment of Massachusetts bay present- 
ed this brave young woman with a 
silver wristband, on which her name 
was engraved, with this motto, — 
*' She slew the A''arrhaganset hun- 

Dorset, Vt. 

Bennington co. This town was 
first settled in 1768, and organized 
the following year. Paulet and 
Battenkill rivers rise in this town, 
and, with the waters of Otter creek, 
which pass the northern part, afford 
some mill privileges, which are used 
for manufacturing purposes. There 
are two mountains partly in this 
town, the Dorset and Equinox. 

There is a cavern in the south part 
of the town of some note. It is 
entered by an aperture nearly 10 
feet square, " which opens into a 
spacious room nine rods in length 
and four wide. At the further end 
of this apartment are two openings 
which are about 30 feet apart. The 
one on the right is three feet from 
the floor, and is about 20 inches by 
six feet in length. It leads to an 
apartment 20 feet long, 12 wide and 
12 high. From this room there is 
an opening sufficient to admit a man 
to pass through sideways about 20 
feet, when it opens into a large hall 
80 feet long and 30 wide. The 
other aperture from the first room 
is about as large as a common door, 
and leads to an apartment 12 feet 
square, out of which is a passage to 
another considerable room, in which 
is a spring of water. This cavern 
is said to have been explored 40 or 
50 rods without arriving at the end." 
Dorset lies 26 miles N. from Bur- 
lington and 91 S. S. W. from Mont- 
pelier. Population, 1830, 1,507. 

lloiiglas, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town lies 
47 miles W. S. W. from Roston, 17 
S. E. from Worcester, and 21 N. 
W. from Providence. Population, 
1830, 1,742. Here is good mead- 
ow land, iron ore, and valuable 
water privileges on Mumford river. 
In this town was manufactured, in 
1836, ^55,000 value of cotton goods ; 
boots and shoes, ^5,250 ; leather, 
$1,500 ; and $1 16,400 of axes and 
hatchets ; besides large quantities 
of hatchet handles and shoe lasts. 
Incorporated, 1731. 

Dover, Me. 

Piscataquis co. Bounded N. by 
Piscataquis river, S. by Garland, 
W. by Sangerville and E. by Atkin- 
son. It lies 77 miles N. by E. from 
Augusta, and about 35 miles N. W. 
fi-om Bangor. Incorporated, 1822. 
Population, 1837, 1,042. Dover is 
the shire town of this new county. 


and remarkable for its beauty. It 
produced, in 1837, 10,290 bushels 
of wheat. 

Dover, N. H. 

This is one of the raost interest- 
ing and important towns in New 
Hampshire. It is one of the county 
towns of Strafford county, and lies 
40 miles E. from Concord, 12 N. 
W. by N. from Portsmouth, and 45 
S. W" from Portland. Population, 
1830, 5,549. The principal streams 
of Dover, are the Cocheco, and 
Bellamy Bank, ov Back river. They 
take a S. E. course tl-.rough the 
town, and unite with other waters 
to form the Piscataqua. 

Cocheco, or Quochecho river, 
lias its rise from several small 
streams in New Durham, which 
unite in Farmingtou, whence the 
river meanders through Rochester, 
there receiving the Isinglass, a trib- 
utary, and thence passes through 
Dover into the Newichwannock, or 
Salmon Fall river, the principal 
branch of the Piscataqua. The 
Cocheco is a beautiful river, and 
very important to the inhabitants of 
Rochester and Dover. Passing over 
this town in any direction, the trav- 
eller finds no rugged m.ountains, nor 
extensive barren plains, but occa- 
sionally ascends gentle swells of 
land, from the height of which the 
eye meets some delightful object; 
a winding stream, a well cultivated 
farm, or a distant village. In the 
S. part of the town is a neck of 
land about 2 miles long and half a 
mile broad, having Piscataqua on 
one side, and Back river on the 
other. From the road on either 
liand, the land gradually descends 
to the rivers. It commands a very 
delightful, variegated, and exten- 
sive prospect of bays, adjacent 
shores, and distant mountains. On 
this neck the first settlement of 
the town was made, in 1623, by a 
company in England, whose design 
it was to plant a colony, and estab- 

lish a fishery around the Piscata- 
qua ; for which purpose they sent 
over, with several others, Edward 
and William Hilton, fishmongers, 
of London. These men commenced 
their operations on the Neck at ji 
place by the Indians called Wini- 
chahanat ,\\\\\c\i they called ./Vorf^- 
am, and afterwards Dover. For 
several years, this spot embraced 
the principal part of the population 
of the town ; here was erected the 
first meeting-house, afterwards sur- 
rounded wilii an entrenchment, and 
flankarts, the remains of which are 
still visible ; here tlie people as- 
sembled to worship, and to transact 
their public business. In process 
of time, the business and popula- 
tion of the town began to centre 
around Cocheco falls, about 4 miles 
N. W. from the neck. These falls 
are in the river whose name they 
bear, and give to the water that pas- 
ses over them a sudden descent of 
32 1-2 feet. Situate at the head of 
navigation, about 12 miles from the 
ocean, having a fertile country on 
the north, west, and south, they are 
considered among the most valu- 
able in New England. Around 
these falls the beautiful village of 
Dover is situated, containing many 
handsome buildings. 

The Dover "Cotton Factory Com- 
pany,'' at Cocheco falls, was incor- 
porated in 1820. They have one 
brick mill of 420 feet by 45, 7 stories 
high, and two other mills of the 
same material, 154 by 43 feet, one 
5 and the other 6 stories high. — 
These mills contain 25,040 spindles 
and 768 looms, and manufacture an- 
nually 5,000,000 yards of cotton 
cloth ; the principal part of which 
is bleached, and printed into calico 
hy the company. This company 
employ a capital of more than a 
million of dollars, and about 1,000 
persons. There are other manu- 
facturing establishments at Dover, 
but this is the principal. 

A society of Friends was estab- 


lished here at an early period, and 
formerly comprised about one third 
of the population. 

A congregational church was or- 
ganized in 1638. A Mr. Leverich, 
a worthy puritan, was their first 
minister, and probahly the first or- 
dained minister that preached the 
gospel in New Hampshire. IMr. 
Leverich soon removed, and until 
the settlement of the pious Daniel 
Maud, in 1642, the cluirch was 
much oppressed hy the bad charac- 
ter of their ministers. 

The Rev. Jeremy Beliixap, 
D. D. the celebrated historian of 
New Hampshire, was ordained in 
this town in 1767. He removed to 
Boston, and was settled there April 
4, 1737. He died in Boston, June 
20, 1793, aged 54. 

This town in its early years was 
greatly frequented by the Indians ; 
and experienced many sud'erings 
in their repeated attacks upon the 
inhabitants. In 1675, Maj. Wal- 
drcn by a stratagem secured about 
200 Indians at Dover, wlio had at 
times exhibited signs of hostility. 
Seven or eight of them, v/ho had 
been guilty of some atrocities, were 
immediately hanged, and the rest 
sold into slavery. The Indians 
abroad rega-ded this act of Waldron 
as a breach of faith, and swore 
against him implacable revenge. 
In 1GS9, after a lapse of 13 years, 
they determined to execute their 
project. Previous to the i'atal night 
(27th of June) some hints had been 
thrown out by the squaws, but they 
were either misunderstood or dis- 
regarded ; and ti)e people suffered 
them to sleep in tlieir garrisons as 
usual. In the stillness of night the 
doors of the garrisons were opened, 
and the Indians, at a concerted sig- 
nal, rose from their lurking places, 
and rushed upon the defenceless in- 
habitants. Wa!dion,though. 80 years 
of age, made a gallant defence, but 
was overwhelmed by the superior 
numbers of his adversaries, who 
literally cut him to pieces., In this 

affair, 23 persons were killed, and 
29 made prisoners. The Indians 
were soon overtaken and nearly the 
whole party destroyed. 

Dover, Vt. 

Windham co. This town was a 
part of Wardsborough, until 1810. 
It lies 12 mih :K. VV. from Brattle- 
borough, 17 N. E. from Benning- 
ton, and 120 S. by W. from Mont- 
pelier. The land in Dover is high 
and uneven; — more fit for pastur- 
age than tillage. It is the source 
Oi several branches of West, and a 
branch of Deerfield river. Ser- 
pentine and chlorite slate are found 
here. Population, 1830, 831. 

Dover, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. Dover lies 5 miles 
Vv'. from Dedham, and 14 S. S. W. 
from Boston. It was taken from 
Dedham in 1784. This town is 
bounded noi'therly by Charles river, 
and in it are nianufactures of nails, 
iron hoops and rods, ploughs, brush- 
es, boots and shoes. Total amount 
of jiianufactures in 1836, ,399,558. 
The surface of Dover is uneven, 
and a large part of it covered with 
wood. Population, 1837, 518. 

Doivii 2IIast, Me. 

JVe crave the favor of a Utter 
from our friends " Lown East." 
See Eainard, Me. 

Dracnt, Mass. 

Middlesex co. Dracut is united 
to Lovvcll by a bridge over Merri- 
mack river. The town is pleasant- 
ly situated on the N. side, on the 
line of N. H., with a tolerable soil 
and some water power, by Beaver 
river. It lies 27 miles N. from Bos- 
ton, at^d 16 N. by E. from Concord. 
Incorporated, 1701. Population, 
1837, 1,898. The manufactures of 
Dracut consist of woolen goods, 
leather, cutlery, boots and shoes. 
Annual amount, exclusive of wool- 
en goods, about 5i;25,000. 


Dresden, Me. 

Lincoln co. On the E. bank of 
Kennebec river, near the head of 
Swan Island, 9 miles N. W. from 
Wiscasset, 14 S. from Augusta, and 
59 N. E. from Portland. This is a 
large agricultural township, with 
some trade on the river. Previous 
to the division of the county, in 
1789, Dresden was the shire town 
or place where all the courts in 
Maine were holden, E. of Kenne- 
bec river. Dresden was incorpo- 
rated as a town in 1794. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 1,570. 

Drewsville, N. H. 

See Walpole. 

Dultlin, ]\~. K. 

Cheshire co. It is 10 miles F. 
by S. from Keene, and .50 S. Vv\ 
from Concord. Dublin is situated 
on the height of land between Con- 
necticut and Merrimack rivers. Its 
streams are small ; tho?e on the W. 
side run into the Ashujlot, those on 
the E. into Contoocook river. The 
rain which falls on the roof of the 
church is shared by the rivers. — 
There is a pond near the middle of 
the town called Centre pond, one 
mile in length and about the same 
in breadth. A larse portion of the 
Grand Monadnock lies in the N. W. 
part of Dublin, and near the cen- 
tre of the town is Breed's moun- 
tain. Monadnock was formerly co- 
vered with a growth of small tim- 
ber and shrubbery, but fires hav- 
ing run over it at different times, 
it presents little more than ragged 
rocks. Between the rocks, how- 
ever, there are low whortleberry 
bushes, which produce great quan- 
tities of fruit of a very lich flavor. 
The season for ripening is the lat- 
ter part of August, and to those 
who ascend the summit at this sea- 
son they are peculiarly grateful. 
This mountain is not difficult of ac- 
cess. The view from its summit 
is sublime. Its height is 3,718 feet 
above the level of the sea. The 

land in general is much better for 
grazing than tillage. The late Rev. 
Edward Sprague bequeathed near- 
ly 8,000 dollars for the support of 
public schools, the annual interest 
of which is to be applied to this ob- 
ject. He alsolefttlie town $5,000, 
the interest of which, paid quarter- 
ly, is to be applied to the support 
of an ordained congregational min- 
ister, who shall statedly preach in 
Dublin. The first settlements were 
in 1762, by John Alexander, and 
others. Population, 1830, 1,218. 

Dudley, Mass. 

Worcester co. This good farm- 
ing town was called by the Indians 
Chabanaknngkomum. It is finely 
watered by the Quinnebaug and 
other streams, and posses^-ies excel- 
lent mill privileges. During the 
year ending April 1, 1837, the val- 
ue of the manutactures of Dudley 
amounted to $;^ 16,326. The arti"^ 
cles manufactured were woolen 
goods, leather, sljoes, scythe snaiths, 
chairs, and cabinet ware. The val- 
ue of wool grown was ,•^1,585. 

Dudley lies 55 miles S. W. from 
Boston, IS S. from Worcester, and 
34 N. W. from Providence. Incorpo- 
rated, 1731. Population, 1837, 1,415. 

Duke's County, Mass. 

Edgarton is the county town. 
This county is formed of the islands 
of Martha's Vineyard, Chappequid- 
dic, Elizabeth Islands, and No 
Man's Land — the latter of which 
is the southern extremity of Mas- 
sachusetts. These islands lie off 
and S. of Barnstable county and 
Buzzard's bay, and contain about 
120 square miles. The principal 
island, Martha's Vineyard, the In- 
dian JS^ope, or Capawock, was first 
settled by the whites, at Edgarton, 
in 1641, and is 21 miles in length 
and 6 in breadth. Although a large 
portion of this county is woodland, 
and many of the people engaged 
in the fisheries and coasting trade, 
yet considerable exports are annu- 


ally made of wool, woolen cloth, 
salt and grain. This county suffer- 
ed much during the revolutionary 
war. In 1778, the people were 
compelled to surrender their lire 
arms and 2,300 head of cattle to the 
British. Incorporated, 1695. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 3,292; 1830,3,518; 
1837, 3,785 : 32 inhabitants to a 
square mile. There were on these 
islands, in 1837, 11,281 sheep. 

Duiunier, ]V. K., 

Coos CO., is bounded N by Mills- 
field and Errol, and comprises 23,- 
040 acres. It was granted March 
8, 1773, and is watered by the Am- 
monoosuck and Androscoggin. — 
Population, 1830, 65. 

Dumiuerston, Vt. 

Windham co. West river passes 
through this town and gives it a 
good water power. The surface is 
rough and hiliy, but adapted to graz- 
ing. Black mountain, near the cen- 
tre, is a vast body of granite. Good 
slate for buildings, and primitive 
limestone are found. There are in 
Dummerston some manufacturing 
concerns, and a considerable number 
of sheep. Population, 1830, 1,592: 
90 miles S. from Montpelier, and 8 
S. E. from Kewfane. 

DuuTjarton, j^. H. 

Merrimack co. This town lies 
9 miles S. W. from Concord, and 7 
S. E. from Hopkinton. Population, 
18.30, 1,067. The situation of the 
town is somewhat elevated, though 
there are but few hills, nor any 
mountains. The air is clear, the 
water is good, and the health of its 
inhabitants is seldom interrupted by 
.sickness. The soil is good, pecu- 
liarly suited for corn, wheat and or- 
charding. Almost every lot in town 
is capable of making a good farm. 
The -farmers here have good build- 
ings and are excellent husbandmen. 
The advantages in point of water 
privileges are not great. The in- 
habitants are principally descend- 

ants of Scotch Irish, so called, from 
the North of Ireland. Their pos- 
terity still retain many traits of 
character peculiar to that people. 
Dunbarton was granted in 1751, to 
Archibald Stark and others. Its 
present name is derived fiom DuiTi' 
barton, in Scotland, from whence 
Stark emigrated. The first settle- 
ment was made about 1749. Wil- 
liam Stinson, born in Ireland, came 
to Londonderry with his father. He 
was much respected and was a use- 
ful man. James Rogers was from 
Ireland, and father to Major Robert 
Rogers. He was shot in the woods, 
being mistaken for a bear. 

^Dunmore liaise, Vt. 

See Salisbury. 

Duustalble, Mass. 

Middlesex co. Nashua river wa- 
ters the N. W. part of the town, 
and passes into Nashua, N. H. The 
surface of the town is level ; — some 
part of it is good land, but general- 
ly it is light and sandy. It has no 
manufactures, and only 315 sheep. 
Population, 1837, 570. Incorpora- 
ted. 1683. Dunstable lies 27 miles 
N. W. from Boston, 18 N. by W. 
from Concord, and 6 S. from Nashua. 

Diirliam, 3Ie. 

Cumberland co. Located on the 
S. side of Androscoggin river, and 
united with Lisbon by a bridge. 
This is a township of good land, and 
farming is the principal occupation 
of the inhabitants. Durham lie^ 
25 miles N. from Portland and 31 
S. W. from Augusta. Population, 
1837, 1,832. Incorporated, 1789. 

Dui-Iiam, N. II., 

Strafford co., is 32 n^.iles E. by 
S. from Concord, 11 W. N. W. from 
Portsmouth, and 7 S. from Dover. 
Population, 1830,1,606. The situ- 
ation of this town, upon the Piscat- 
aqua and its branches, is very favor- 
able both as to water power and 
transportation. Oyster river, one of 


the blanches of the Piscataqua, is- 
sues from Wheelwright's pond, in 
Lee, and after running- nearly its 
whole course in Durham, furnishing 
in its progress several convenient 
mill seats, falls into the main river 
near Piscataqua bridge. This bridge 
is 2,«)00 feet in length and 40 in 
width. It cost $65,400. The tide 
flows in this branch of the river up 
to the falls near the meeting-house 
in the village, where business to a 
large amount is annually transacted. 
This village is a very central depot 
for the lumber and produce of the 
adjacent country. Lamprey river, 
another branch of the Piscataqua, 
runs through the westerly part of 
this town, over several falls remark- 
ably well adapted for mill seats, into 
the town of New Market, w^here it 
falls into the Great Bay. Upon both 
sides of Oyster river, a deep argil- 
laceous loam prevails, which is pe- 
culiarlj^ favorable to the production 
of the grasses, of which very heavy 
crops are cut, and hay is an article 
of considerable export. Extensive 
ledges of excellent granite, with 
which this town abounds, have been 
the source of much profitable em- 
ployment to the inhabitants. A 
large block of detached granite in 
the southeast part of this town was 
formerly placed in a very singular 
situation. Its weight was 60 or 70 
tons, and it w^as poised so exactly 
upon two other stones as to be visi- 
bly moved by the wind. It was 
some years since dislodged from 
this extraordinary position by the 
barbarous curiosity of some visit- 
ors. Durham was originally a part 
of Dover ; but soon after its settle- 
ment was formed into a distinct par- 
ish by the name of Oyster river, 
from the stream which passes 
through it. From the abundance 
of excellent oysters found in its 
waters, this river probably derived 
its name, and it was a famous ren- 
dezvous of the Indians, For many 
years this place suffered exceeding- 
ly by Indian depredations and mur- 

ders. In 1694, when a large part 
of the inhabitants had marched to 
the westward, the Indians, who 
were dispersed in the woods about 
Oyster river, having diligently ob- 
served the number of men in one 
of the garrisons, rushed upon eigh- 
teen of them, as they wevQ going 
to their morning devotions, and hav- 
ing cut oft' their retreat to the house, 
put them all to death except one, 
who fortunately escaped. They 
then attacked the house, in which 
there were only two boys, beside 
the women and children. The 
boj's kept them off for some time 
and wounded several of them. At 
length the Indians set fire to the 
house and even then the boys would 
not surrender till the Indians had 
promised to spare their lives. The 
latter, however, perfidiously mur- 
dered three or four children, one 
of whom they fixed upon a sharp 
stake in the view of its mother. 
The next spring the Indians nar- 
rowly watched the frontiers, to de- 
termine the safest and most vul- 
nerable points of attack. The 
settlement at Oyster river was se- 
lected for destruction. Here were 
twelve garrisoned houses, amply 
sufficient for the reception of the 
inhabitants ; but not apprehending 
any danger, many of the families 
remained in their unfortified houses, 
and those who w^ere in the garrisons 
were indifferently prepared for a 
siege, as they were destitute of 
powder. The enemy approached 
the place undiscovered and halted 
near the falls. One John Dean, 
whose house stood near the falls, 
happening to rise very early for a 
journey before the dawn of day, 
was shot as he came out of his 
door. The attack now commenced 
on all points where the enemy was 
ready. The enemy entered the 
house of a Mr. Adams without 
resistance, where they murdered 
fourteen persons, whose graves can 
still be traced. The house of John 
Buss, the minister, was destroyed 


together with his valuable library. 
He was absent at the time, and his 
wife and family fled to the woods. 
Many other cruelties were perpe- 
trated, when the Indians, fearing 
that the inhabitants from the neigh- 
boring settlements would collect 
against them, retreated, having 
killed or captured between 90 and 
100 persons, and destroyed 20 
houses, 5 of which were garrisoned. 
Minute accounts of these disasters 
are given in Belknap's valuable His- 
tory of New Hampshire, to which 
the reader is referred. The first 
preacher who statedly officiated in 
Durham was John Busr^; but he 
never was ordained. He die.^. 1736, 
at the age of lOS. Rev. Hugh 
Adams settled March 26, 1718. 

Maj. Gen. John Sullivan^, of 
the revolutionary army, was a res- 
ident of this town, and died here 
Jan. 2.3, 1795. He was a native of 
Berwick, Me. ; was a distinguished 
commander during the war; was 
president of the state three years, 
and afterwards district judge of 
New Hampshire. On all occasions 
he proved himself the firm support- 
er of the rights of the country. 

Durliam, Ct, 

Middlesex co. This town was 
first settled in 169S. Its Indian 
name was Coginchaug. It lies 7 
miles S. by W. from Middletown, 
and 20 S. from Hartford. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,116. Agriculture is 
the principal employment of the 
people of Durham, for which they 
have rather an uneven but fertile 
soil. " This town has been distin- 
guished many years for a very fine 
breed of cattle. Two oxen, pre- 
sented by some of the inhabitants to 
General Washington, furnished a 
dinner for all tJie officers of the 
American army at Valley Forge, 
and all their servants. These oxen 
were driven almost five hundred 
miles, through a country nearly ex- 
hausted of its forage ; yet one of 
them, a steer, five years old, weigh- 

ed two thousand two hundred and 
seventy pounds." 

Capt. Israel Camp, a noted psalm- 
odist died in Durham, in 1778. 

I>iiston.'s Islaiid, N. H. 

This small island in the Merrimack 
at the mouth of Contoocook river, 
between Concord and Boscawen, 
has become celebrated on account 
of an exploit of a lady whose name 
it bears. On the 15th March, 1698, 
the Indians made a descent on Ha- 
verhill, Mass. where they took Mrs. 
Hannah Duston, who was confined 
to her bed with an infant only six 
days old, and attended by her nurse, 
Mary NifF. The Indians took Mrs. 
Duston from her bed and carried 
her away with the nurse and infant. 
They soon despatched the latter by 
dashing its head against a tree. 
When they had proceeded as far as 
this island, which has been justly 
called Duston's island, on their way 
to an Indian town situate a consid- 
erable distance above, the Indians 
informed the women that they must 
be stripped and run the gauntlet 
through the village on their arrival. 
Mrs. Duston and her nurse had 
been assigned to a family consist- 
ing of twostout men, three women, 
and seven cliildren, or young In- 
dians, besides an English boy who 
had been taken from V/orcester. 
Mrs. Duston, aware of the cruel- 
ties that awaited her, formed the. 
design of exterminating the whole 
family, and prevailed upon the 
nurse and the boy to assist her in 
their destruction. A little before 
day, finding the whole company in 
a sound sleep, she awoke her con- 
federates, and with the Indian 
hatchets despatched ten of the 
twelve. One of the women whom 
they thought they had killed made 
her escape, and a favorite boy they 
designedly left. Mrs. Duston and 
her companions arrived safe home 
with the scalps, though their dan- 
ger from the enemy and from fam- 
ine in travelling so far, must have 


been great. The general court of 
Massachusetts made her a grant of 
j£50, and she received many other 
valuable presents. 

Duxbiiry, Vt. 

Washington co. This town lies 
on the S. side of Onion river, and is 
watered by several of its branches. 
The land along Onion river is good, 
but the greater part of the township 
is mountainous and unfit for culti- 
vation. Duxbury lies 12 miles W. 
from Montpelier. First settled, 
1786. Population, 1830, 651. 

Duxbiiry, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This town lies on 
Massachusetts bay in Plymouth har- 
bor. It is 29 miles S. E. from Bos- 
ton and 6 N. from Plymouth. Dux- 
bury affords some good land, a good 
tvater power and a great variety of 
scenery. Its Indian name was Mat- 
akeeset. Ship building, the coasting 
trade and fisheries is the chief busi- 
ness of the place. In 1837, it had 
46 vessels employed in the cod and 
mackerel fishery, the product of 
which amounted to ^69,548, Val- 
ue of vessels built, $169,048. The 
value of woolen cloth, lea(her,boots, 
shoes, salt, iron, brass castings and 
tinware manufactured, amounted to 
$105,787. Some attention is paid 
here to rearing sheep, and the man- 
ufacture of cordage. 

There is in Duxbury an apple tree 
noted for its age, size and fruitful- 
ness. It is upvvards of a hundred 
years old. It is forty feet in height, 
and its circuTi'-l^erence, eight inches 
from the ground, is 16 feet. Its 
fruit, in one year, has made 10 bar- 
rels of cider, besides 30 bushels for 
the cellar. Population, 1837, 2,789. 

Dyer's Bay, Me. 

See Steuben. 

Eagle Liake, Me. 

This large lake is in the county 
of Penobscot, between the Aroos- 
took and St. John's rivers. It is 

connected with some lakes of smal- 
ler size. The general outlet is north 
by Chipquedopskook river, about 14 
miles in length, into the river St. 
John. Great quantities of logs are 
taken to this outlet, sawed and sent 
to New Brunswick. 

East Bridge'tvater, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This town lies on 
a branch of Taunton river, and was, 
until 1823, a part of the ancient 
Bridgewater. It is 24 miles S. by 
E. from Boston and 17 S. W. from 
Plymouth. Population, 1830, 1,653 
—1837,1,927. East Bridgewater 
has a good water power, and man- 
ufactured the year ending April 1, 
1837, $414,044 value of goods. The 
articles consisted of cotton goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, bar iron, nails, 
tacks, lead pipe, chaises, window 
blinds, sashes and shoe boxes. 

Eastliroolc, Me. 

Hancock co. Incorporated, 1837. 
See " Down East." 

East Green-wicli, R. I. 

Shire town of Kent co. This 
town was incorporated in 1677, and 
is pleasantly located on Narragan- 
set bay, 13 miles S. from Provi- 
dence, and comprises an excellent 
harbor for ships of 500 tons burthen. 
A number of vessels are owned 
here, and the coasting trade and 
fisheries give employment to many 
of the inhabitants. The town is 
watered by Maskachug and Hunt's 
rivers, on which are cotton mills 
and other manufactories. The soil 
of the town is rather rough and 
stony, but it yields good crops of 
corn, barley and potatoes. East 
Greenwich is noted for excellent 
fruit and cider. 

The " Kentish Guards" was es- 
tablished here in 1774, and proved 
a nursery of distinguished officers, 
of which the celebrated General 
Nathaniel Greene was one. Across 
the bay, to Bristol, is about 8 miles.^ 
Population, 1830, 1,591. 


East Haddam, Ct. 

Middlesex co. A town of con- 
siderable trade and manufacturing 
enterprise, on the east side of the 
Connecticut, and at the outlet of 
Salmon river. It lies 18 miles above 
the mouth of Connecticut river, 14 
below Middletown, and 30 S. S. E. 
from Hartford. The soil is hilly and 
rocky, and more fit for grazing than 
tillage. Considerable business is 
done here in the shad fishery. It is 
supposed that more leather is made 
in this than in any other town in the 
state. This place has fine w^ater 
privileges, both for navigation and 
manufactures. A short distance fiom 
the centre of the town is a pond 
covering 1,000 acres. On the river 
formed by the outlet of this pond, 
the water is precipitated over rocks 
nearly 70 feet perpendicular. The 
scenery around these falls is beau- 
tiful, and worthy of particular no- 

There are 6 cotton mills in East 
Haddam, two of which manufac- 
ture twine. 

Leesville, on Salmon river, and 
Meclianicsville, on Moodus river, 
a branch of Salmon river, ai'e very 
flourishing settlements. 

This place, the Indian Macki- 
moodus, is remarkable for frequent 
slight shocks of earthquakes, pro- 
ducing singular noises, which the 
Indians attributed to the anger of 
their gods towards the white men. 
It is said that some valuable geolo- 
gical discoveries have recently been 
made in this quarter. The town 
w^as first settled in 1685, but not in- 
corporated until 1724. Population, 
in 1835, about 3,000. This is the 
birth place of many distinguished 
men. The venerable Nathaniel 
Emmons, D. D., of Franklin, Mass. 
was born here. 

Eastlxam, I>lass.) 

Barnstable co., on a narrow part 
of the cape, 23 miles E. by N. from 
Barnstable. Population in 1837, 

1,059. First settled, 1644. Incor- 
porated, 1646. The product of the 
cod and mackerel fishery in 1836, 
was $30,900. The value of salt, 
boots, shoes and palm-leaf hats man- 
ufactured, was {^10,561. 

JEastSiaiuptou; Mass* 

Hampshire co. This is a pleas- 
ant town on the W. side of Connec- 
ticut river. The Hampshire and 
Hampden canal passes through it. 
In the year ending April 1, 1837, 
$40,000 worth of lasting buttons 
were manufactured ; also cotton 
goods, leather, boots and shoes, to 
the amount of ^15,300 : 5 miles S. 
from Northampton. Pop. 1S37, 793 , 

East Hartford, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town is situa- 
ted opposite to Hartford, and con- 
nected with it by a bridge across 
Connecticut river. The soil of the 
town is generally fertile, but the 
alluvial meadows on the border of 
the river, of whicn there is a large 
tract, is of a superior quality. The 
agricultural products of this town 
are very considerable. Hackanum 
river furnishes the town with a 
good water power,on which are val- 
uable manufacturing establishments 
particularly of paper. East Hart- 
ford is noted for its manufactures in 
former yean. The first powder 
mill in this country, it is said, was 
erected here in 1775. Anchors, 
mill screws, nail rods, gunpowder, 
paper, snuff and glass were manu- 
factured here in 1784. The early 
settlers found the ferocious and war- 
like tribe of Podunk Indians in this 
neighborhood. One sachem com- 
manded two hundred bowmen. This 
is a very pleasant town. The main 
street, which is very long and wide, 
is delightfully shaded by stately 
elms. East Hartford was taken, 
from Hartford in 1784. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 3,537. 

East Haven, Vt. 

Essex CO. Moose river rises in 


r.A.'iterly part of this town and 
the Passunipsic passes through the 
westerly part. The land is moun- 
tainous and most of it unfit for cul- 
tivation. It lies 45 miles N. from 
Montpelier First settled, 1790. 
Population, 1830, 33. 

East Kaveai, Ct. 

New Haven co. This town was 
taken from New Haven, in 17S5,and 
is connected with New Haven bv 
abridge. Population, 1830, 1,229. 
It has good navigable privileges, 
and is watered by Quinnipiac river. 
It has some trade, but the principal 
employment of the inhabitants is 
agriculture and fishing. 

This was a great resort for the 
Indians in former years. On Grave 
Hill was an Indian fort and ceme- 
tery. Bones of Indians of a large 
size, and domestic and warlike im- 
plements for savage use, have been 
found here. The Indian Well, in a 
granite rock, on an island in Stony 
river, is a curiosity. It is about 80 
inches in diameter, very smooth at 
the bottom. It is now about o'feet 
in depth, but formerly it was deep- 
er. It was evidently formed by 
the attrition of sand and pebbles 
which passed over tliis rock, it being 
at some former period, the bed of 
the river. Ea?t Haven i.:> pleasant- 
ly located, and commands a fine 
prospect of Long Island Sound. 

East Hliiigston, 'N. 11. 

Rockingham co. Its soil is of an 
excellent quality, and v.'ei} adapted 
to the cultivation of grain and grass, 
Powow river crosses the S. W. part 
of this town, having its sources in 
the ponSs of Kingston. The town 
was incorporated Nov. 17, 1733. 
Rev. Peter Cotfin was settled here 
in 1739. Population, 1830, 442. It 
lies 40 miles S. E. by E. from Con- 
cord, and 20 S. S. VV. from Ports- 

East Macliias, Bie. 

Washington co. This is a flour- 

ishing town on navigable waters.- 
It was incorporated in 1S26, and iS' 
the eastern part of Old Machias. 
It lies on both sides of East Machi- 
as river, 149 miles E. by N. from 
Augusta. Population, 1837, 1,282. 
East IMachias has a great water 
power, a large number of mills, and 
a very pleasant village. It is ex- 
tensively engaged in the lumber 

Easton, Mass. 

Bristol CO. Two branches of Taun- 
ton river water this town, on which 
are a woolen and 4 cotton mills, 
and various iron works. The man- 
ufactures consist of cotton and wool- 
en goo'Js, pig iron, iron castings, 
wire, boots, shoes, shovels, spades, 
forks, hoes, cutlery, palm-leaf hats, 
straw bonnets, surveyors' instru- 
ments and shoe pegs : — the value 
of which in one year (exclusive of 
woolen cloth, boots and shoes,) 
amounted to 207,100. The manu- 
facture of shovels, spades, forks and 
hoes, amounted to ^103,000. Eas- 
ton lies 22 miles S. from Boston and 
10 N. by W. from Taunton. In- 
corporated, 1725. Population, 1837, 

Eastport, Me, 

V^ashington co. The township 
of Eastport embraces and is consti- 
tuted of Moose, Dudley's, Frede- 
rick and Patraos islands, the chief 
of which, whereon the village of 
Eastport stands, is Moose island, in 
sight of, and but a short distance 
from, Indian and Campo Bello isl- 
ands, belonging to the British. East- 
port is a beautiful harbor in Passa- 
maquoddy bay, on the eastern boun- 
dary of the United States, and no- 
ted for smuggling adventures by 
strangers visiting the place dur- 
ing the embargo and war. It is 
about 7 miles N. by W. from West 
Quoddy Head, 176 E. by N. from 
Augusta, and about 30 E.N. E. from 
Machias. The tide is very rapid, 
and rises 25 feet. There are two 


long bridges connecting Moose isl- 
and with Dennysville and Perry ; 
each cost $10,000. Eastport and 
Lubec are the chief towns in Pas- 
samaquoddy bay, and are extensive- 
ly engaged in the fisheries, and the 
trade of the extensive waters of the 
river St. Croix and Bay of Fundy. 
Tonnage of Passamaquoddy bay, 
10,712. Cohscook Bay and its trib- 
utary waters, on the west, give to 
Eastport a large trade in lumber. 
Moose Island contains 2,150 acres 
of rough land. It was first settled 
in 1780. In 1790 it contained only 
244 inhabitants. There are now on 
the Island a handsome village, con- 
taining 60 wharves, 80 stores, 5 
ineetjng-houses, a United States 
garrison, and 5,000 inhabitants. 

Sast "Windsor, Ct» 

Hartford co. First settled 1680. 
Taken from Windsor, 1768. This 
is an excellent township of land. 
Its extensive meadows on the east 
side of Connecticut river are of 
uncommon fertility and beauty. 
Among the various agricultural pro- 
ducts with which tliis town abounds, 
tobacco has been cultivated with 
success, and manufactured. It is 
said that 70,000 bushels of rye has 
been raised in a season. Scantic 
river, a considerable mill stream, 
passes through the north part of 
the town, and gives it the name of 
Scantic. The village of TVapping 
is in the S. E. section of the town. 
The principal street, about a mile 
back of the river, is the village, 
running the whole length of the 
town, wide, neatly built and beauti- 
fully shaded. East Yf indsor lies 8 
miles N. from Hartford. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 2,129. 

Eaton, IV. H., 

Strafford co., lies 60 miles N. 
E. from Concord and 55 N. N. E. 
from Dover, and is bounded E. by 
Maine. Population, 1830, 1,432. 
The soil of the uplands, which are 
quite uneven, is moderately good, 

and the plains farmsh excellent 
pine timber. There are several 
small ponds in this town. Eaton 
was granted Nov. 7, 1776, to Clem- 
ent March and 65 others. 

Eddington, Me. 

Penobscot co. This town lies on 
the east side of Penobscot river, 6 
miles above, and N. N. E. from 
Bangor, and 70 N. E. by E^ from 
Augusta. The village is pleasantly 
situated at the " Bend " of the river. 
The soil of the town is good and well 
wooded. It produced, in 1837, 2,414 
bushels of wheat. Population, 1837, 

Sdeu, Me., 

Hancock co., situated on the north 
part of the island of Mount Desert, 
and taken from the town of JNIount 
Desert (which formerly comprised 
the whole island) 1795. First set- 
tled, 1763. Eden lies 92 miles E. 
from Augusta, and about 18 S. by E. 
from Ellsworth. Population, 1837, 
1,024. The town has a good soil, 
good harbors, and possesses great 
advantages for the shore fishery. 
It is said that 500 bushels of cran- 
berries have been picked in Eden 
in a season. Cranberry isles lie 
on the coast, about 3 miles south. 

ISden, Vt. 

Lamoille co. This township was 
granted to " Col. Seth Warner and 
his associates, our worthy friends, 
the officers and soldiers of his regi- 
ment in the line of the continental 
army," August 28, 1781. "Our 
friends," for their patriotic services, 
certainly deserved a better tow^n- 
ship than this, for it is mountainous, 
rocky and cold ; it is however good 
for grazing, and produces some fine 
beef cattle and sheep. It is water- 
ed by Green river and Wild Branch. 
Several ponds in the town afford 
good fishing. Eden lies 30 miles 
N. from Montpelier, and is bound- 
ed S. by Hydepark. Population, 
1830, 461. 


EdgartOAvn, Mass. 

Dukes CO. County town and 
port of entry on the island of Mar- 
tha's Vineyard — 91 miles S. E. from 
Boston, 20 N. W. by W. from Nan- 
tucket, 28 S. E. by E. from New 
Bedford, 20 S. from Falmouth, and 
495 from Washington. First set- 
tled, 1641. Incorporated, 1671. 
Population, 1837, 1,625. Edgarlown 
(Old Town) harbor is on the east 
side of the town, in lat. 41° 25' N.; 
Ion. 70° 25' W. This township in- 
cludes the fertile island of Chappe- 
quiddick, on the southeast, on which 
are some Indians. This island is 5 
miles in length and 2 1-2 in breadth. 
It is very pleasant and forms Old 
Town harbor. Eight whale ships 
belong to this place, and a number 
of coasting vessels. This is said to 
be the only place in the state where 
grouse are native. The value of 
sperm oil imported, in the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, was ^65,598. 
The value of salt, oil casks, boats 
and hats manufactured the same 
year, was $'7,260. The value of 
wool, the product of 2,150 sheep, 
was ^1,590. 

EdgecomTb, Me. 

Lincoln co. This town is bound- 
ed by Damariscotta river on the E. 
and Sheepscot river on the W., and 
lies nearly opposite to Yriscasset 
across the latter river. 26 miles S. 
S. E. from Augusta. Population, 
1837, 1,282. This town enjoys 
great facilities for navigation, the 
fisheries, ship building and the lum- 
ber business. It is a place of con- 
siderable trade. First settled, 1744. 

Eldiubiirgli, Me. 

Penobscot co. Incorporated, 1835. 
Population, 1837,89. See "Down 

Edmonds, Me., 

Washington co. , situated betv.'een 
Cobscook bay and East Machias. 

Population, 1837, 205. 

See " Down 

Eifiugliam, N. H. 

Strafford co. There are several 
mountains of considerable elevation 
in this town. The Ossipee river 
passes through the town, over which 
is a toll-bridge. Province pond lies 
between Ethngham and Wakefield. 
Effingham was settled a few years 
prior to the revolution. It was 
then known by the name of Lea- 
vitVs Town. Incorporated, Aug. 
18, 1778. Effingham borders W. 
on Ossipee lake and E. on Maine. 
It lies 5S miles N. E. from Concord 
and 25 N. E. by E. from Gilford. 
Population, 1830, 1,911. 

Egrenioiit, Mass. 

Berkshire co. A mountainous 
township, watered by branches of 
Flousatonick river. Incorporated, 
1760. 140 miles W. from Boston 
and 15 S. S. Vv". from Lenox. Pop- 
ulation, 1S37, 968. The manufac- 
tures of Egremont consist of wheat 
flour, leather, boots, shoes, harness- 
es, stone, (sawed,) chairs and cab- 
inet ware. Total amount in one 
year, ^29,100. Value of 1,790 
fleeces of wool, $2,770. 

ElizabetlijCape, 3Ie. 

This celebrated cape lies in the 
town of Cape Elizabeth, and forms 
the western limits of Casco baj^ 
Near the point of the cape is a 
light-house, 50 feet in height, in 
•N. lat. 43° 33', W. Ion. 70° 11'. 
For the ton'n of Cape Eliza- 
beth, see Register. 

Elizabeth. Islands, Mass. 

These islands are attached to 
Dukes county, and lie between 
Buzzard's bay and Vineyard sound. 
They are 16 in number. The larg- 
est, Nashawn and Nashawenna, are 
inhabited. Gosnold,the discoverer 
of Cape Cod, spent the winter of 
1602-3, on one of these islands. 


BUingtoii, Ct. 

Tolland CO. Ellington was taken 
from East Windsor in 17S6, and was 
that part of East Windsor called the 
Great Marsh. The soil is light 
and dry, but considerably fertile. 
It is generally level, but the east- 
ern part is hilly and mountainous. 
Formerly the lands in this town 
were held in low estimation, but by 
the industry of the people in their 
cultivation they have risen in char- 
acter and value. " The scenery in 
this town embraces considerable va- 
riety and is uncommonly interesting 
and beautiful." The " Ellington 
School" for boys, situated in a very 
neat village, is in high repute. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,45.5. Ellington lies 
12 miles N. E. from Hartford, and 
is bounded S. E. by Tolland. 

Slliot, Me. 

York CO. This town lies on the 
N. W. of Kittery of Avhich it con- 
stituted a part until 1810. It ad- 
joins Salmon Fall river on the S. 
W. by which it is separated from 
New Hampshire — and is bounded 
N. by South Berwick, and E. by 
York. It is a good farming town 
and probably contains as great a 
proportion of valuable tillage land 
as any in the county according to 
its size. Population, 1837, 1,859. 
Elliot is 108 miles S. W'. from Au- 

ElliotsTllle, Me. 

Somerset co. This place is 81 
miles from Augusta. See " Down 

Ellis' Rivers. 

Ellis' river, in Maine, \s a tribu- 
tary to the Androscoggin. It rises 
N. of Rumford, in the county of 
Oxford, and passes through that 
town. Ellis' river, in JVeio Hamp- 
shire, rises on the E. side A the 
White mountains, in several small 
streams, near the sources of Pea- 
body river, and separating into two 

streams which again unite, it falls 
into the Saco at Bartlett. 

Elligo Pond, Vt. 

This beautiful sheet of water, 
two miles in length and half a mile 
in breadth, lies partly in Craftsbury 
and partly in Greensborough, Or- 
leans count}'. Its northern outlet 
passes to Black river ; its southern 
to the Lamoille. There are two 
small islands in the lake. This was 
a favorite resort for the Indians, and 
now attracts numerous lovers of fine 
trout and delightful scenery to its 

Ells^vortlx, Me. 

Chief town of Hancock co. This 
is a pleasant and flourishing town 
on both sides of Union river, at the 
head of navigation. The village is 
principally on the E. side, where 
there is a good bridge across the 
river, 3 miles above the entrance 
of the river into the waters con- 
nected with Blue Hill bay. The 
tide rises at the bridge 10 or 12 feet, 
and Ellsworth possesses an enviable 
position for maritime and inland 
trade. The location of the courts 
for this county was changed from 
Castine to this place in 1838. Thfi 
court house is eligibly situated on 
the W. side of the river. Ellsworth 
is quite an agricultural township. 
It has a good soil, and considerable 
attention is given to the growth of 
wheat and wool. It lies 81 miles 
E. by N. from Augusta, and 30 N. 
E. by E. from Bangor. Population, 
1830, 1,385—1837, 2,195. 

Ells^vortli, ]V. H., 

Grafton co., is 52 miles N. N.W. 
from Concord and 20 S. E. from 
Haverhill. Population, 1830, 234. 
It is a mountainous tract of territo- 
ry. The most prominent elevation 
is Carr's mountain. A small stream 
issues from West Branch pond and 
runs into the Pemigewasset at 
Campton. The soil , though in some 
parts sterile, produces wheat, rye 


and corn. Maple sugar is made 
here, and clover seed is raised in 
considerable quantities. This town, 
formerly called Trecothick, was 
granted May 1, 1769, to Barlow 

Ellinore, Vt. 

Lamoille co. First settled, 1790. 
Elmore lies 16 miles N. from Mont- 
pelier and 10 S. from Hydepark. 
Population, 1830, 442. There are 
five ponds in this town, the waters 
of which, the town being very high, 
descend partly to Lamoille and part- 
ly to Onion rivers. Some cattle and 
some wool are sent to market. 

£lnil)deii, Me. 

Somerset co. A tine township ! 
of land with two pleasant villages, 
on the W. side of Kennebec river. 
Seven Mile brook passes through 
the S. W. corner of the town. — 
Embden produced, in 1837, 6,400 
bushels of wheat and considerable 
wool. Incorporated, 1S04. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,048. It is 46 miles 
N. N. W. from Augusta and about 
18 miles N. by W. from Norridge- 

Eiiiield, Me. 

Penobscot co. Incoi-porated, 
1835. See " Down East." 

Eiilield, N. H. 

Grafton co. Enfield comprises 
24,060 acres, of which about 2,.500 
acres are water. It is 10 miles S. 
E. from Dartmouth Colle!;e and 40 
N. W. fi'om Concord. Its surface 
is diversitied with hills and valleys, 
and watered by a variety of ponds 
and streams, stored with fish of ev- 
ery species common to the country. 
Mascomy pond, which has acquir- 
ed from travellers the appellation 
of Pleasant pond, is a beautiful col- 
lection of water, 4 miles in length 
and of various breadth, interspersed 
with islands and checkered with 
inlets. Its eastern banks are cov- 
ered with trees ; the hills gradually 

rise one above another for some dis- 
tance. Along the western bank, 
between the pond and Mont Calm, 
within a few rods of the water, ex- 
tends the turnpike road, the whole 
distance through a beautiful vil- 
lage, shaded to the N. on either 
side by a growth of trees. Masco- 
my river empties into this pond in 
the N. W. part. This pond is sup- 
posed to have once been much high- 
er than it now is, and the plain and 
villages to the south are supposed 
to have been the bed of it. This 
fact is sufficiently evident from the 
ancient shore still remaining round 
the pond, about 30 feet above high 
water, and from logs having been 
frequently found 12 feet below the 
surface of the plain once flow^ed. 
On the W. bank, near the southern 
extremity, is the Shakers' settle- 
ment, situated on a fertile plain. — 
The structure of the buildings, tho' 
not lofty, are neat and convenient. 
They occupy about 1,000 acres of 
land, and their number consists of 
about 240. They are agricultural- 
ists and mechanics. Garden seeds 
are grown, and wooden ware, whips, 
corn brooms, leather, and various 
other articles, are manufactured by 
them with peculiar neatness. See 

Mountain ponrj, on the summit of 
Mont Calm, is 200 rods long, and 
100 wide. At the outlets of the 
ponds are mills of various kinds. 
The town was formerly called Rel- 
lian, and was incorporated by char- 
ter, granted to Jedediah Dana and 
others, July 4th, 1761. Population, 
1S30, 1,492. 

Eixfleld, Mass. 

Hampshire co. Swift river pass- 
es through this town, and adds much 
to its beauty and importance. — 
The manufactures of this place, the 
year ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $182^669. The articles con- 
sisted of cotton and woolen goods, 
leather, boots, shoes, hats, hoes, 
shingle machines, palm-leaf hats. 


wool cards, cotton batting and wick- 
ing. The value of wool grown 
was $1,090. Enfield lies Trmiles 
W. from Boston, and 15 E. from 
Northampton. Population, 1837, 

Sntield, Ct. 

Hrcrtford co. This town was first 
settled, 1631, by emigrants from Sa- 
lem, Mass. : it formerly belonged 
to Mass. and was a part of Spring- 
tield. The first bridge across Con- 
nrcticut river was built in 1808, 
connecting Enfield wirh Suffield. 
The surface is generally level and 
the soil moist and fertile. The 
street, where most of the inhabit- 
ants reside, is very pleasant, wide 
and well shaded. The village near 
the river was commenced about 
1S31, at which the manufacture of 
carpeting is extensively pursued. 
About 120 looms are employed, 
making about 800 yards daily. The 
manufacture of ploughs is also an 
important pursuit in Enfield. It is 
watered by Scantick river. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,129. It is 18 miles 
N. from Hartford, and 8 S. from 
Springfield, Mass. 

Suglisliniaii's Eay, Me. 

This bay is a few miles Ti. of 
Machias bay, in "Washington coun- 
ty. It receives the waters of Chand- 
ler's river, a considerable stream : 
it contains a number of islands, and 
furnishes many fine harbors Head 
harbor, an island off Jonesborough, 
is its western limits. 

Eiiosbiirgli, Vt. 

Franklin co. Missisque, Trout 
and other streams give this town 
excellent water privileges, and 
manufactuz'ing establishments llour- 
ish. The surface of the (own is 
plearantly diversified by hills and 
valleys, and well adapted for graz- 
ing. The products of the town are 
cattle, butter, cheese and wool. — 
First settled, 1797. Population, 
1830, 1,560. Euosburgh lies 43 

miles N. by E. from Montpelier, 
and 20 N. E. from St. Albans. 

Elppiug, X. H., 

Rockingham co., lies 29 miles S. 
E. from Concord, 20 W. from Ports- 
mouth, and 8 N. W. from Exeter. 
It was formerly a part of Exeter, 
and was incoi-poi-ated Feb. 12, 1741. 
The town contains 12,760 acres, 
being nearly 20 square miles. The 
soil, in general, is very good, and 
well suited to raise the various pro- 
ductions that grow in the state. 
Lamprey river, at the west, receives 
the Patuckaway, and runs through 
the whole length of the town. 
Another river runs through the N. 
part of the town, and from that cir- 
cumstance is called North river. 
By observations taken at 6 in the 
forenoon, at 1 and 9 o'clock in the 
afternoon, from Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer placed in the open air, 13 
feet from the ground, and where 
the sun does not shine on the ther- 
mometer, the annual average of 
heat for 10 years in succession, was 
44 1-12°. During that period the 
annual average of rain that fell, was 
2 feet 10 inches, and of snow, 6 feet 
7 inches. 

William Plumer, one of its 
most distinguished and estimable 
citizens, resides in this town. A 
considerable portion of his life has 
been employed in the service of the 
people, in the several stations of 
representative and senator in the 
legislature, president of the senate, 
speaker of the house of represenft- 
tives, representative and senator in 
congress, and for four years as chief- 
magistrate of the state. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,268. 

f^psom, IV. II. 

Merrimack co. This town lies 
12 miles E. from Concord. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,418. The surface of 
the town is generally uneven. The 
principal eminences are called 
M'Coy's, Fort, Nat's, and Notting- 
ham mountains. The soil is in gen- 


eral good, and well adapted for graz- 
ing or grain. Great and Little Sun- 
cook are the only streams deserving 
the name of rivers. Here are three 
ponds, Chesnut, Round, and Odi- 
orne's. Brown oxide, and sulphu- 
ret of iron are found, the lattermost 
frequently in its decomposed state. 
Varieties of quartz, feldspar and 
schorl are also found. An alluvial 
deposite has been discovered, which 
has been ascertained to be terra de 
senna; it constitutes a very hand- 
some and durable paint for cabinet 
work. Epsom was granted May 
18, 1727, to Theodore Atkinson and 
others. Like all other frontier 
towns, Epsom was exposed, in its 
early settlement, to the Indians. 

Maj. Andrew M'Clary, ana- 
tive of this town, fell at the battle 
of Breed's Hill, June 17, 1775. 
Like the illustrious Roman, he left 
his plough on the news of the mas- 
sacre at Lexington, and in the ac- 
tion when he lost his life displayed 
great coolness and bravery. 

Errol, N. H. 

Coos CO. This town is situated 
on the W. of Umbagog lake. It 
contains about 35,000 acres,of which 
2,500 are water. Several consider- 
able streams here unite with the 
Androscoggin. Errol was granted 
Feb. 28, 1774, to Timothy Ruggies 
and others. Population, 1830, 82. 
It lies about 30 miles N.N. E. from 

Erving, Mass. 

Franklin co. This township re- 
mained unincorporated until April 
17, 1838. Previously it had been 
known by the name of " Erving's 
Grant." It is bounded S. by IVfil- 
ler's and W. by Connecticut rivers. 
Erving contains some excellent 
land, and a great water power. The 
year previous to its incorporation, 
the manufactures of the town, con- 
sisting of satinet, boots, shoes, palm- 
leaf hats, &c., amounted to $S5,- 
185. Population, 1837, 292. Er- 


ving lies 95 miles N. N. W. from 
Boston, and 10 E. from Greenfield, 

Essex County, Vt. 

Guildhall is the county town. 
This county is bounded N. by Low- 
er Canada, W. by the counties of 
Orleans and Caledonia, and S. and 
E. by Connecticut river. Area 
680 square miles. This is consid- 
ered the poorest county in the state ; 
but although much of the land is 
hilly and mountainous, there is con- 
siderable good soil, and a large por- 
tion of it is well adapted for grazing. 
There were, in 1836, about 8,000 
sheep in the county, and a consid- 
erable number of beef cattle and 
horses were sent to market. The 
principal streams are the Nulhegan, 
which is exclusively in Essex coun- 
ty ; — the Passumpsic, Moose and 
Clyde. Incorporated, 1792. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 3,334; 1830,3,981. 
About 6 inhabitants to a square 

Essex County, Mass. 

Salem, Ipsivich, and JVewbury- 
port are the shire towns. This 
county is bounded N. W. by Rock- 
ingham county. New Hampshire, 
S. W. by Middlesex county, E. and 
N. E. by the Atlantic ocean, and 
S. E. by Massachusetts bay. There 
is much good land in this county, 
but its surface is rocky and uneven. 
It has an extensive sea coast, in- 
dented with numerous bays, inlets, 
and capacious harbors. It is more 
densely populated than any county 
of its size in the United States. It 
has great wealth, and its commerce 
and fisheries are unrivalled by any 
section of country, of its extent, on 
the globe. Population, 1820, 73,930; 
1830, 82,887, and in 1837, 93,689. 
This county comprises an area of 
360 square miles ; — the number of 
inhabitants to a square mile is 260. 
Essex county, although of stubborn 
soil, has many very delightful farms, 
and furnishes great quantities of 
hay and vegetables for market. It 


has many beautiful ponds and com- 
manding elevations, and its sea- 
board is the delight of every be- 
holder. However fruitful the cit- 
izens may have rendered the soil 
by their industry, this county is es- 
sentially a commercial and manu- 
facturing section of New England. 
The tonnage of the five districts, in 
1837, was 85,933 tons. The amount 
of manufactures, for the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, was $10,216,300 ; 
and the amount of the whale, cod 
and mackerel fisheries, amounted 
to $1,378,144. The principal riv- 
ers in Essex county are the Merri- 
mack and Shawsheen. Essex coun- 
ty was incorporated in 1643, and has 
given birth to some of the most dis- 
tinguished merchants in the United 
States. Among many others may 
be mentioned William Gray, 
Israel Thorndike, and Wil- 
liam Parsons. 

Essex, Vt. 

Chittenden CO. This town is fine- 
ly watei-ed by Onion river on the 
S. and Brown's river, a branch of 
the Lamoille, on the N. It is also 
watered by other smaller streams. 
At Hubbell's falls, on Onion river, 
are admirable mill sites, at which 
are manufactures of some extent. 
The surface of the town is level ; 
a considerable portion of the soil is 
dry and somewhat sandy, but pro- 
duces good crops of corn and rye. 
Along Onion river are some tracts 
of beautiful intervale. Essex was 
first settled in 1783. It lies 31 miles 
N. W. from Montpelier, and 8 N. 
N. E. from Burlington. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,664. 

Essex, Mass. 

Essex CO. This town lies at the 
headof Chebacco river, running in- 
to Squam bay, 13 miles N. E. from 
Boston, and 5 miles S. E. from Ips- 
wich, from which it was taken in 
1819. Many vessels of 50 to 120 
tons are built in this town, and ma- 
ay small vessels are employed in the 

coasting trade and the fisheries.— 
The manufactures of vessels, leath- 
er, bor.t'^, shoes, bar iron, barrels, 
cordage, pumps and blocks, in the 
j-eai ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $102,271. The tonnage em- 
ployed in the cod and mackerel fish- 
ery was 878 tons. Population, 1837, 
1,402. Essex is a pleasant and 
flourishing town. 

Etua, Me. 

Penobscot co. This is an excel 
lent farming town with no import- 
ant streams. It lies 63 miles N. E. 
from Augusta, 17 W. from Bangor, 
and bounded by Dixmont on the 
S. Incorporated, 1820. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 362—1837, 626. Etna 
is fine wheat land : it produced, in 
1837, 2,421 bushels. 

Exeter, Me. 

Penobscot co. Exeter is 65 miles 
N. N. E. from Augusta, and 25 S. W. 
from Bangor. It was incorporated in 
1811. Population, 1830, 1,438— 
1837, 1,920. At the "Four Cor- 
ners," in the northerly part of the 
town, is a pleasant village with con- 
siderable trade and some mills. The 
people of Exeter in 1S37, with a 
soil not above mediocrity, proved 
without effort, by raising 12,058 
bushels of wheat, that the state of 
Maine is abundantly able, by means 
within itself, to supply the whole 
family of Yankees with bread stulfs, 
and have some to spare to their 
western brethren. 

Exeter, N. H. 

Rockingham co. This beautiful 
town lies 40 miles S. E. by E. from 
Concord and 14 S. W. from Ports- 
mouth. The compact part of the 
town lies about the falls, which sep- 
arate the fresh from the tide water 
of a branch of the Piscataqua, call- 
ed by the natives Swamscot, and 
now known by the name of Exeter 
river. Above the falls this stream 
assumes the name of Great river, 
to distinguish it from one of its 


smaller branches, called Little riv- 
er. Great river has its source in 
Chester, whence it runs through 
several towns before it meets the 
tide water in the centre of Exeter. 
On this river are many valuable 
mill privileges. 

The Exeter Cotton Manufactur- 
ing Company commenced opera- 
tions April 1, 1830. Their princi- 
pal building is of brick, 175 feet by 
45. They have 5,000 spindles, em- 
ploy 212 girls and 40 men and boys. 
They manufacture annually about 
1,400,000 yards of sheeting. They 
consume about 1,200 bales of cot- 
ton, 300 cords of wood and 22,500 
pounds of potatoe starch annually. 
They have a steam engine, 40 horse 
power, to operate when the water 
power fails. This probably con- 
sumes annually about 150 chaldrons 
of Sidney coal. The capital invest- 
ed in lands, buildings, machinery, 
&c. is about $210,000. 

A powder mill has been in ope- 
ration about two years, and will 
manufacture fiom 130 to 150 tons 
of powder annually. 

The manufacture of potatoe starch 
was commenced in 1S24. The es- 
tablishment has been twice burnt, 
but is rebuilt with brick, and starch 
is now manufactured from wheat as 
well as from potatoes. The amount 
of sales of starch and gum is about 
$10,000 annually. 

In the westerly part of the town 
is a paper mill, which manufactures 
paper to the value of $20,000 an- 
nually. The manufacture of books, 
blank books, &.c. in Exeter, is very 
extensive. About .$100,000 value 
of shoes and boots are made annu- 
ally, and a large amount of leather. 
There are also establishments fo-r 
the manufacture of morocco leath- 
er, carriages, of various kinds, 
brushes, tin and pottery wares. 
The soil of Exeter is in general 
good, though comprehending every 
variety, from that of the best quali- 
ty to tiie least productive. Like 
most towns in the state, it is essen- 

tially agricultural, and the improve- 
ment in the style of husbandry, 
has been very great. The number 
of industrious and enterprising me- 
chanics, to whom Exeter is indebt- 
ed for her prosperity, is very rapid- 
ly increasing. See Res^ister. 

Phillips' academy, in Exeter, was 
founded by the liberal donations of 
John Phillips, LL. D.,in 1781, who 
at his death, in 1795, bequeathed to 
the institution a large portion of his 

Beivjamix Abbott, LL. D. 
has discharged the duties of princi- 
pal with distinguished ability for 
more than fifty years. The build- 
ing stands on a plain, near the cen- 
tre of the town, and is well provid- 
ed with accommodations for the 
different branches of instruction, 
and a large hall for declamation and 
the annual exhibitions. 

The settlement of Exeter com- 
menced in 1638, by John Wheel- 
wright and others, who formed them- 
selves into a body politic, chose their 
magistrates, and bound the people to 
obedience. Their laws were made 
in popular assemblies ; and the com- 
bination thus entered into subsisted 
about three years. From 1675 to 
1712, Exeter, like most of the early 
settlements, suffered from the at- 
tacks of the Indians. 

Hon. Samuel Ten'ivey, M. D 
was an oiiginal member of the N. 
H. Medical Society, its vice pre- 
sident several years, and a mem- 
ber of congress in 1800 and 1804. 

Gen. Nathaniel Peabody 
was an original member of the N. 
H. medical society; was a member 
of the old congress ; a senator of 
the N. H. legislature in 1792 ; and 
speaker of the house in 1793. 

Hon. Nicholas Gilmax was 
a member of the old congress, and 
a senator in congress from 1805 to 
hi? death in 1814. 

Gen. Nathaniel Folsom was 
a member of the old congress, and 
a valuable revolutionary officer. 

Hon. Jeremiah Smith, a na- 


tive of Peterborough, was one of 
the first representatives to congress 
under the Federal government, was 
appointed Judge of S. C. of N. H. 
in 1802, was chief justice, and con- 
tinued such till 1809, when he was 
elected governor. He was appoint- 
ed chief justice of S. J. C. in 1813. 

Hon. John Taylor Gilmajv, 
a descendant of one of the princi- 
pal settlers at Exeter, was an active 
supporter of the revolution ; a mem- 
ber of the old congress ; filled at 
times the otfices of representative 
and state treasurer; and for four- 
teen years, between 1794 and 1816, 
was governor of the state. 

Exeter has at all periods of its 
history possessed eminent and use- 
ful men ; and some of the first law- 
yers and jurists, antiquarians and 
scholars, have received their early 
education at its literary institution. 
Population, 1830, 2,759. 

Exeter, R. I. 

Washington co. This is an agri- 
cultural and manufacturing town, 
situated 24 miles S. W. from Provi- 
dence, and from its centre about 10 
miles N. W. from South Kingston. 
The town is very large, being 12 by 
5 miles. The surface is much di- 
versified by hills and valleys ; the 
Boil is a gravelly loam, and very 
productive of all the varieties com- 
mon to the climate. The products 
of the daii-y are considerable. — 
Branches of Wood river give this 
town a good water power, which 
IS well improved by cotton mills and 
other manufactories. Exeter was 
incorporated in 1743. Population, 
1830, 2,383. 

Fairfax, Vt. 

Franklin co. Bounded S. by La- 
moille river: 37 miles N. W, from 
Montpelier, and 12 S. E. from St. 
Albans. First settled, 1763. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,729. By Parme- 
lee's and Stone's brooks. Brown's 
river, and the Lamoille, this town 
enjoys a good water power. The 

falls on Lamoille river, at this place, 
are singular and worthy of the tra ■ 
veller's notice. The land is gene- 
rally level and of a good quality. 
A considerable amount of agricul- 
tural products is sent to market, and 
about 6,000 sheep are reared. There 
are some manufactures at the falls. 
Fairfax is a place of considerable 

FaLriield, Me. 

Somerset CO. This beautiful town- 
ship is located on the W, side of 
Kennebec river, and S. of Bloom- 
field. Fairfield is the most south- 
ern township in the county. It is 
watered by a small stream running 
into the Kennebec, and by a branch 
of Waterville river. This town is 
favored with a fine soil, and naviga- 
ble privileges to Augusta. It has 
a pleasant village, considerable 
trade, and, in 1837, produced 11,- 
531 bushels of wheat, and a large 
quantity of wool. Population, 1837, 
2,203. Distant from Augusta, 26 
miles N., and from Norridgewock, 
10 S. E. Incorporated, 1788. 

Fairfield, Vt. 

Franklin co. This town was first 

settled in 1789. It is well watered 
by Smithfield pond, Fairfield river. 
Black creek, and branches of Mis- 
sisque river, and abounds in mill 
sites. Fairfield has a good strong 
soil and generally suitable for cul- 
tivation. It is a pleasant place, with 
some trade and considerable manu- 
factures. It produces good beef 
cattle and horses, and pastures about 
7,000 sheep. Population, 1830, 2,- 
270. Fairfield lies 45 miles N. W. 
from Montpelier, 27 N. N, E. from 
Burlington, and is bounded W. by 
St. Albans. 

Fairfield County, Ct. 

Fairfield and Danhury are the 
shire towns. This county is bound- 
ed N. by Litchfield county, N. E. 
and E. by Housatonick river, S. E. 
and S. by Long Island Sound, and 


W. by the state of New York. This 
is a tine farming section of coun- 
try, a2;reeably diversilicd in regard 
to surface, with a strong ferule soil, 
and possesses great natural agricul- 
tural resources. Fairfield county 
extends nearly 40 miles on Long 
Island Sound, and enjoys great fa- 
cilities for navigation and the fish- 
eries. The beautiful Plousatonick 
washes its northeastern boundary, 
and the Saugatuck, Norwalk, M\\\, 
Pequonuck and other rivers afford 
it an ample water power. The man- 
ufacturing interests of the county 
are valuable and increasing. It 
contains many villages of superior 
beauty, and abounds in scenery of 
an interesting characler. First set- 
tled, 1639. Area, 630 square miles. 
Population, 1S20, 42,73.9 ; 1830, 
46,950 : 75 inhabitants to a square 
mile. In 1837 there were in this 
county about 22,000 sheep. 

Fairiield, Ct. 

Shire town, Fairfield co. This 
ancient and patriotic town compris- 
es three parishes, Fairfield, the 
seat of justice, Green'' s Farms and 
Greenfield. Fairfield lies 21 miles 
S. W. from New Haven, and 53 N. 
E. from New York. Population, 
1330, 4,243. Its Indian name was 
Unquowa. The surface of the 
town is undulating and very plea- 
sant. The soil is fertile, well cul- 
tivated and productive of wheai and 
rye, and a great variety oi fruits 
and vegetables for New York mar- 
ket. Black Rock harbor is safe and 
easy of entrance for vessels draw- 
ing 19 feet of water at common tides. 
The tide usually rises in Long Isl- 
and Sound about 5 feet. There is 
but little water power in Fairfield, 
except that produced by the tide. 
The tonnao-e of Fairfield district, 
in 1S37, was 11,983 tons. The prin- 
cipal business in navigation is the 
coasting trade. 

In the year 1637, the tract of 
country which now forms the town 
of Fairfield was discovered by cap- 


fain Mason and the troops of Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut under 
his command, wben they pursued 
the Pcquots to the swamp in this 
town, bearing the name of " Pequot 
Swamp." This is the spot made 
memorable by the great fight that 
took place there, between those 
troops and the Pequots, terminating 
in the almast entire destruction of 
that once powerful and warlike na- 
tion of savages. There are no In- 
dian marks left by which this 
swamp can be traced as the place 
of their extermination, except a 
mound of eartli in the centre oi it, 
considered as a place of safety, evi- 
dently the effect of art, with a rais- 
ed foot path leading from it to the 
surrounding high grounds. In that 
expedition this region attracted the 
notice of adventurers. In the year 
1639 a few families removed hither 
from Windsor, commenced a settle- 
ment, and, in a short period after- 
wards, were joined by several per- 
sons fi-om Watcrtown and Concord, 
Mass. After Connecticut obtained 
her charter, the general assembly 
granted these people a patent, then 
including the towns now Reading 
and Weston. 

Fairfield is distinguished for its 
^ardent attachment to American lib- ^^■ 
erty, and for its sacrifices during the 
contest for independence. In 1779, 
when Tryon, a British governor, de- 
manded a surrender of the town, 
under a threat of its destruction, 
the answer of the inhabitants was, 
" We will never voluntarily lay 
down our arms till we have obtained 
the object for which they have been 
taken up. The village is in your 
power; plunder and burn it if 30U 
will, and take along with your plun- 
der the infamy of which it cannot 
be divested." 

" On the 7th July, 1779, gover- 
ernor Tryon, with a large and 
vengeful army, sailed from Nev/ 
Haven to Fairfield ; and the next 
morning disembarked upon the 
beach. A few militia assembled to 


oppose them ; and, in a desultory, 
scattered manner, fought with great 
intrepidity through most of the day. 
They killed some ; took several pri- 
soners; and wounded more. But 
the expedition was so sudden and 
unexpected, that the eflbrts, made 
in this manner, were necessarily 
fruitless. The town was plunder- 
ed ; a great part of the houses, to- 
gether with the two churches, the 
court house, jail, and school houses, 
were burnt. The barns had been 
just filled with wheat, and other 
pioduce. The inhabitants, there- 
fore, were turned out into the world, 
almost literally destitute. 

" While the town was in flames, 
a thunder storm overspread the hea- 
vens, just as night came on. The 
conflagration of near two hundred 
houses illumined the earth, the 
skirts of the clouds, and the waves 
of the Sound, with an union of 
gloom and grandeur, at once inex- 
pressibly awful and magnificent. 
The sky speedily was hung with 
the deepest darkness, wherever the 
clouds were not tinged by the mel- 
ancholy lustre of the flames. At 
intervals the lightnings blazed with 
a livid and terrible splendor. The 
thunder rolled above. Beneath, 
the roaring of the fires filled up the 
intervals with a deep and hollow- 
sound, which seemed to be the pro- 
tracted murmur of the thunder, re- 
verberated from one end of heaven 
to the other. Add to this convul- 
sion of the elements, and these 
dreadful effects of vindictive and 
wanton devastation, the trembling 
of the earth ; the sharp sotind of 
muskets, occasionally discharged ; 
the groans, here and there, of the 
wounded and dying ; and the shouts 
of triumph: then place before your 
eyes crowds of the miserable suf- 
ferers, mingled with bodies of the 
militia, and from the neighboring 
hills taking a farewell prospect of 
their property and their dwellings, 
their happiness and their hopes ; 
and you will form a just but imper- 

fect picture of the burning of Fair- 
field. It needed no great effort of 
imagination to believe that the final 
day had arrived ; and that amid 
this funeral darkness, the morning 
would speedily dawn, to which no 
night would ever succeed; the 
graves yield up their inhabitants ; 
and the trial commence, at which 
was to be finally settled the destiny 
of man. 

" The nest morning the troops 
re-embarked ; and, proceeding to 
Green's Farms, set fire to the 
church, and consumed it ; together 
with fifteen dwelling houses, elev- 
en barns, and several stores." 

Fairliavcii, Vt. 

Rutland co. First settled, 1779. 
Population, 1830, 675. The soil is 
generally productive, particularly 
along the banks of the streams. It 
is watered by Castleton and Poult- 
ney rivers, the former of which re- 
ceives the waters 'of lake Bomba- 
zine, a large pond between Fair- 
haven and Castleton. On these 
streams are considerable falls, and 
mill sites. Fairhaven lies 16 miles 
W. from Rutland, and 9 N. E. from 
Whitehall, N. Y. 

FairliaveiiL, Mass. 

Bristol CO. This pleasant town 
was taken from New Bedford, in 
1812. It lies across Acushnett 
river, about a mile east of New 
Bedford. It is united to New Bed- 
ford by abridge 3,960 feet in length, 
and is associated with it in many of 
its enterprises. First settled, 1764. 
Population, 1830, 3,034; 1837, 
3,649. There are 37 vessels be- 
longing to this place engaged in 
the whale fishery, the tonnage of 
which is 11,564 tons. The value 
of whale oil and bone imported in- 
to this place the year ending April 
1, 1837, was $322,272. The num- 
ber of hands employed in the fish- 
ery was 945. Capital invested, 
$957,000. The Acushnett produ- 
ces some water power,on which are 


two cotton mills, a paper mill, and 
other operations by water. The 
value of cotton goods, leather, boots, 
shoes, tin ware, vessels, salt, wood- 
en ware, chairs and cabinet ware 
manufactured, amounted to $40,363. 

Fairlee, Vt. 

Orange co. A rough and moun- 
tainous township, with very little 
productive land, on the west side of 
Connecticut river, and connected 
with Orford, N. H. by a bridge 
acijks that river. First settled, 
1768. Population, 1S30, 656. This 
town lies about 17 miles E. S. E. 
from Chelsea, and 31 S. E. from 

Fairlee pond is two miles in length 
and about three fourtlis of a mile 
wide. It formerly had no lish. 
Some years ago a gentleman placed 
some pickerel in it, and the legisla- 
ture passed a law protecting the 
fish from molestation for two years. 
Since that time the pond has had 
an abundance of pickerel of good 
size and quality. 

Fall River, Mass. 

Bristol CO. This town took the 
name of Troy, in 1803. It was for- 
merly a part of Freetown. In 1834, 
the name was changed to that of 
the river within its borders, at the 
union of which and Taunton liver 
the town is very pleasantly situa- 
ted. This town is w ithout a paral- 
lel on the continent of America, in 
regard to the union of hydraulic 
powers and navigable facilities. 
Fall river rises in Wattuppa ponds ; 
one of which is 11 miles in length 
and 1 in breadth. These ponds are 
produced by perpetual springs, and 
lie about two miles east of the town. 
The descent of this rii^er is 136 
feet. The volume of water is con- 
stant, not liable to excess, and of 
sufficient power for the largest man- 

The harbor on Taunton river is 
safe and easy of access, and of suf- 
ficient depth of water for the larg- 

est ships. Six ships from this port 
are engaged in the whale fishery. 
It has also some merchant and coast- 
ing vessels. A marine rail-way was 
constructed here in 1834. 

This town has an abundance of 
fine granite, equal to the Quincy. 
A rail-road is in progresr to meet the 
Boston and Providence, ai Seekonk, 
13 miles. 

The Pocasset Hotel, belonging 
to a company of gentlemen, is a 
splendid building, constructed in 
1833. No house in the country af- 
fords better accommodations. A 
regular steamboat line is establish- 
ed between this place and Provi- 
dence : — distance, by water, 28 

The value of the manufactures 
of Fall River for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, amounted to $2,863,- 
378, exclusive of large manufac- 
tures of macl^inery, iron hoops and 
rods, stoves, brass, copper, and tin 
wares. The ten cotton mills pro- 
duced 7,767,614 yards of cloth, val- 
ued at $668,028. The woolen mill 
produced (150,000 yards of cloth, 
valued at $180,000. The other ar- 
ticles manufactured consisted of 
leather, boots-, shoes, iron castings, 
hats, nails, chairs, cabinet ware 
and vessels. The two print works 
printed twelve million yards of cal- 
ico. The number of hands em- 
ployed in all the factories was 1.819. 
The product of the whale fishej-y, 
the same year, was $68,700. Hands 
employed in the fishery, 120. 

Fall River lies 49 miles S. from 
Boston, 17 S. from Taunton, 14 W. 
from New Bedford, 18 8. E. from 
Providence, R. I. and 190 E. from 
New York. Population, in 1820, 
1,594; 1830, 4,159; 1837, 6,352.— 
The surface of Fall River is eleva- 
ted, rough and uneven, and consid- 
ered a healthy location for a manu- 
facturing town. 

Falmoutli, Me. 

Cumberland co. This is a pleas- 
ant town at the head of Casco bay. 


6 miles N. from Portland, and 47 S. 
W. from Augusta. It is watered 
by Presumscut river, and has a num- 
ber of vessels employed in coasting 
and fishing. The soil on the whole 
coast of Maine is not so fertile as in 
the interior parts of the state, yet 
Falmouth comprises a considerable 
quantity of good land. The town 
was incorporated as early as 1718, 
and included the territory of the 
city of Portland until 17S6. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,068. 

Faliuouth., Mass. 

Barnstable co. A pleasant town on 
Vineyard Sound. There are belong- 
ing to this town 9 whale-ships, and 
about40 sail in the coasting trade and 
fishery. Two streams afford a wa- 
ter power, on which are two wool- 
en mills and other manufactories. 
There about 40 ponds in this 
town, some salt and some fresh : — 
these, with the views of the islands 
in the Sound, form a variety of 
agreeable scenery. "Wood's Hole" 
harbor, at the S. W. extremity of 
the town, is a good harbor and 
much frequented by vessels, and by 
invalids in search of health. The 
value of oil imported into Falmouth, 
the year ending April 1, 18.37, 
amounted to $146,600. The value 
of vessels, salt, w^oolen goods, boots, 
shoes and leather, manufactured the 
same year, was $58,657. Falmouth 
lies 71 miles S. E. by E. from Bos- 
ton, and 22 S. W. from Barnstable. 
<' Woods' Hole " is 4 miles W. from 
the centre of the town ; and 
*' Holmes' Hole" harbor, on Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, is 6 miles S. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,580. Incorporated, 

Farmiugton, Me. 

County town of Franklin CO. This 
very beautiful town lies 29 miles 
N. W. from Auf;usta, and is water- 
ed by Sandy and Little Norridge- 
wock rivers. At the union of these 
rivers arc excellent mill privileges, 
and a delightful village, the seat 

of justice. Farther up the Sandy, 
about 5 miles, is another beautiful 
village, the seat of a flourishing 
academy. The soil of Farmington 
being of a superior quality, the 
inhabitants are induced to devote 
much attention to agricultural pur- 
suits ; yet it is a place of some man- 
ufactures, and considerable trade in 
lumber and other merchandize. 
The agricultural products of Farm- 
ington are various and valuable. 
In 1837 it produced 12,406 bi^els 
of as good wheat as ever gre^ on 
the banks of the Ohio. Incorporat- 
ed, 1794. Population, 1837, 2,507. 

Farmiiigtoii, N. H., 

Strafford co., was formerly a part 
of Rochester, but was incorporated 
as a distinct town, Dec. 1, 1798. 
It lies .36 miles E. N. E. from Con- 
cord, and 17 N. W. by N. from 
Dover. The Cocheco meanders 
through the N. E. part of the town. 
The Blue hills or Frost mountains 
extend nearly through the town 
under different names. From the 
summit of the ridge in the S. E. 
part, ships may be seen by the na- 
ked eye off Portsmouth harbor ; 
while to the N. and W. the White 
Hills and the Monadnock, with hun- 
dreds of smaller mountains, meet 
the eye of the beholder. There is, 
not far from the village in Farm- 
ington, a rock supposed to weigh 
from 60 to 80 tons, so exactly pois- 
ed on other rocks, that it may be 
caused to vibrate several inches by 
the hand. At the bank of the Co- 
checo, a little more than a mile S. 
E. from the principal village, is a 
place called the Dock, so named 
from the circumstance that the first 
settlers usuallj-^ deposited their lum- 
ber here to be floated down the riv- 
er. This name is some times igno- 
rantly applied to the village. 

Hon. Aaron Wingate, for ma- 
ny years a member of the legisla- 
ture, a counsellor from 1797 to 1803, 
and for sometime chief-justice of 
the common pleas in Strafford, died 


here in 1822, aged 78 years. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,465. 

Farmington, Ct< 

Hartford co. The first settlers 
of this town were from Hartford, 
being emigrants from the neighbor- 
hood of Boston, Mass. They loca- 
ted themselves, in 1640, on the lux- 
uriant meadows of the Tunxis, or 
Farmington river, 10 miles W. from 
Hartford. The township was pur- 
chased of the Tunxis Indians, a nu- 
merous and warlike tribe. At its 
incorporation, in 1645, the township 
comprised fifteen miles square ; 
since which the pleasant towns of 
Southington, Berlin, Bristol, Bur- 
lington and Avon have been taken 
from the original territory of Farm- 

Farmington river rises in the high 
lands in the N. part of Litchfield 
county, and after meandeiing de- 
lightfully through the towns of 
New Hartford and Burlington, in a 
S. E. direction, it changes its course 
at Farmington to the N., and pass- 
ing Avon and Simsbury to the bor- 
der of Granby, it again turns ab- 
ruptly to the E. and meets the Con- 
necticut at Windsor. This is a 
beautiful and fertilizing stream, and 
gives to the towns through which 
it passes, but particularly to Farm- 
ington, large tracts of rich alluvial 

Farmington village is a delight- 
ful place, on an elevated plain, sur- 
rounded by high hills. The street 
is about two miles in length, beau- 
tifully shaded, and contains, be- 
sides two churches and an acade- 
my, about 100 neat dwelling houses, 
some of which are tasteful and ele- 
gant. The Farmington canal pass- 
es through the village. 

Round Hill, in the meadows, 
near the village, is a natural curi- 
osity. It rises abruptly, to the 
height of 60 feet, is nearly circular 
in its form and covers 12 acres. It 
is thought that this hill was former- 
ly an island in the centre of a lake. 

which covered the whole of the 
present meadows. The population 
of Farmington has varied but little 
from 2,000 within the last 30 years. 

Payette, Me. 

Kennebec co. This town con- 
tains some beautiful ponds and is 
the source of a branch of Sandy 
river. It lies 17 miles W. N. W. 
from Augusta, and is bounded E. by 
Readfield. Incorporated, 1795. — ' 
Population, 1837, 1,006. This is a 
good township of land ; it produced, 
in 1837, 4,438 bushels of wheat and 
some wool. 

Fayston, Vt. 

Washington co. Fayston is gen- 
erally too mountainous to be much 
cultivated. Along the borders of 
some of the branches of Mad river, 
which rise here, is some arable 
land. It lies 16 miles W. S. W. 
from Montpeliep, and 25 S. E. from 
Burlington. First settled, 1798. 
Population, 1830, 458. 

Ferdiuand, Vt. ♦ 

Essex CO. This town was char- 
tered in 1761, and contains 23 
square miles ; it is bounded S. 
E. by Maidstone. Paul's stream 
affords it a good water power, but 
the land is so mountainous, rocky, 
cold and swampy that people do^not 
choose to cultivate it. 

Ferrisburgli, Vt. 

Addison co. This township pos- 
sesses a good soil, an excellent wa- 
ter power by Otter, Little Otter, 
and Lewis creeks ; and navigable 
privileges on the waters of the out- 
lets of those creeks and lake Cham- 
plain. Basin Harbor in this town 
is deep and well protected from 
winds, and is a place of consider- 
able navigation and commercial im- 
portance. Across the lake to Essex, 
N. Y. is about two miles. Large 
crops of grain are produced here, 
and Ferrisburgh is noted for its fine 
butter, cheese, pork, and fat cattle. 


There are some woolen and other 
manufactures on its streams, and 
about 10,000 sheep graze in its pas- 
tures. Large quantities of fish are 
annually taken in the season of 
spring. First settled, 1784. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,822. Ferrisburgh 
lies 19 miles S. from Burlington, 
16 N. W. from Middlebury, and 34 
W, from Montpelier. 

Fitcliburgli, Mass. 

Worcester co. This township 
Was first granted by " the Great 
and General Court of His Majesty's 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
Nov. 4, 1719." The township thus 
granted included the territory of 
some of the neighboring towns. 
The town was incorporated in 1764. 
A large branch of the Nashua and 
two smaller streams pass through 
the town, and afford it an extensive 
and constant water power. Over 
the Nashua, in the distance of two 
miles, are eleven dams for the ac- 
commodation of manufactories. This 
IS a very flourishing town, and ex- 
hibits in a striking manner the ef- 
fect of water power on the increase, 
wealth and respectability of many 
of our interior towns. There are 
many valuable mill sites at this 
place still unimproved. In the 
immediate vicinity of the principal 
village is an immense quarry of ex- 
cellent granite. This town lies 47 
miles W. N. W. from Boston, 24 N. 
from Worcester, 30 W. by S. from 
Lowell, and 60 N. E. from Spring- 
field. There are in Fitchburgh 4 
cotton, 3 woolen, and 2 paper mills. 
The manufactures for the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$429,640. The manufactures con- 
sisted of cotton and woolen goods, 
paper, leather, boots, shoes, hats, 
scythes, bellows, palm-leaf hats, 
straw bonnets, chairs, tin and cab- 
inet wares. The surface of the 
town is hilly, but the soil is strong 
and productive. Population, 1830, 
2,169; 1837,2,662. 

FitzTfilliam, X. H. 

Cheshire co. Fitzwilliam lies 13 
miles S. E. from Keene, 60 S. W. 
from Concord, and 65 N. W. from 
Boston. Camp and Priest brooks, 
running in a S. direction, are the 
principal streams. South pond, 230 
rods long and of various width , 
Sip's pond, 200 rods long and 100 
wide ; Rockvvood's pond and Col- 
lin's pond, are the only natural col- 
lections of water. The surface of 
this town is hilly : the soil is rocky. 
There is a considerable quantity of 
very productive and highly valua- 
ble meadow land. The soil is suit- 
able for grazing and tillage. Beef, 
pork, butter and cheese are the sta- 
ples. The farmers have of late turn- 
ed their attention to the raising of 
sheep. Near the centre of the town 
is a large hill, remarkable for the 
beautifully romantic prospect it af- 
fords. Gap mountain, which at a 
distance, appears to be a part of the 
Monadnock, and on which are found 
various kinds of stones suitable for 
whetstones, lies partly in Troy and 
partly in the N. E. part of Fitz- 
william. Population, 1830, 1,229. 

Fletcher, Vt. 

Franklin co. There are some 
small streams in this town and some 
manufacturing operations. The soil 
is broken, hard, and not very pro- 
ductive. It lies 22 miles N. N. E 
from Montpelier, and about 18 S. E 
from St. Albans. Population, 1830, 

Florida, Mass. 

Berkshire co. A mountainous 
township, 125 miles W. by N. from 
Boston, 27 N. N. E. from Lenox, 
and 7 E. fi-om Adams. Florida is 
watered by Deerfield river, and ex- 
hibits some fine Alpine scenery. 
Population, 1837, 457. Inc. 1805. 

Foster, R. I. 

Providence CO. This is a large ag- 
ricultural and manufacturing town, 


finely watered by Hemlock brook, 
Ponongansett and Moosup rivers. 
The surface of the town, in many 
parts, is rough and uneven, but the 
soil is well calculated for the pro- 
ductions of the dairy. In the west- 
ern part are extensive forests of val- 
uable timber. There are a number 
of pleasant villages on the borders 
of the numerous streams, most of 
which are largely engaged in manu- 
facturing operations, particularly of 
cotton. Foster was tirst settled in 
1717; incorporated in 1781, and 
named in compliment to the Hon. 
Theodore Foster, formerly a 
senator of the United States. It lies 
15 miles W. by S. from Providence, 
and 50 E. from Hartford, Ct. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,672. 

Foxborougli, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This town was tak- 
en from Dorchester in 1778. It is 
watered by Rumford and Cocasset 
rivers, branches of the Taunton, on 
which are mills of various kinds. 
The manufactures of Foxborough 
the year ending April 1, 1837, 
amounted to $231,136: — they con- 
sisted of cotton and woolen goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, iron castings, 
straw bonnets, shovels, spades, hoes 
and forks. Foxborough lies 24 
miles S. S. W. from Boston, 15 S. from 
Dedham, and 18 E. N. E. from 
Providence, R. I. Population, 1830, 
1,099; 1837,1,416. 

Foxcroft, Me. 

Piscataquis co. This town is sit- 
uated on the north side of Piscata- 
quis river, opposite to Dover. The 
soil of the town is capable of pro- 
ducing all the varieties common to 
the climate. A part of Sebec pond 
lies in the north paiit of the town. 
In 1837, 5,574 bushels of wheat was 
raised. This is a fine section of 
country for the growth of beef and 
wool. Foxcroft was first settled in 
1805, and was named in compliment 
to the Hon. Joseph E. Foxcroft. 
The village, with aa academy, is 

very pleasantly located on the bank 
of the river, and has the appearance 
of prosperity. Foxcroft lies 77 
miles N. N. E. from Augusta. — 
'Population, 1830, 677; 1837,907. 
Incorporated, 1812. 

Fox Islands, Me. 

See Vinalhaven. 

Framiugliam, Mass. 

Middlesex co. A large and flour- 
ishing manufacturing town, with a 
fine soil, and pleasant ponds: — 20 
miles V*''. S. W. from Boston, and 13 
S. S. W. from Concord. The ponds 
and Sudbury river give this town a 
good water power. The value of 
the manufactures, the year ending 
April 1, 1837, amounted to $421,- 
111. The articles manufactured 
were 268,640 yards of woolen cloth, 
valued at $311,800; boots, shoes, 
leather, hats, paper, ($46, 000) straw 
bonnets, chairs, tin and cabinet 
wares. Framingham is a delight- 
ful town, and approached by the 
rail-road with great ease. It has 
become an agreeable resort for fish- 
ing, fowling and other rural sports. 
Incorporated, 1700. Population, in 
1830, 2,313 ; 1837, 2,881. 

Francesto-tvn, N. H. 

Hillsborough co. It is 12 miles 
N. W. from Amherst, and 27 S. W. 
from Concord. The two S. branches 
of the Piscataquog rise in this town ; 
the largest branch from Pleasant 
pond, the other from Haunted pond. 
The former branch passes near the 
village in Francestown. Pleasant 
and Haunted ponds are considerable 
collections of water. The land is 
uneven, and in many parts stony, 
but the qualities of the soil are 
warm and moist. There are some 
small intervales, which are very 
productive. About 7,000 sheep 
are kept here. The streams of wa- 
ter are not large, and almost every 
mill is situated on rivers that take 
their rise from hills and ponds with- 
in the limits of the town. Tho 


highest land is Crotched mountain, 
the summit of which is more than 
600 feet above the level of the 
common in the centre of the town. 
One of the summits of this moun- 
tain is covered with wood ; the other 
is almost a solid ledge of rocks, af- 
fording a very extensive prospect to 
the S. W. There is in the easter- 
ly part of this town a very exten- 
sive and valuable quan-y of free- 
stone. It is of a dark greyish col- 
or, and when polished strongly re- 
sembles the variegated marble of 
Vermont. In the N. pait of this 
town black lead has been found of 
a good quality — and in the S. part 
some beautiful specimens of rock 
crystal. The common garnet is 
met with in various places. On 
the N. side of Haunted pond, there 
is a bar of 20 rods in length, 6 feet 
high, and 3 or 4 feet through ; but 
for what purpose or by v»^hat means 
this barrier was raised, is a matter 
of conjecture only. The local sit- 
uation of this town is very eligible 
for business, being near the centre 
of the county, and on the great 
thoroughfare from Windsor to Bos- 
ton, and on a leading road from the 
S. W, part of the state to Concord. 
The village is very pleasant, neatly 
built and flourishing. Francestown 
derived its name from Frances, the 
wife of the last Gov. Wentworth. 
The first settlement was made about 
1760, by John Carson, a Scotch- 

Mr. James Woodbury, who 
died March 3, 1823, at the age of 
85, closed his life in this town. He 
was an active soldier in the old 
French war, and engaged by the 
side of Gen. Wolfe, when he was 
killed at the memorable siege of 
Quebec. He was one of the truly 
invincible rangers under the im- 
mortal Stark, and discharged every 
duty in a prompt and courageous 
manner. Population, 1830, 1541. 

Frauconia, N. H. 

Graftou co. It is 28 miles N. E. 

from Haverhill, and 74 N. from 
Concord. A large proportion of 
this town is mountainous. Its 
streams are branches of the Lower 
Araonoosuck river, and rise on the 
mountainous tracts to the east. 
Here are several ponds : one of 
which, called Ferrin's pond, is the 
source of the middle branch of Pem- 
igewasset river. The mountains 
adjoining the Notch, through which 
the road passes, are most conspicu- 
ous. These are called Mounts La 
Fayette and Jackson. On the lat- 
ter is the celebrated " Profile," or 
" Old Man of the Mountain." It is 
situated on a peak of solid rock, 
1,000 feet in height and almost per- 
pendicular. On this peak, nature, 
in her wildest mood, exhibits the 
profile of the human face, of which 
every feature is delineated with 
wonderful exactness. The Fran- 
conia mountain pass presents to the 
triiveller some of the wildest scene- 
ry in our country, and must ever re- 
main a great thoroughfare between 
the upper waters of the Connecti- 
cut river and the ocean. 

There are two iron establish- 
ments in this town. The lower 
works are situated on the S. branch 
of Amonoosuck river, and are own- 
ed by the New Hampshire Iron 
Factory Company ; incorporated, 
Dec. 18, 1805, which was composed 
principally of gentlemen in Salem 
and Boston. Their establishment 
is very extensive, consisting of a 
blast furnace, erected in 1808, an 
air furnace, a forge and trip-ham- 
mer shop. There are also near, or 
connected with the establishment, 
grain and saw-mills, a large store, 
several shops, and other buildings, 
which make a small village. The 
ore is obtained from a mountain in 
the east part of Lisbon, N. H., three 
miles from the furnace, and is con- 
sidered the richest in the United 
States, yielding from 56 to 63 per 
cent ; and the mine is said to be in- 
exhaustible. First settled, 1774. 
Population,1830, 447. 


BVankfbrt, Me. 

Waldo CO. This excellent town- 
ship of land is situated on the W. 
side of Penobscot river, 57 miles 
N. E. by E. from Augusta, 12 S. 
from Bangor, and 18 N. from Bel- 
fast. It is well watered by Marsh 
river, on which are two beautiful 
villages. The largest village is 
near the Penobscot, on Marsh bay. 
The other village is at the head of 
the tide, on Marsh river, about 4 
miles S. W. from the Penobscot, and 
is accommodated with excellent 
mill privileges. The location of 
Frankfort is exceeding favorable to 
the navigation and trade of Penob- 
scot river, particularly so in the 
winter season, as it is the highest 
point on the river to which vessels 
can ascend during the icy season of 
the year. The prospects of Frank- 
fort in its commercial and agricul- 
tural pursuits are very promising : 
indeed it bids fair to become an im- 
portant depot on one of our largest 
rivers. Among the agricultural 
products of this town, in 1837, was 
9,330 bushels of wheat. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 2,487 ; 1837,3,223. In- 
corporated, 1789. 

Franltlin. County, Me. 

Farmington is the county town. 
This county was incorporated March 
20, 1838. 

The following is the legislative 
description of its territory: 

" The towns of New Sharon, 
Chesterville, Wilton, Temple and 
Farmington in the county of Ken- 
nebec ; and Jay, Carthage, Weld, 
Berlin, Madrid, townships number- 
ed six, letter E. and D. in the coun- 
ty of Oxford, thence extending 
northerly from the north-west cor- 
ner of letter D. on the line be- 
twixt townships numbered three 
and four, through the several rang- 
es of townships to Canada line, so 
as to include three tiers of town- 
ships west of the west line of the 
Bingham Purchase in said county 

of Oxford; and Industry, NewVine- 
yard, Strong, Avon, Phillips, Free- 
man, Salem, Kingtield, townships 
numbered four in the first range 
west of King-field, three and four 
in the second range, and the south 
half of township numbered four in 
the third range of the Bingham 
Purchase, in the county of Somer- 
set, be and hereby are, &c." 

This county is therefore bounded 
N. by Lower Canada, E. by the 
county of Somerset, S. by Kenne- 
bec and Oxford counties, and W. by 
Oxford county. This county lias 
no navigable waters, but is inter- 
spersed with numerous ponds and 
mill streams. Its surface is gen- 
erally undulating, with some moun- 
tainous tracts. Its soil, for the most 
part, is excellent, and cannot fail 
in remunerating the industrious far- 
mer by its products of wheat, beef, 
and wool. 

Franklin County, Vt. 

St. Albans, county town. This 
county is bounded N. by Lower 
Canada, E. by Orleans county, S. 
E. and S. by Lamoille county, S. 
by Chittenden county, and W. 
by lake Champlain. Incorporated, 
1792. Population, 1830, 22,034. 
The Missisque river passes through 
the northern part of the county, 
and the Lamoille its most southern 
section. The principal part of the 
trade of this county goes to Canada, 
by lake Champlain, which affords 
it many facilities in transportation. 
Although the surface is somewhat 
broken and in some parts mountain- 
ous, yet the soil is productive of 
wheat and grass. Many cattle are 
annuallj taken from this county to 
markec, and in 1837 it had 63,000 
sheep. In this county, marble and 
iron ore of excellent qualities are 

Franklin County, Mass. 

Greenfield, county town. Bound- 
ed N. by Windham county, Vt.,and 
a part of Cheshire county, N. H. 


E. by "Worcester county, S. by 
Hampshire county, and W. by Berk- 
shire county. Area, 650 square 
miles. The Connecticut river pass- 
es nearly through the centre of this 
county. It produces, in great abund- 
ance, all sorts of grain, fruits and 
vegetables common to its climate ; 
and exports considerable quantities 
of beef, pork, and products of the 
dairy. Manufactures are increas- 
ing in value and importance ; and 
this county yields to no other in the 
state in the extent of its hydraulic 
powers, or in the richness and vari- 
ety of its scenery. There are 44 
inhabitants to a square mile. Chief 
rivers, Connecticut, Deerfield, and 
Miller's. Taken from Hampshire 
county in 1811. Population, 1820, 
29,268; 1830, 29,344; 1837,28,655. 
The value of the manufactures of 
this county, for the year ending- 
April 1, 1837, was $787,900. The 
value of wool grown, the product 
of 55,713 fleeces, was $70,513. 

Franklin, Me. 

Hancock co. Franklin lies at the 
head of Taunton bay, the most 
northerly waters of Frenchman's 
bay. It is bounded S. by Sullivan, 
and contains several large ponds 
and good mill sites. Franklin is 
about 15 miles E. from Ellsworth. 
Population, 1837, 474. Incorporat- 
ed, 1825. 

Franklin, K. H. 

Merrimack co. This town was 
incorporated in 1828, from parts of 
the towns of Salisbury, Andover, 
Sanbornton, and Northfield : is 18 
miles from Concord, 63 from Ports- 
mouth, and 78 from Boston Frank- 
lin is a place of considerable and 
increasing business; has a cotton 
factory, two paper mills, an iron 
foundry, and other manufacturing 
establishments. The junction of 
the Winnepisiogee and Pemigewas- 
set rivers. In this town, form the 
fioble Merrimack, creating on both 

streams an extensive and valuable 
water power. It is probable that 
within a few years the river will 
be rendered navigable, by means 
of locks and canals, as far up as 
Franklin, in w^hich event it would 
become one of the most flourishing 
interior towns in New Hampshire. 
Population, in 1830, 1,370. 

Franklin, "Vt. 

Franklin co. This town was for- 
merly called Huntsburgh, and was 
first settled in 1789. "it lies 50 
miles N. W. from Montpelier, 17 
N. N. E. from St. Albans, and 
bounded N. by Canada. The sur- 
face of the town is rough, but the 
soil is tolerably well adapted for 
sheep, of which about 3,500 are 
kept. Population, 1830, 1,129. 

Franklin, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. Charles river and 
its branches alford Franklin a good 
water power. It was taken from 
Wrenthamin 1778. There are five 
cotton mills in the town, and man- 
ufactures of straw bonnets, shoes, 
boots, boxes and boats ; total amount 
of manufactures in one year, ,$210,- 
472, of which $160,186 were for 
straw bonnets, for which this town 
is celebrated. Franklin lies 27 miles 
S. W. by S. from Boston, and 17 S. 
S. W. from Dedham. Population, 
1837, 1,696. 

Franklin, Ct. 

New London CO. Shetucket riv- 
er separates this town from Lisbon. 
The surface of Franklin is uneven; 
the soil a gravelly loam, more fit 
for grazing than tillage. There is 
a woolen factory on Beaver brook, 
a branch of the Shetucket, but the 
chief business of the people is rear- 
ing sheep, and other agricultural 
pursuits. Population, 1830, 1,194. 
It lies 34 miles E. S. E. from Hart- 
ford, and 7 N. by W. from Norwich. 
Franklin was taken from Norwich 
in 1786. 


Freedom, Me. 

Waldo CO. Previous to its incor- 
poration, in 1S13, the territory of 
Freedom was called " Beaver Hill." 
It was first settled in 1794. It is a 
good township of land, and bound- 
ed W. by Albion, and E. by Knox. 
It is about 20 miles E. S. E. from 
Belfast, and 25 N. E. from Augus- 
ta. Freedom, in 18-37, with a pop- 
ulation of 1,058, produced 6,084 
bushels of wheat. 

Freedom, K. I-l. 

Strafford co. This town, former- 
ly JVorth Effingham, was incorpo- 
rated by its present name, Dec. 6, 
1832. It is an uneven township, 
but has some good farms. It is 
bounded in part by the Ossipee lake, 
and river, which discharge east- 
wardly into the Saco. Distant 60 
miles N. N. E. from Concord. Pop- 
ulation, in 1833, about 900. 

Freeman, Me. 

Franklin co. This small town 
of only 17,000 acres, most of which 
is woodland, with a population 
of 805, produced 6,485 bushels of 
wheat in 1837. Freeman is the 
source of a small branch of Sandy 
river. It lies 62 miles N. W. from 
Augusta, and 15 N. from Farming- 

Freeport, Me. 

Cumberland CO. This is a respect- 
able town with a pleasant village, 
and small harbor at the head of Cas- 
co bay, on the road fiom Portland 
to Brunswick, 18 miles N. by E. 
from the former, 9 S. W. from the 
latter, and 36 S. S. W. from Augus- 
ta. Freeport was taken from North 
Yarmouth in 1789, and was former- 
ly called the Harraseeket Settle- 
ment, from the name of the river 
that passes through it. This is a 
place of some navigation, ship build- 
ing, and agricultural enterprize. 
Population, 1837, 2,659. 

Freeto^^Ti, Mass. 

Bristol CO. This town lies on the 
E. side of Taunton river, 8 miles 
S. from Taunton, 12 N. by W. from 
New Bedford, and 40 S. from Bos- 
ton. First settled, 1659. Incor- 
porated, 1683. Population, 1837, 
1,779. It is watered by a branch 
of Taunton river, and has some nav- 
igation. The manufactures of Free- 
town consist of iron castings, cut- 
lery, axes, shovels, spades, hoes, 
forks, nails, leather, boots, shoes, 
vessels, chairs, and cabinet ware. 
Total amount, in one year, $43,820. 
The soil is light, and keeps, among 
other cattle, about 1,000 sheep. 

French River. 

This river rises in Leicester, Mass. 
It passes through Auburn, Oxford, 
and Dudley ; it then enters the state 
of Connecticut and joins the Quin- 
ebaugh at Thompson. Some French 
protestants settled on this river in 

Frencliman's Bay, Me. 

This important bay, in the county 
of Hancock, containing a number 
of excellent harbors and beautiful 
islands, is bounded W. by Baker's 
island, one of the Cranberry islands, 
and E. by a peninsula in Goldsbo- 
rough, on the W. side of which is 
Musquito harbor. The distance 
across this bay, from Baker's island 
to Goldsborough point, is 10 miles. 
This bay juts in from the Atlantic 
ocean about 20 miles, and is envi- 
roned by the towns of Eden, Tren- 
ton, Hancock, Franklin, Sullivan, 
and Goldsborough, and is the recip- 
ient of many valuable streams. It 
is easy of access, never obstructed 
by ice, and is one of the best retreats 
in a storm on the American coast. 

Frieudsliip, Me. 

Lincoln co. This is an Atlantic 
town, containing several islands, at 
the head of Muscongus bay. It 
was formerly called the Meduncook 


Settlement, as lying between a riv- 
er of that name and the Muscongus. 
Friendship is a place of consider- 
able navigation and trade. It lies 
48 miles S. E. from Augusta, and 
10 miles S. W, from Warren. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 662. 

Fryetowrgli, Me. 

Oxford CO. This interesting and 
pleasant town lies on both sides of 
Saco river, on the line of New 
Hampshire. The uplands are not 
remarkable for their fertility, but 
the intervales on the Saco are of the 
choicest kind. Fryeburgh isonly 6 
miles square, yet the Saco here is 
so fantastic in its course that it winds 
itself between 30 and 40 miles with- 
in its limits. This town, the Indian 
Pequawket, lies 75 miles W. N. W. 
from Augusta, 47 N. W. from Port- 
land, and 28 S. W. from Paris.— 
Population, 1837, 1,444. Incorpo- 
rated, 1777. The principal village 
is situated on a plain, surrounded by 
lofty hills, and watered by the Sa- 
co : it bears evident marks of anti- 
quity, and has an academy " with 
a cabinet of rare curiosities, col- 
lected with much diligence." — 
Lovewell's pond lies a short distance 
from the village. This beautiful 
sheet of water, now the resort for 
innocent amusements, was once the 
scene of bloody combat, and of the 
overthrow of a powerful Indian 

The story of LoveweWs Fight 
has been told thousands of times, 
but as it is identified with the town 
of which we treat, we quote a brief 
notice of the event from the North 
American Review. 

" It was on the 18th of April, 
1725, that Capt. John Lovewell, of 
Dunstable, Massachusetts, with 34 
men, fought a famous Indian chief, 
named Paugus, at the head of about 
80 savages, near the shores of a 
pond in Pequawket. Lovewell's 
men were determined to conquer 
or die, although out-numbered by 
the Indians more than one half. 

They fought till Lovewell and Pau- 
gus were killed, and all LoveweU's 
men but nine were either killed or 
wounded dangerously. The sava- 
ges having lost, as was supposed, 
60 of their number out of 80, and 
being convinced of the fierce and 
determined resolution of their foes, 
at length retreated and left them 
masters of the ground. The scene 
of this desperate and bloody action, 
which took place in the town which 
is now called Fryeburgh, is often 
visited with interest to this day, 
and the names of those who fell, 
and those who survived, are yet re- 
peated with emotions of grateful 

Fundy, Bay of. 

This bay washes a part of the 
eastern shore of Maine ; and as it 
is an important channel of com- 
merce between the United States 
and the British provinces of New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, it may 
be useful to notice it. This large 
and important bay sets up N. E. 
round cape Sable, the most south- 
ern point of Nova Scotia, in N. lat. 
43° 24', W. Ion. 65° 39', and cross- 
es to th^ shore of Maine a little W« 
of Frenchman's bay. From the 
mouth of Frenchman's bay to Cape 
Sable is about 150 miles ; from 
Eastport to St. John's, N. B. is 6^ 
miles ; from St. John's to Annapo 
lis, in a bay of that name, on the 
Nova Scotia side, is 40 miles ; from 
thence to Halifax, by land, is 80 
miles. From Eastport direct to 
Annapolis, across the bay, is about 
70 miles. The Bay of Fundy is 
divided near its head by cape Chig- 
necto. The N. W. part is called 
Chignecto bay; the S. E. part the 
Basin of Mines. From Eastport to 
Cumberland, at the head of Chig- 
necto bay, is about 170 miles; to 
Windsor, at the head of the Basin 
of Mines, is about 150. From 
Windsor to Halifax in N. lat. 44° 
39' 20", W. Ion. 63° 36' 40", is 45 


The commerce on this bay with 
our friends and neighbor?, the Eng- 
lish, is very considerable. While 
they receive bread stuffs and other 
productions of our soil, we are in- 
debted to them for vast quantities 
of grindstones and gypsum to sharp- 
en our tools and renovate the soil. 
The gypsum is principally f;-om the 
Basin of Mines; — it lies embedded 
in elevated masses along the shores 
of the bay; — it is easily quarried 
and taken on board of vessels by 
the sides of the cliffs. This gypsum 
is of a tine quality, and it is doubtful 
whether any has been discovered 
in our own country as good. 

The grindstones from Cumber- 
land, or Chignecto bay, are every 
where celebrated. The source is 
inexhaustible, and the manufacture 

The tides in the bay of Fundy 
are supposed to rise to a greater 
height than in any other part of the 
world. Their elevation increases 
as you ascend the bay. At East- 
port they rise 25 feet ; at St. John's 
30; at Cape Split, 55; at Windsor, 
60, and at Cumberland, at the head 
of Chignecto bay, they i-ise to the 
enormous height of 71 feet. These 
tides announce themselves some 
time l^efore their approach, by a 
sound resembling that of a rushing 
wind in a forest : they dash again>=i 
the shore with a reddish hue, the 
color of the clay bottom over which 
they pass, with frightful violence ; 
at first, to the height of from 8 to 
10 feet, overwhelming- all within 
their reach. 

There are but few islands with- 
in this bay. Grand Menan, and a 
cluster of small islands round it, off 
West Quoddy Head, and Campo Bel- 
lo, near Eastport, arc the principal. 
They belong to the British. A 
small island about 5 miles off the 
S. W. part of cape Chignecto, call- 
ed Isle de Haut, contains beauti- 
ful specimens of asbestos. 

The rapidity of the tides within 
this bay, the fogs which frequently 


prevail, and the absence of good 
harbors between Eastport and St. 
John's, and from St. John's to cape 
Chignecto, render the navigatioQ 
difficult and often dangerous. 

The harbor of St. John's is easy 
of access, safe, and of sufficient ex- 
panse for a large fleet of any draught 
of water. The city of St. John's 
contains about 15,000 inhabitants. 
It is located at the outlet of the 
great river whose name it bears, in 
N. lat. 45^ 20', W. Ion. GQ''. This 
city is a very flourishing place. It 
is the largest resouixe for timber and 
lumber that Queen Victoria has ia 
her possessions. 

St. John's river rises in Canada 
and the northern part of Maine. It 
receives the Madawaska, St. Fran- 
cis, Aroostook, and many other val- 
uable tributaries, from Maine ; it 
waters a large portion of its north- 
ern territory, and bears many valu- 
able productions of that state to its 
mouth. " This river is 350 miles 
long ; the tide flov/s up about 80 
miles ; it is navigable for boats 200 
miles, and for sloops of 50 tons 80 
miles. This river and its branches 
water a large tract of excellent 
country. About 30 miles from its 
mouth commences a fine level coun- 
try of rich meadow lands, well cloth- 
ed with timber. The river furnish- 
es a great quantity of salmon, bass 
and sturgeon. About a mile above 
the city of St. John's is the only 
entrance into this river. It is about 
80 or 100 yards wide, 400 yards 
long, called the falls of the river. 
It being narrow, and a ridge of rocks 
running across the bottom of the 
channel, on which there are not 
above 17 feet of water, it is not suf- 
ficiently spacious to discharge the 
fresh waters of the river above. 
The common tides here rising above 
20 feet, the waters of the river at 
low water are about 20 feet higher 
than the waters of the sea ; at high 
water the waters of the sea are 
about 5 feet higher than those of 
the river : so that at every tide there 


are two falls, one outwards and one 
inwards. The only time of pass- 
ing with safety is when the waters 
of the river and of the sea are lev- 
el, which is twice in a tide, and 
continues only about 20 minutes 
each time." 

Frederickton, the capital of New 
Brunswick, lies on this river, 80 
miles from its mouth, in N. lat. 46° 
3', W. Ion. 66° 45'. 

Gardiner, Me. 

Kennebec co. Gardiner was for- 
merly a part of Pittston, and lies 
on the W. side of Kennebec river, 
6 miles S. from Augusta, and 4 be- 
low Hallowell. It is located at the 
head of large navigation, and in re- 
gard to its commerce, manufactur- 
ing and agricultural interests, it is 
considered one of the most flourish- 
ing towns in Maine. It was incor- 
porated in 1803, and was named in 
honor of Dr. Sylvester Gardi- 
ner, one of the proprietoj-s of the 
old Plymouth patent. 

The Cohhessecontee waters meet 
the Kennebec river at this place, 
and produce a water power of great 
usefulness and extent. Here are 
mills for sawing lumber of all di- 
mensions, and here are vessels of 
from 80 to 120 tons burthen, lading 
it for transportation to its various 
markets. Here are also manufac- 
tures of various other kinds. This 
town, Hallowell and Augusta,lie in 
a most favored section of our coun- 
try. What we have said in regard 
to the location of Hallowell and 
Augusta, may be applied to Gard- 
iner. These towns are on the same 
side of a noble river, united by the 
same interests and feelings, and will 
goon be connected by a rail-road 
passing between them. The vil- 
lage of Gardiner is very pleasant. 
The business part lying on the riv- 
er, is full of activity and enterprise. 
The buildings, on a gentle rise from 
the river, are beautifully located. 
They command a delightful pros- 
pect, and some of them are of 

superior architecture. Population, 
1837, 3,709. The present popula- 
tion is about 5,000. 

Gardner, Mass. 

Worcp^ter co. Otter river, a con- 
siderable stream, a branch of Mil- 
ler's river, rises partly in this town, 
and affords good mill seats. On this 
river is some good intervale land; 
the high lands are rough, but good 
for grazing. The value of palm- 
leaf hats, straw bonnets, chairs, 
cabinet and wooden wares, leath- 
er, boots and shoes, manufactured 
in one year, amounted to ^132,- 
272. The cabinet ware and chairs 
amounted to $109,000. Gardner 
was incorporated in 1785, and lies 
54 miles N. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 23 N. W, by N. from Worces- 
ter. Population, 1837, 1,276. 

A church was formed here in 
1786, and the Rev. Jonathan Osgood 
was ordained. He died in 1825, af- 
ter sustaining the vocations of pas- 
tor, ■physician and school master , 30 

Garland, Me. 

Penobscot co. Garland is water- 
ed by some of the head branches 
of Kenduskeag stream. It lies 74 
miles N. E. by N. from Augusta, 
and 27 N. W. from Bangor. Incor- 
porated, 1811. Population, 1830, 
621 ; 1837, 932. This is an excel- 
lent township of land; it produced, 
in 1837, 6,521 bushels of wheat. 

Gay Head, Mass. 

See Chilmark. 

Georgeto^vn, Me. 

Lincoln CO. Georgetown is con- 
stituted of two considerable islands 
lying at the mouth of Kennebec 
river. These islands have Kenne- 
bec river on the W., Sheepscot riv- 
er on the E., and separated from 
Woolwich on the N. by a naviga- 
ble passage between those two riv- 
ers. It is a little below Bath, on 
the opposite shore. This is one 


of the most ancient settlements in 
Maine. Tlie town was incorporat- 
ed in 1716. Population, 1837, 1,355. 
It lies 46 miles S. from Augusta, 
and 12 S. W. from Wiscasset. This 
town has excellent harbors, and pos- 
sesses peculiar privileges for all oc- 
cupations connected with naviga- 
tion and the fisheries. 

Georgetown, Mass. 

Essex CO. Georgetown was the 
W. part of Rowley. It was called 
JVew Rowley for some years, un- 
til its incorporation as a separate 
town, in 1838. Georgetown is wa- 
tered by a branch of Parker's riv- 
er, and is almost entirely engaged 
in manufactures and the mechanic 
arts. It is a pleasant town and high- 
ly flourishing. Population, about 
1,500. It lies 30 miles N. from 
Boston, and 10 S. W. from Newbu- 
ryport. The people of Georgetown 
are probably more extensively en- 
gaged in the manufacture of boots 
and shoes than at any other place, 
of its population, in America. The 
value of boots and shoes manufac- 
tured, and leather tanned, is said to 
exceed $500^000 annually. 

Georgia, Vt. 

Franklin co. Population, 1830, 
1,897. Georgia lies 40 miles N. 
W. from Montpelier, and 8 S. from 
St. Albans. First settled, 1784. 
The soil of Georgia is various but 
generally fertile. It feeds about 
11,000 sheep. The Lamoille pass- 
es through the S. E. corner of the 
town, which, with other streams, 
give it an ample water power. This 
is a place of considerable trade and 
some manufactures. Over Stone 
Bridge brook is a stone bridge, — 
a curious piece of nature's mechan- 
ism. Georgia is washed on the W. 
by Lake Champlain : the village is 
pleasantly located, and commands 
Bome very pretty lake and moun- 
tain scenery. 

Gilead, Me. 

Oxford CO. Between two moun- 
tains on both sides of Androscoggin 
river. There is some good land on 
the river, but the chief part of the 
township is fit only for grazing. 
The expense of transportation of 
fuel down the mountains, in a slip- 
pery time, is very trifling. Gilead 
lies 71 miles W. from Augusta, and 
25 S. S. W. from Paris. Incorpora- 
ted, 1804. Population, 1837, 374. 

GUford, Si. H., 

One of the four shire towns for 
Strafford county, is situated on the 
S. side of Winnepisiogee lake. 
This town lies 26 miles N. N. E. 
from Concord, and 48 N, W. from 
Portsmouth. The soil is generally 
productive. There are two ponds 
in this town, Little and Chattlebo- 
rough. Gunstock and Mile's rivers, 
lising in Suncook mountains and 
flowing N. into the lake, are the 
principal streams. The N. source 
of the Suncook river is on the S. 
of these mountains, which extend 
in a lofty pile over the E. part of 
the town, from Gilmanton line near- 
ly to the lake. There are seven isl- 
ands in the lake, belonging to Gil- 
ford, one of which has been con- 
nected to the main land by abridge 
30 rods in length. This town, 
which was formerly a part of Gil- 
manton, was incorporated June 16, 
1812. It was settled in 1778.— 
Here are manufactories of cotton 
goods, besides other useful mills 
and machinery. Four bridges 
across the Winnepisiogee connect 
the town with Meredith. The vil- 
lage at this place is thriving and 
pleasant. Population, 1830, 1,872. 

Gill, Mass. 

Franklin co. A mountainous 
township on the W. side of Con- 
necticut river ; 86 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and 5 E. N. E. from 
Greenfield. Gill contains a fine 


tract of rich intervale on a bend 
of the Connecticut. The people 
are generally engaged in farming. 
The town is divided from Greenheld 
by Fall river. It has some manu- 
factures of combs, wooden ware, 
leather and palm-leaf hats. The 
fleeces of 1,80.9 sheep weighed 
5,627 pounds, and were valued, in 
1837^ at .$2,214. Population, 1S37, 
809. Taken from Deeriield in 

Gilmaiitou, IV. K. 

One of the shire towns in Straf- 
ford county, 17 miles N. N. E. from 
Concord, and 45 W. N. W. from 
Portsmouth. It is bounded N. and 
N. E. by Gilford and Alton. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 3,816. Beside the 
Winnepisiogee, this town is water- 
ed by the Suncook and Soucook 
rivers, which have their sources in 
Gilmanton. The Suncook rises in a 
pond near the top of one of the 
Suncook mountains, elevated 900 
feet above its base. The water of 
this pond falls into another at the 
foot of the mountain, of 1 mile in 
length and 1-2 mile wide. Passing 
from this, it falls into another, cov- 
ering about 500 acres, from which 
it meanders through the town, re- 
ceiving several streams in its course. 
The Soucook rises from Loon, 
Rocky and Shellcamp ponds, in the 
S. part of the town. This town is 
very hilly and rocky. The soil is 
hard, but fruitful, when properly 
cultivated. The geology of this 
town presents many varieties. — 
There are several springs in Gilman- 
ton, termed mineral ; one of which 
has proved efficacious in cutaneous 
and bilious affections. This town 
was granted May 20, 1727, to 24 
persons of the name of Gilman, and 
152 others. In Dec. 1761, Benja- 
min and John Mudgett, with their 
families, settled here. Dorothy 
"Weed, the first child, was horn here 
Oct. 13, 1762. An academy was 
founded here in 1764. Its produc- 
tive funds are about $11,000. The 

theological seminary at thi~ '^'ace 
is connected with the academy, and. 
is a flourishing institution. 

Gil sum, ]V. H. 

A small township in Cheshire 
county, situated about 10 miles E. 
from the Connecticut. The soil is, 
in many parts, fertile, and produces 
good crops of grass and grain. 
Ashuelot river runs through this 
town and affords a good supply of 
water for mills, which is improv- 
ed for cotton and other manufac- 
tures. Gilsum w^as granted July 
13, 1763, to Messrs. Gilbert, Sum- 
ner and others. From the com- 
bination of the first syllables of the 
names of these men, it derives the 
name of Gil-sum. The first settle- 
ment was made in 1764. Gilsum 
lies 55 miles S. W. by W. from 
Concord, and about 9 N. from 
Keene. Population, 1830, 642. 

Glenburn, Me< 

Penobscot co. This territory 
was called Button, from 1822 to 
1837. It lies 76 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 10 N. N. W. from 
Bangor. Population, 1837, 717. 
Glenburn is situated on both sides 
of the great bend of Kenduskeag 
stream. It has a water power, but 
the inhabitants are mostly farmers. 
The soil is good, and considerable 
wheat is raised. 

Glasteiil>iiry, Vt. 

Bennington co. This is a town- 
ship of 40 square miles of moun- 
tainous land, more fit for the resi- 
dence of wild beasts than human 
beings. It is 9 miles N. E. from 
Bennington. Population, 1830, 59. 

Glastenbury, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town, pre- 
vious to its incorporation in 1690, 
had been attached to Wethersfield. 
It lies on the east side of Connecti- 
cut river opposite to Wethersfield, 
8 miles S. from Hartford. It has 


some fine land on Connecticut riv- 
er. The face of the uplands is rough 
but generally productive. About 
a mile and a half from Connecticut 
river, and 8 miles from Chatham 
freestone quarry, in a romantic spot 
between the hills, is a beautiful vil- 
lage connected with the Hartford 
Manufacturing Company. Roar- 
ing brook, at this place, passes 
through a very narrow defile, aflbrd- 
ing a great and constant water pow- 
er. Cotton is manufactured here 
to a considerable extent, and the 
village is very flourishing. From 
the hills around this village a great 
variety of delightful scenery is ob- 
servable. Population, 1830, 2,980. 
" In the eastern part of the town 
there is a pond of about a mile in 
circumference, called ' Diamond 
pond,' from the circumstance of 
there being small pebbles or stones 
around its margin, having a pe- 
culiar brilliancy. Near the cen- 
tre of the town there is a mineral 
spring, which, though it has acquir- 
ed no celebrity abroad, has been 
thought by men of science who 
have examined it, to possess valua- 
ble medicinal qualities ; and for 
more than one hundred years has 
been known by the name of the 
* Pool of Neipseic' " 

Gloucester, Mass. 

Essex CO. This is a maritime 
township, comprising the whole of 
Cape Ann, and celebrated for the 
enterprise of its people in the fish- 
eries and commercial pursuits. It 
is one of the oldest fishing estab- 
lishments in the state. This cape 
extends about 8 miles into the sea, 
and forms the northern boundary of 
Massachusetts bay. Its harbor is 
capacious, easy of access at any 
season, and of sufficient water for 
ships of great burthen. Gloucester 
harbor and the chief settlements 
are on the south side. Sandy and 
Squam bays lie on the north side, 
about 4 miles from the south har- 
bor, and afford harbors for small 

vessels. The lights on Thatcher's 
island bear about northeast 6 miles 
from East Point, the eastern boun- 
dary of Gloucester harbor. As 
early as 1794 the exports from this 
place, in one year, amounted to 
.•j^230,000. Here are immense quar- 
ries of light and grayish granite, 
which is split with great ease, and 
in large regularly formed blocks. 
This stone is of a fine grain, is easi- 
ly dressed, and can be put on board 
of vessels with little expense. The 
demand for this stone is rapidly in- 
creasing, and the quarrying, ham- 
mering, and transporting it gives 
employment to many men and ves- 
sels. The canal across the neck 
of the cape has failed of that suc- 
cess which was anticipated. The 
manufacture of palm-leaf hats, 
boots, shoes, hats, vessels, chairs, 
tin and cabinet wares, in the year 
ending April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$46,726. In that year there were 
221 vessels employed in the cod 
and mackerel fishery, the tornage 
of which was 9,824 tons. They 
took 55,181 quintals of cod fish, and 
43,934 barrels of mackerel : 113,- 
760 bushels of salt was used, and 
1,580 hands employed. The value 
of the cod and mackerel taken was 
$522,082. There are belonging to 
this place a great number of vessels 
engaged in foreign and domestic 
trade. The total tonnage of the 
district in 1837 was 18,802 tons. 
This town lies in N. lat. 42° 36', 
W. Ion. 70° 40', and was incorpora- 
ted in 1639. Population, 1820, 
6,384; 1830,7,513; 1837, 8,822. 
It lies 29 miles N. E. from Boston, 
and 16 N. E. by E. from Salem. 
Gloucester is a very pleasant town, 
and a delightful retreat in summer 

Gloucester, R. I. 

Providence co. This large and 
respectable manufacturing town 
lies 16 miles W. S. W. from Provi- 
dence, and 50 E. by N. from Hart- 
ford. First settled, 1700. Incorpo- 


rated, 1730. The surface of the 
town is somewhat broken by hills, 
but the soil is well adapted to agri- 
cultural purposes, particularly to 
grazing. Gloucester furnishes large 
supplies of various products for 
market. There are tine forests in 
several parts of the town, and large 
quantities of ship and other timber 
are conveyed to Providence and 
other places. The Chepachet and 
some smaller streams give Glou- 
cester a good water power. Man- 
ufacturing establishments are very 
numerous, and Gloucester yields to 
but few towns in New England in 
the value of this branch of indus- 
try, particularly in the manufac- 
ture of cotton. Population, 1830, 

Glover, Vt. 

Orleans co. Glover was first set- 
tled in 1797. It lies 33 miles N. 
N. E. from Montpelier, and 12 S. 
by E. from Irasburgh. The town 
is hilly, and the soil is more fit for 
grazing than tillage. There are 
about 3,200 sheep in the town. 
There are in the town branches of 
Barton's, Passumpsic, Lamoille, and 
Black rivers, and several ponds. 
On these streams are some manu- 
factures, but none of any great 
importance. Population, 1830, 902. 

We copy an account of the run- 
ning off of Long Pond, from 
Thompson's valuable Gazetteer of 

" long pond was situated partly 
in this township and partly in 
Greensborough. This pond was 
one and a half miles long, and about 
half a mile wide, and discharged its 
waters to the south, forming one of 
the head branches of the river La- 
moille. On the 6th of June, 1810, 
about 60 persons went to this pond 
for the purpose of opening an out- 
let to the north into Barton river, 
that the mills, on that stream, might 
receive an occasional supply of wa- 
ter. A small channel was excava- 
ted, and the water commenced run- 

ning in a northerly direction. It 
happened that the northern barrier 
of the pond consisted entirely of 
quicksand, except an encrusting of 
clay next the water. The sand 
was immediately removed by the 
current, and a large channel formed. 
The basin formed by the encrusting 
of clay was ihcapable of sustaining 
the incumbent mass of waters, and 
it brake. The whole pond imme- 
diately took a northerly course, and, 
in fifteen minutes from this time, its 
bed was left entirely bare. It was 
discharged so suddenly that the 
country below w^as instantly inun- , 
dated. The deluge advanced like 
a wall of waters, 60 or 70 feet in 
height, and 20 rods in width, level- 
ing the forests and the hills, and 
filling up the valleys, and sweeping 
off mills, houses, barns, fences, cat- 
tle, horses and sheep as it passed, 
for the distance of more than ten 
miles, and barelj' giving the inhab- 
itants sufficient notice of its ap- 
proach to escape with their lives in- 
to the mountains. A rock, suppos- 
ed to weigh more than 100 tons, 
was removed half a mile from its 
bed. The waters removed so rap- 
idly as to reach Memphremagog 
lake, distance 27 miles, in about 
six hours from the time they left 
the pond. Nothing now remains 
of the pond but its bed, a part of 
which is cultivated and a part over- 
grown with bushes and wild grass, 
with a small brook running through 
it, which is now the head branch 
of Barton river. The channel 
through which the waters escaped 
is 127 feet in depth and several 
rods in width. A pond, some dis- 
tance below, was, at first, entirely 
filled with sand, which has since 
settled down, and it is now about 
one half its former dimensions. 
Marks of the ravages are still to be 
seen through nearly the whole 
course of Barton river." 

Goffstown, N. H., 

Hillsborough co., is 12 miles N. 


by E. from Amherst, and 16 S. from 
Concord. Piscataquog river, the 
triba'tiiry branches of which unite 
near the W. hne of the town, runs 
through its centre in an E. direc- 
tion, and falls into Merrimack riv- 
er at Piscataquog- village in Bed- 
ford. Large quantities of lumber 
are annually floated down this riv- 
er to the Merrimack, and most of 
the mill privileges are derived from 
this valuable stream. There are 
two considerable elevations in the 
S. W. part of the town, which ob- 
tained from the Indians the name 
of Un-can-nu-nuc. On the rivers 
are considerable tracts of valuable 
intervale. Back from the rivers 
commence extensive plains, easy of 
cultivation, and producing abun- 
dant crops of Indian corn and rye. 
From these plains the land rises 
on each side of Piscataquog river 
into large swells. In this town 
there is an extensive cotton factory. 
The Goflfstown Manufacturing Com- 
pany are erecting a large woolen 
factory at a flourishing village, in 
the W. part of the town, on Piscat- 
aquog river. Population, 1830, 

Dr. JoivATHAiv Gove, a man 
distinguished for his urbanity, his 
talents and professional skill, resid- 
ed in this town. He was one of 
the oldest practitioners of medicine 
in the county. He was many years 
an active member of the legisla- 

Goldsljorougli, Me. 

Hancock co. This is a large 
township, on the Atlantic ocean, 
containing a number of excellent 
harbors, and nearly surrounded by 
water. It is admirably located for 
all the various pursuits in naviga- 
tion. Goldsborough harbor, on the 
E. side of the town, is capacious and 
easy of approach by almost any 
wind. Frenchman's bay extends 
on the W. side of the town and af- 
fords it many commercial advanta- 
ges. It lies 99 miles E. from Au- , 

gusta, 27 S. E. from Ellsworth, and 
is bounded by Sullivan on the N. 
Incorporated, 1789. Population, 
1830, 880; 1837, 1,047. 

Gorliani; Me* 

Cumberland co. This town is 
watered on the N. E. side by Pre- 
sumpscut river, and the Cumberland 
and Oxford canal. It is 9 miles W, 
N. W. from Portland, and 63 S. W. 
from Augusta. Gorham was first 
settled in 1736, by John Phinney 
and others from Barnstable county, 
Mass. Maine was at that time 
almost a wilderness. Portland, Sa- 
co and Scarborough were very fee- 
ble in consequence of the depreda- 
tions of the Indians. These peo- 
ple endured great privations, and 
for many years were in constant 
apprehension of attack by the sav- 
ages. " The wives and daugh- 
ters of the first settlers of Gorham 
shared in all the toils and wants of 
their husbands and fathers ; they 
used to labor in the field, carry bur- 
dens, go to mill, and aid in defence 
of their property. One time when 
most of the men were away, the 
Indians attacked the fort, and the 
wife of Hugh McLellan rallied the 
women in the garrison, shut the 
gates, mounted the walls, fired up- 
on the Indians, and by her courage 
and activity baffled the enemy till 
succor arrived." 

Rev. Solomon Lombard, a native 
of Truro, Mass., was the first set- 
tled minister. His annual salary 
was £53, Qs. 8d. He was ordained 
Dec. 26, 1750. One hundred and 
twenty dollars were raised to defray 
the expenses of the ordination. 
We copy the following from the 
list of supplies for that occasion, to 
show the prices of some articles at 
that period. 

1 barrel of flour, £14 7s. 6d. 
3 bushels of apples, 2 8 

2 barrels of cider, 9 
2 gallons of brandy, 5 

1 bottle of vinegar, 5 

2 cheeses, 6d. per lb. 


54^ lbs. of pork, Id. per lb. 
6 candles, £0 Is. Od. 

1 oz. of nutmegs, 10 
8 fowls, 1 16 

29 lbs. sugar, 8 14 

1 tea pot, 1 10 
4 gallons of rum, 5 4 

2 bushels cranberries, 2 
1 lb. of tea, 10 
1 lb. of ginger, 2 
6 gals, molasses, 2*. 8d. per gal. 
4 oz. of pepper, 6 

Gorliam is very pleasantly loca- 
ted : its soil is of a superior quali- 
ty : it has a flourishing academy, on 
a solid foundation : it is a place of 
considerable trade, and of exten- 
sive manufactures of cotton, wool, 
leather, starch, and gunpowder. 
Gorham has produced many men of 
talents, among which were eminent 
jurists and statesmen. It is noted 
for its attachment to the principles 
of the revolution. 

From 1807 to 1834, twenty per- 
sons died in Gorham, whose aver- 
age age was 94 years. Population, 
1837, 3,022. 

Oorliani, N. K., 

Coos CO., is a rough and unpro- 
ductive township lying on the north- 
erly base of the White m.ountains, 
and bounded E. by Shelburne, N. 
by Berlin, and W. by Randolph, 
and is 96 miles N. from Concord. 
Several streams descend from the 
mountains through this town into 
the Androscoggin. It was former- 
ly called Shelburne Addition, but 
was incorporated by its present 
name June 18, 1836. Population 
in 1830, 111. 

Goslien, N. H., 

Sullivan co., is bounded N. by 
Newport and Wendell, E. by New- 
bury, S. by Washington, and W. by 
Lempster and Unity. It is 42 miles 
W. by N. from Concord. Croydon 
turnpike passes through Goshen. 
From Sunapee mountain, lying in 
the E. part of this town, spring ma- 

ny small streams, which unite in 
forming Sugar river. Rand's pond 
is in the N. E. part of the town. 
The soil is particularly calculated 
for the production of grass. It was 
incorporated Dec. 27, 1791. The 
first settlement was made about the 
year 1769, by Capt. Benjamin Rand, 
William Lang, and Daniel Grindle, 
whose sufferings and hardships were 
very great. The crops of the first 
settlers were greatly injured, and 
sometimes entirely destroyed by 
early frosts. In such cases they 
procured grain from Walpole and 
other places. At a certain time of 
scarcity, Capt. Rand went to that 
place after grain, and being detain- 
ed by a violent snow storm, his 
family was obliged to live without 
provision for six days, during w^hich 
time Mrs. Rand sustained one of 
his children, 5 years old, by the milk 
from her breast, having a short time 
before buried her infant child. Pop- 
ulation in 1830, 772. 

Goslien, Vt. 

Addison co. First settled, 1800. 
Population, 1830, 555. Goshen lies 
30 miles S. W. from Montpelier, 
and 15 S. E. from Middlebury. Lei- 
cester and Philadelphia rivers sup- 
ply the town with mill privileges. 
The lands along the rivers are very 
good, but in general they are too 
mountainous for profitable cultiva- 
tion. Some minerals are found in 
this town. 

Goslieu, Masis* 

Hampshire co. A mountainous 
town, 103 miles W. by N. from Bos- 
Ion, and 12 N. W. from Northamp- 
ton. Some valuable minerals are 
found here, such as emeralds, lead, 
and tin. The manufactures of Go- 
shen are smali, chiefly of boots and 
shoes. The value of 3,048 fleeces 
of wool, produced in 1837, was sold 
lor $4,500. Population, 1837, 560. 

Goshen, Ct. 

Litchfield co. First settled, 1738. 


Incorporated, 1749. Population, 
1830, 1,734. Goshen lies 6 miles 
N. from Litchfield, 42 N. N. W. 
from New Haven, and 32 W. from 
Hartford. Great attention is paid 
in this town to the education of 
youth. Ivy mountain, in Goshen, 
is considered (he most elevated point 
of land in the state ; its summit pre- 
sents an extensive and delightful 
prospect, " Goshen is the most ele- 
vated township in the state, but not 
generally mountainous ; the surface 
being undulating, aflfbrding an in- 
tercepting diversity of hills and vales. 
The soil is a gravelly loam, deep, 
strong and fertile, admirably adapt- 
ed for grazing. This is one of the 
best towns for the dairy business in 
the state. Large quantities of cheese 
are annually made, the fame of 
which is widely and justly celebrat- 
ed, and the inhabitants are general- 
ly in pj-osperous circuu^stances. In 
neatness, in and about their dwell- 
ings, and in the appearance of gen- 
eral comfort and prosperity, they 
are not exceeded, if equalled, by 
any town in the state." 

Gosport, N. H. 

See Isles of Shoals. 

Grafton County, N. H. 

Haverhill and Plymouth are the 
county towns. 

This county extends from lat. 43° 
27' to 44° 22' N. It is 58 miles in 
length, and its greatest breadth is 
oO miles. It contains 828,623 acres, 
besides a large tract of ungranted 
land. It is bounded N. by the coun- 
ty of Coos, E. by Strafford, S. by 
Merrimack, and W. by the state 
of Vermont. Grafton county is wa- 
tered by Connecticut river, on 
which are several pleasant and 
flourishing towns; by Pemigewas- 
set, and Lower Amonoosuck rivers, 
and by many smaller streams. — 
Squam and Newfound lakes are the 
largest collections of water. The 
former, of which a considerable 
part lies io Strafford county, has 

been much celebrated for its pic- 
turesque beauties. Its numeroua 
angular projections, the variety of 
its islands covered with wood, and 
the vicinity of lofty mountains, ren- 
der it an object peculiarly interest- 
ing. There arc numerous eleva- 
tions which come under the name 
of mountains. Those of the most 
importance are Gardner's in Ly- 
man, Pt-aked in Bethlehem, Moose- 
hillock in Coventry, Cushman's and 
the Blue mount in Peeling, Carr'8 
in Warren and Ellsworth, Moose in 
Hanover, and Cardigan in Orange. 

A large portion of Grafton county 
is mountainous and hilly, but this 
circumstance does not prevent its 
productiveness. It presents fine 
tracts for pasturage, a large propor- 
tion of arable land, and on the riv- 
ers, extensive and fertile intervales. 

This county is emphatically a 
wool growing county, and there 
were, in 1837, more than 120,000 
sheep within its borders. 

The first settlement in this county 
was made at Lebanon, and this was 
the first settlement on Connecticut 
river north of Charlestown. It was 
constituted a county, March 19, 
1771, and received its name in 
honor of Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 
Duke of Grafton. Population in 
1775, 3,597; in 1790, 12,449; in 
1800, 20,171; in 1810.28,462; in 
1820, 32,989; and in 1830, 38,691. 

Grafton, Iff. H., 

Grafton co., is bounded N. E. by 
Orange, S. E. by Danbury, S. W. 
by Springfield, and N. W. by En- 
field. It is 36 miles N. W. from 
Concord, and 13 S. E. from Dart- 
mouth college. It is watered by 
brandies of Smith's and Mascomy 
rivers. Heard's river, a small trib- 
utary to Smith's river, waters the 
S. E. part. There are 5 ponds. 
The largest, containing from 200 to 
300 acres, is called Grafton pond. 
Two are named Mud ponds. The 
surface of Grafton is very hilly, in 
some parts very mountainous; and 


the soil is so rocky as, in many 
places, to be unfit for cultivation. 
There are, howev^er, some good 
tracts of land. The Grafton turn- 
pike, leading from Andover to Or- 
ford bridge, passes through the E. 
part, and the 4th N. H. turnpike, 
from Concord to Hanover, through 
the W. part. In this town there is 
a remarkable ledge, called the Pin- 
nacle, on the S. side of which the 
ground rises by a gradual ascent to 
the summit; but on the N. side, it 
falls nearly 150 feet, within the dis- 
tance of 6 or 8 feet. Isinglass, as 
it is commonly called, is found in a 
state of great purity in Glass Hill 
mountain. It adheres in the form 
of lamina to rocks of white and yel- 
low quartz. The usual size of these 
lamina is about G inches square, but 
some have been found much larger. 
It requires much labor to obtain 
this glass, which, when prepared, 
is transported to Boston, and from 
thence exported to England. It is 
found on the E. side of the moun- 
tain, which is 200 feet high. Graf- 
ton was granted Aug. 14, 1761, 
to Ephraim Sherman and others. — 
The first permanent settlement was 
made in May, 1772, by Capt. Jo- 
seph Hoyt, from Poplin. Capt. 
Alexander Pixley and wife were 
the second family who settled here. 
Incorporated in 177S. Population 
in 1830, 1,207. 

Grafton, Vt. 

Windham co. Grafton is fi.nely 
watered by Sexton's river, which is 
formed in the town by the union of 
several streams ; and by a branch 
of Williams' river. On these streams 
are manufactures of woolen and 
other goods. Soap-stone of an ex- 
cellent quality is very abundant in 
this place. It is manufactured by 
water power for various uses to a 
great extent : it is bored for aque- 
ducts and sold at a very low price. 
This town contains two pleasant 
and flourishing villages, and a great 

variety of mineral treasure. Its 
surface is uneven with a strong and 
productive soil. Grafton was first 
settled, 1780. Population, 1830, 
1,489. It lies 90 miles S. from 
Montpelier, and 18 N. from New- 

Grafton, Mass. 

Worcester co. This important 
manufacturing town, the Hassana- 
misco of the Indians, was incorpo- 
rated in 1735. It lies 36 miles S. 
W. by W. from Boston, and 9 S. E. 
from Worcester. Population, 1830, 
1,889; 1837, 2,910. Blackstone riv- 
er and several large ponds give this 
town a constant and valuable Vv'ater 
power. There are 5 cotton and 1 
woolen mills. The total amount of 
the manufactures of Grafton, the year 
ending April 1, 1837, was $1,052, 
448. The manufactures consisted 
of cotton and woolen goods, boots, 
shoes, leather, scythes, chairs, tin, 
cabinet and wooden wares, shoe 
tools and bricks. The manufac- 
ture of boots and shoes amounted 
to .$fil4,l-il, employing 1,392 males 
and females. Grafton has a line 
soil, is beautifully located, and ex- 
ceedingly flourishing. 

Granljy, Vt. 

Essex CO. This town is nearly 
allied to Ferdinand, both in loca- 
tion and the character of the soil. 
Granby lies the next town S. of it, 
and 97 people, it is said, reside with- 
in the limits of Granby. 

Granljy, Mass. 

Hampshire co. This town lies 
90 miles W. by S. from Boston, and 
9 S. E. from Northampton. Incor- 
porated, 1768. It has good fish 
ponds and two small streams. There 
are two woolen mills in the town 
and 2,067 sheep. The wool, in 
1837, sold for $3,670. Population, 
1837, 922. It is said that copper 
ore of a good quality is found in 


Granljy, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town was in- 
corporated in 1786, and was tiiat 
part of Siinsbury which contains 
the famous Sinisbury mines ; the old 
state prison of Connecticut. The 
cavern, once occupied as a prison, 
is now worked, as formerly, as a 
copper mine. This odious place, 
unfit for the residence of the woi'st 
of criminals, is 16 miles N. N. 
W. from Hartford. The pit or cav- 
ern is more than 50 feet in depth, 
dark, damp and dismal. The worst 
stigma that can be cast on the good 
people of Connecticut is, that this 
infernal region was suffered to re- 
main nearly 40 years the abode 
of their fellow beings. There are 
some hills in Granby of considera- 
ble elevation. Barn door hills rise 
between four and five hundred feet, 
and have the appearance of having 
been separated by some convulsion 
of nature. Turkey hills and Sal- 
mon brook are pleasant villages, and 
have the appearance of prosperity. 
Farmingtou river w^aters the for- 
mer, and a branch of that river, the 
latter. Population, 1830, 2,722. 

Grand Isle County, "Vt. 

JVorth Hero is the county town. 
This county comprises a group of 
islands in Lake Champlain, and a 
point of land jutting into the N. 
part of that lake on the S. side of 
the Canada line, on which Alburgh 
is situated. This county contains 
about 80 square miles : most of the 
land is level and excellent for graz- 
ing and tillage. This county has 
no considerable streams, but its nav- 
igable facilities are very great. It 
{ was first settled about the close of 
1: the revolutionary war. Incorpora- 
I ted, 1802. It contained, in 1837, 
I about 16,000 sheep. Population, 
1820, 3,527; 1830,3,696. Popula- 
tion to a square mile, 46. 

Grand Isle, Vt. 

Grand Isle co. This town is 

bounded on all sides by Lake Cham- 
plain except on the S., where it is 
bounded by South Hero, from which 
it was taken in 1809. It lies 50 
miles N. W. from Montpelier, and 
18 N. by W. from Burlington. — 
First settled, 17S3. Population, 
1830, 643. The soil of the town is 
very fertile ; it produces fine crops 
of grain and an abundance of fruit 
and cider. Marble, lime-stone, rock 
crj^stals, &c., are found here, and 
Grand Isle contains the only water 
mill in the county. This is a fine 
place for fishing and fowling. 

Grand liake. 

This is a large collection of wa- 
ter, lying partly in the county of 
Washington, Me., and partly in 
Nev,' Brunswick. It contains a large 
number of islands : it receives the 
waters of many small lakes and 
rivers, and is the chief source of the 
river St. Croix. It lies about 90 
miles N. E. from Bangor. 

Grantham, K. H., 

Sullivan co., is bounded N. by 
Enfield, E. by Springfield, S. by 
Croydon, and W. by Plainfield, 
which separates it from Connecticut 
river. It is 12 miles S. E. from 
Dartmouth college, and 45 N. W. 
from Concord. There are 7 or 8 
ponds, the largest of which lies in 
the S. E. part of the town and is 
called Eastman's pond, containing 
nearly 300 acres. Another, lying 
near the centre of the town, con- 
tains nearly 200 acres. Croydon 
mountain extends through the west- 
erly part of Grantham in a direc- 
tion from S. W. to N. E. The soil 
is productive, ef=pecially on the W. 
of the mountain. It seems to be 
more favorable for wheat than any 
other species of grain. The moun- 
tain affords good pasturage, and the 
lower land yields grass in abund- 
ance. On the E. side of the moun- 
tain is a spring supposed to possess 
medicinal qualifies, visited by hun- 
dreds of valetudinarians in the sum- 


mer season. On the summit of 
Croydon mountain is a natural pond, 
containing about 50 acres. Tliis 
town was first granted July 11, 
1761, but the proprietors not fulfill- 
ing the conditions of the charter, it 
was forfeited. In 1767, it was re- 
granted to Col. William Symmes and 
63 others, by the name of Gran- 
tham. Incorporated in 1761. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 1,079. 

Granville, Vt. 

Addison co. See Barnard, JiTe. 

Granville, Mass. 

Hampden co. This is a moun- 
tainous township, 110 miles \V. S. 
W. from Boston, and 14 W. from 
Springfield. It contains good soap- 
stone and 1,500 sheep. The wool 
sold in 1837 for $2,572. There are 
some manufactures in Granville of 
pocket books, boots, shoes, leather, 
and silver ware. Although the 
land is high, the soil in many parts 
is very good and productive. The 
village is very pleasant. Incorpora- 
ted, 1754. Population, 1837, 1,439. 

Gray, Me* 

Cumberland co. This is a fine farm- 
ing town, watered by branches of 
North Yarmouth and Presumpscot 
rivers, and containing a large part of 
Little Sebago pond. It lies 17 miles 
N. by W. from Portland and 44 S. 
W. from Augusta. Incorporated, 
1778. Population, 1837, 1,671. 
Gray is a pleasant town and a place 
of considerable trade and some man- 

Great Barrin^on, Mass. 

Berkshire co. A very pleasant 
town in the valley of Housatonick 
river, 125 miles W. by S. from Bos- 
ton, and 14 S. from Lenox. Incor- 
porated, 1761. Population, 1837, 
2,440. Monument mountain, in 
this town, is quite lofty: it presents 
some wild and picturesque scenery. 
Here are good iron ore, beautifully 

variegated marble, and a good mill 
stream. The soil on the banks of 
the Housatonick is fertile and the 
uplands are well adapted for graz- 
ing. The manufactures consist of 
cotton and woolen goods, boots, 
shoes, leather, hats, pig iron, lasts, 
tin ware, bevils and guages. To- 
tal amount of manufactures in one 
year, $122,369. This town the 
same year (1837) produced 2,657 
fleeces of merino wool, valued at 


Great-Bays, N. H. 

The largest is that Ijing E. from 
New Market, formed by the united 
waters of Swamscot, Winnicut, and 
Lamprey rivers. It is 4 miles wide, 
and at some seasons is picturesque 
as connected with the surrounding 
scenery. This bay has Newington 
on the E., Greenland and Stratham 
on the S., and New Market and 
Durham W. : its waters pass N. E. 
through Little bay, where Oyster 
river unites with the current which 
passes into the Piscataqua. 

Great-Bay, hetween Sanbornton 
and Meredith, is a body of wa- 
ter, connected with Winnepisiogee 
lake, and discharging its waters in- 
to Winnepisiogee river. Round and 
Long bays are situated between the 
lake and Great Ba)% and there are 
two small bays on the river below- 
Great Island, N. H. 

See JVew Castle. 

Great "Works Stream, Me. 

This stream has anumber of trib- 
utaries, and is an important branch 
of the Penobscot. It has many sites 
for mills, and falls into the Penob- 
scot, on the E. side, opposite to the 
Indian settlement at Oldtown. At 
its confluence with the Penobscot 
there is a considerable village. 

There is another stream of this 
name, which rises in York county, 
and passes to Salmon Fall river, at 
South Berwick. 

NEW ENGLA?;D gazetteer. 

Greene, Me. 

Kennebec CO. Greene has several 
ponds, but no e;ood mill privileges. 
it lies on the E. side of Androscog- 
gin river, 6 miles above Lewiston, 
and 22 S. W. from Augusta. It i^^ 
an excellent farming town, and 
produced, in 1S37, 3,27S bushels of 
"wheat. Incorporated, 1788. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, l,36o. 

Greejitousli, Me. 

Penobscot co. This territory was 
called the Olammon Plantation, 
until its incorporation in 1S34. — 
Olammon stream, one of the most 
beautiful tributaries of the Penob- 
scot, joins that river, on the E. side, 
in Greeubush, affording an exten- 
sive hydraulic power. Greenbush 
is a flourishing place, and lies about 
25 miles N. by E. from Bangor. 
Population, 1830, 333; 1837, mQ. 

Greenfield, Me. 

Hancock co. This town was in- 
corporated in 1834. It was No. 38 
on the Bingham Purchase. See 
** Down East." 

Greenfield, N. H., 

Hillsborough co., is bounded N. 
by Francestown and Society-Land, 
E. by Francestown and Lyndebo- 
rough, S. by Lyndeborough and 
Temple, and W. by Peterborough 
and Hancock. It is 14 miles W. 
N. W. from Amherst, and 33 S. W. 
from Concord. Contoocook river 
forms part of the W. boundary, and 
separates this town from Hancock. 
The soil is generally fertile. The 
hills afford excellent pasturage ; the 
valleys and plains are f\ivorable for 
grain. Hops are raised in great 
abundance. A part of Crotched 
mountain rises from the N. part, 
and part of Lyndeborough mountain 
from the S. and E. sections of this 
town. There are some valuable 
meadows ; in one of them have 
been found many Indian relics, from 
which it is conjectured that it was 


a favorite spot of the sons of the 
forest. There are five ponds; the 
largest about one mile in length, 
and one third of its length in width. 
The first settlement commenced in 
1771, by Capt. Alexander Park- 
er, IMajor A. V'/hittemorc, Simeon 
Fletcher, and otlicr^. It was incor- 
porated .June 15, 1791. Population^ 
in 1830, 'JA'o. 

Greeiiiicld, Mass. 

County town, Franklin co. This 
town lies- on the Vv'. side of Connec- 
ticut river, and is washed by Green 
river, an excellent mill stream, a 
branch of the Deerfield. The vil- 
lage is situated about 2 miles from 
Connecticut i-iver, and is very beau- 
tiful and flourishing. There is a 
woolen mill in Greenfield with four 
sets of machinery ; and manufac- 
tures of boots, shoes, leather, hats, 
iron castings, chairs, cabinet and 
tin wares, saddles, harnesses, trunks, 
stove and lead r.queduct pipe, iron 
work, guns, pistols, rifles, coach- 
es, v/agons, books, &c. The total 
amount of manufactures, for the 
year ending Apiil 1, 1837, was 
$164,844. >he value of v.ool, the 
product of 2,153 fleeces, sheared in 
1837, was $3,404. There is an 
academy for young ladies in this 
tov/n, a farming school for young 
men, and some iron and copper ores. 
Greenfield lies 95 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and 22 N. from North- 
ampton. Incorporated, 1753. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,540; 1837, 1,840 

Greenland, N. H., 

Rockingham co., is situated five 
miles W.S.W. from Portsmouth, and 
45 E.S E. from Concord : it is bound- 
ed N. by the Great-Bay and New- 
ington, E. by Portsmouth and Rye, 
S. by North-Hampton, and VV. by 
Stratham. The soil is remarkably 
good. The orchards and gardens 
of this town are valuable, and yield 
annual profits to the farmers. — 
Greenland, originally a part of Ports- 
mouth, was incorporated as a dis- 


tincl town in 1703. Settlements 
commenced early, and in 1705 there 
were 320 inhabitants. 

Rev. Samuel M'Cl.ixtock, 
D. D., who died in the 43th year 
of his ministry, was born at Med- 
ford, Mass., P^Iay 1, 1732; 2;radua- 
ted at the New Jersey college in 
17.51; ordained in 1756; and died 
April 27, 1804, aged 72. His fa- 
ther was a native of Ireland. Dr. 
M'Clintock was a sound divine, em- 
inent as a preacher, and distinguish- 
ed for his attachment to the cause 
of his country. He served as a 
chaplain in the army of the revolu- 
tion. Population in 1S30, 6S1. 

Green Motintains. 

This range of mountains rises in 
Lower Canada, They pass nearly 
through the centre of Vermont, 
from N. to S., and the westerly 
parts of the states of Tvlassachusetts 
and Connecticut, and terminate near 
New Haven, on Long Island Sound. 
From their green appearance they 
give the name to Vermont, and de- 
crease in height as they approach 
the south. The north peak,iu Mans- 
field, Vt., is the greatest elevation, 
being 4,279 feet above the surface 
of lake Champlain. 

Green Rivers. 

Green, or Quodotchquoik river, 
in the N. E, part of Penobscot coun- 
ty, Maine, is an important branch 
of the St, John's, and joins that riv- 
er about 24 miles W. from the line 
of New Brunswick, 

Green river, in Massachvsetts, 
rises in the high lands at the N, W. 
corner of Berkshire county ; it pas- 
ses N, W. through Williamstown, 
and the S. W. corner of Vermont, 
and joins the Hoosick in N. Y. 

There are several smaller streams 
ia New England of the same name. 

Greensborougli, Vt. 

Orleans CO. William Scott Shep- 
ard, born March 25, 1789, was the 
first white child brought forth in 

this town. For his good fortune in 
this respect, the proprietors of the 
township gave him 100 acres of 
land. " Beautiful lake " and seve- 
ral other lakes and ponds in this 
town, form a part of the ■- xid wa- 
ters of the river Lamoli;,'. This 
town is well timbered : the sur- 
face is not very elevated ; the soil 
in general is good, particularly for 
grazing. It produces some tine cat- 
tle, and keeps about 4,000 sheep. 
Population, 1830, 784, 

Greenville, Me. 

Piscataquis co. The " Haskell 
Plantation," incorporated in 1836. 
109 miles from Augusta. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 132. See " Down East." 

Green'wicli, Mass. 

Hampshire co. There are a num- 
ber of ponds in this town, by which, 
and Swift river passing through it, 
a good water power is acquired. 
There is a woolen mill in the town, 
and manufactures of shoes, boots, 
palm-leaf hats, and scythes. In- 
corporated, 1754. Population, 1837, 
842. Greenwich lies 75 miles W. 
from Boston, and 17 N. E. from 

Greenwicli, Ct. 

Fairfield co. The settlement of 
this town commenced in 1640, and 
was incorpor?ted by Stuyvesant, 
the Dutch governor at New York, 
in 1G65. Greenwich comprises three 
parishes or villages, — Vv'est Green- 
wich, Greenwich on the E, and 
Stanwich on the N. West Green- 
wich, on Horse JVech, so called 
from a peninsula on the Sound for- 
merly used as a horse pasture, is the 
largest and most important part of 
the town. Greenwich is watered 
by By ran river, the boundary line 
between the town and state of New 
York, and the most southern part of 
New England. At the outlet of 
Byran river, on the New York side, 
is a place called Sawpits, a noted 
landing place on the Sound, 28 miles 


N. E Irorn New York. Miannus 
creek and other smaller streams 
water the town. 

A great battle took place between 
the Dutch and Indians at Horse 
Neck, in 1646. The action was 
long and severe, both parties fight- 
ing with much obstinacy. The 
Dutch with much difficulty kept 
the field, and the Indians with- 
drew. Great numbers were slain 
on both sides, and the graves of the 
dead, for a century or more, appear- 
ed like a number of small hills. 

" Putnam's Hill is situated in 
West Greenwich, about five miles 
W. from Stamford, on the main road 
to New York. This place is cele- 
brated for the daring exploit of Gen- 
eral Putnam, who descended this 
precipice when pursued by the Brrt- 
ish dragoons." 

Greenwich is a rough and uneven 
township, with a productive soil. 
It presents some wild scenery along 
the road, and many beautiful views 
of Long Island Sound. It lies 48 
miles W. S. "\V. from New Haven, 
and 20 W. S. W. from Fairfield. 
Population, 1830, 3,805. 

GrcenAvood, Me. 

Oxford CO. Incorporated, 1815. 
Population, 1837, 754. It lies 58 
miles W. by S. from Augusta, and 
7 N. W. from Paris. This is a 
township of excellent land. The 
inhabitants are generally engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. 

GrisAvold, Ct. 

New London co. This town 
was taken from Preston in 1815, 
and is separated from Lisbon b}' 
Quennebaugh river. The Pochaug, 
a sluggish stream, passes through 
the town. The principal village, 
which is very neat and pretty, con- 
taining about 900 inhabitants, is 
called Jeivett City. The city lies 
on the east side of the Quennebaug, 
at this place a very powerful stream, 
and contains three extensive cotton 
factories, a church, bank, and a 

number of handsoms buildings. — 
This little city is said to be very 
prosperous in its manufacturing and 
commercial concerns. It lies 8 
miles N. E. from Norwich, and 46 
E. S. E. from Hartford. There are 
other manufactories of cotton in 
this town, and some of wool. The 
surface of Griswold is hilly ; its soil 
a gravelly loam : some produce is 
sent to market, and about 3,000 
sheep are kept. Population, 1830, 

Groton, N. H., 

Grafton co., is bound N. by Rum- 
ney, E. by Hebron, S. by Orange, 
and W. by Dorchester. It is 10 
miles S. W. from Plymouth, 45 N. 
W. from Concord, and 15 S. E. from 
Hanover. The north part is wa- 
tered by a branch of Baker's river, 
and the southerly part has sev- 
eral small streams, which fall into 
Newfound lake. There is but one 
pond of any consequence lying whol- 
ly in this town, and that is situated 
about a mile N. E. of the meeting- 
house. Groton was granted July 
8, 1761, to George Abbot and others 
by the name of Cockermouth. It 
was re-granted, about five years af- 
terwards, to Col. John Hale and oth- 
ers, and the first settlement was 
commenced in 1770. Incorporated 
by the name of Groton, Dec. 1796. 
Population, in 1830, 689. 

Groton, Vt. 

Caledonia co. First settled, 1787. 
Wells river and its branches afford 
this town a good water power. — 
There are a number of ponds in 
Groton, well stored with excellent 
fish, some of which are large and 
handsome. The soil of the town is 
generally hard, but there is some 
choice land along the streams, and 
good timber. 

The wife of a Mr. Page, of this 
town, in the year 1819, produced 
four lusty " green mountain boys" 
at a birth. When domestic manu- 
factures of this description and 


amoTini, are adduced as evidence 
of the prosperity of a town, it is 
useless to talk about water power, 
cotton factories, or wool growing. 

Groton lies 16 miles E. by S. from 
Montpeiier, and 15 S. by W. from 
Danville. Population, 1830, 836. 

Groton, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This is a delight- 
ful town, with an extraordinary good 
soil; 32 miles N. W. from Boston, 
and 13 W. by S. from Lowell. 

Gro'on was settled soon after 
Concord. It was for some years a 
frontier settlement, and much ex- 
posed to the Indians. In 1676, the 
town was attacked by 400 Indians, 
and all the buildings plundered and 
burnt, except four garrison houses. 

The town is finely watered by 
the Nashua and Squanecook rivers 
and a number of beautiful ponds. 
The buildings are in a style of 
great neatness and taste, and some 
of elegance. This town has a fe- 
male seminary of high reputation, 
and a number of moral and reli- 
gious institutions. Tlie local beau- 
ties of Groton and its facilities for 
education are so great as to induce 
many wealthy families to made it 
their residence. The manufactures 
of Groton con^^t of paper, axle- 
trees, soap-stone pumps mathemat- 
ical instrument-, clothing, palm- 
leaf hats, chair?, cabinet ware, 
leather, boots and shoes. Incor- 
porated, 1653. Population, 1830, 

Grotou, Ct. 

New London co. Gro+on lies at 
the mouth of the river Thame>, in 
the harbor of New London, and op- 
posite to that city, on the E. The 
lands are generally hilly and rocky, 
with some fertile tracts on the mar- 
gin of the Thames. There are sev- 
eral villages, Groton Bonk, oppo- 
site New London, Portersville, on 
Mystic river, and Pequonnuck. 
The Pequonnuck and Mystic riv- 
ers pass through the town, and emp- 

ty into Long Island Sound. A num- 
ber of whale ships and coasting ves- 
sels are owned in this town. This 
is a place of some trade, and consid- 
erable quantities of the produce of 
the county is shipped to New York 
market. Ship building is carried 
on to a considerable extent, on 
the Mystic, which is navigable for 
large vessels about two miles from 
the Sound. About 300 men and 
boys are employed in navigation. 

Previous to its incorporation, in 
1705, Groton was a part of New- 
London. Population, 1830, 4,705. 

" Groton will ever be memora- 
ble as the theatre of the most im- 
portant and interesting military 
transactions which have taken place 
in the state. In the early settle- 
ment of the coiintrj'-, the fate of 
Connecticut was decided by the 
sword on Pequot hill, within the 
limits of this town, and the Pequots, 
the most haughty and warlike tribe 
of savages in New England, effec- 
tually crushed hj'^ a single blow, 
and their existence as a nation an- 
nihilated. In the war of the revo- 
lution, another of the ' high places 
of Groton became an Aceldama', 
and the flower of her sons were sa- 
crificed to the vengeance of an in- 
furiated enemy. 

" On the 6th of September, 1781, 
a body of British troops, about 800 
in number, under the command 
of Lieut. Col. Eyre, landed on the 
Groton side, oppo-ite the light- 
house, and having found a lame boy 
collecting cattle, compelled him to 
show them the cart path to the fort. 
They landed about 9 o'clock in the 
morning of a most delightful day, 
clear and still. Fort Griswold was 
under the command of Lieut. Col. 
William Ledyard, brother of the 
celebrated traveller of the same 
name. He resided on Groton bank, 
opposite New London, and was 
much beloved and respected by his 
neighbors. On the advance of the 
enemy. Col. Ledyard, having but 
about 150 meu with him in the fort. 


sent out an officer to get assistance, 
as there were a number of hundreds 
of people collected in the vicinity : 
this officer, by drinking too much, 
became intoxicated, and no rein- 
forcement was obtained. On the 
rejection of a summons to surren- 
der, the British extended their lines, 
so that they were scattered over the 
fields, and rushed on to the attack 
with trailed arms, under the tire of 
the Americans, to the assault of 
the fort on three sides. Having 
effected a lodgment in the ditch, 
they cut away the pickets, and hav- 
ing scaling ladders, they entered 
the fort and knocked away the gate 
on the inside. While the British 
were in the ditch, they had cold 
shot thrown on them, and as they 
were entering the embrazures, the 
garrison changed their weapons and 
fought desperately with spears or 
pikes, 15 or 16 feet in length, which 
did considerable execution. Unfor- 
tunately they had lent the greater 
part of the pikes belonging to the 
fort to a privateer a few days before. 
Major Montgomery was hoisted up 
on the walls of the fort by his sol- 
diers. As he was flourishing his 
sword on his entrance, he was mor- 
tally wounded by Jordan Freeman, 
a colored man, who pierced him 
through with a spear. Another of- 
ficer was killed by a musket ball, 
while in the fort. As he fell, he ex- 
claimed : ' Put every one to death, 
don't spare one.'' Col. Ledyard, 
finding further resistance useless, 
presented his sword to an officer, 
who asked him who commanded the 
fort. 'I did,' said Col. Ledyard, 
* but you do now.' The officer 
(Capt. Bloomfield) took his sword 
and plunged it into his bosom. Col. 
Ledyard fell on his face and instfint- 
ly expired. An indiscriminate mas- 
sacre now took place, till a British 
officer exclaimed : ' My soul can- 
not bear such destruction,' and or- 
dered a parley to be beat. Such 
had been the butchery in the fort, 
that it was over shoes iii blood in 

some parts of the parade ground. 
Soon after the suriender, a wagon 
was loaded with wounded Ameri- 
cans, and set off down the hill; it 
struck an apple tree with great force, 
and knocked several of these bleed- 
ing men out, and caused their in- 
stant death. One of these distress- 
ed men having been thrown out of 
the wagon, and while crawling to- 
wards the fence on his hands and 
knees, was brutally knocked on the 
head by the butt end of a musket, 
by one of the refugees who were 
attached to the British army. The 
British embarked at the foot of the 
hill, near the ferry, and took off a 
number of prisoners with them. 
As they left the fort, they set fire 
to a train, intending to blow up the 
magazine, in which were about 100 
barrels of powder. Fortunately it 
was extinguished by our people, 
who entered the fort soon after the 
enemy left it. It is stated that the 
enemy lost in the attack on the fort 
54 killed and 143 wounded, several 
of whom afterwards died of their 
wounds. The killed of the enemy 
were buried by their comrades at 
the gate of the fort, and were so 
slightly covered that many of their 
legs and arms remained above 
ground. Our people who were kill- 
ed at the fort, were stripped, and so 
disfigured, covered with blood and 
dust, that with the exception of 
two or three, they could not be re- 
cognized by their friends, except 
by some particular marks on their 

The monument on Groton Heights, 
in commemoration of the destruction 
of Groton and New London by the 
traitor Arnold, "has its foundation 
stone at an elevation of about 130 
feet above tide water : the monu- 
ment itself is one hundred and twen- 
ty seven feet in height. The pe- 
destal rises about eighteen or twen- 
ty feet, and is twenty three feet 
square : on the pedestal rises an 
obelisk square, ninety two feet in 
height, twenty two feet square at its 


base, and eleven feet at the top. 
It is ascended by one hundred and 
sixty five stone steps, inserted into 
the outer wall, rising in a circular 
form, their inner ends supported by 
an iron rail and bannister. The mon- 
ument is constructed of granite, of 
which there is an abundance in the 
vicinity. The expense of its erec- 
tion was eleven thousand dollars; 
this amount was raised by a lottery, 
granted by the state for this pur- 

The following is the inscription, 
on marble, placed over the entrance 
of the monument. 

" This Monument 
was erected under the patronage 
of the 
State of Connecticut, 
A. D. 1830, 
and in the 55th year of the Independ- 
ence of the U. S. A. 
In memory of the brave Patriots 

who fell 

in the massacre at Fort Griswold, 

near this spot, 

on the Gth of September, A. D. 1781, 

when the 

British, under the command 

of the traitor, Benedict Arnold, 

burnt the tov/ns of 

New London and Groton, 

and spread desolation and woe 

throughout this region." 

Giuldliall, Vt. 

County town of Essex co. Guild- 
hall is situated on the W. side of 
Connecticut river, and is united to 
Lancaster, N. H., by two bridges 
across (he river. The town is wa- 
tered by several small streams. — 
The soil of the town is quite uneven 
and stony, except a tract of inter- 
vale on the river. Cow and Burn- 
side mountains are considerable ele- 
vations, and afford excellent views 
of the meanderings of the Connec- 
ticut. Guildhall lies 50 miles N. 
E. Irom Montpelicr, and 90 N. by 
E. from Windsor. First settled, 
1789. Population, 1830, 481. 

Guilford, Me. 

Piscataquis CO. This town is fine- 
ly watered by the Piscataquis and 
some of its upper branches. It is 
of fine soil, and produced in 1837, 
4,965 bushels of wheat. It has a 
pleasant village, a number of mills, 
and considerable trade. Guilford 
is 71 miles N . by E. fiom Augusta, 
45 N. W. from Bangor, and 12 N. 
Vr. from Dover. Incorporated, 1816. 
Population, 1837, 799. 

Gtulford, Vt. 

Windham co. This town was first 
permanently settled in 1760. It lies 
125 miles S. from Montpelier, 15 
S. by E. from Nevvfane, and 30 E. 
from Bennington. Population, 1830, 
1,760. The people of this town 
took an active part in defending the 
rights of Vermont against the claims 
of jurisdiction set up by the state 
of New York, about the years 
1783-4, Guilford produced a num- 
ber of patriots in this as also in the 
revolutionary cause. The soil of 
the town is warm and fertile, ex- 
ceedingly productive of grain, fruits, 
maple sugar, butter, cheese, pork, 
sheep, horses, and beef cattle. It 
has good mill seats on Green river 
and branches of Broad brook, a 
number of manufactories, a medi- 
cinal spring, and various kinds of 

«uUford, Ct. 

New* Haven co. This town, the 
Menunhatuc of the Indians, was 
first settled in 1639. The town w' as 
settled by a party of Non-Conform- 
ists fiom England, at the head of 
which was the Rev. Henry Whit- 
field. Mr. Whitfield's house, built 
of stone, in 1640, is now standing, 
occupied, and in good repair. The 
cement used in building it, is said 
to be harder than the stone itself. 
This building was used by the first 
settlers as a fort and place of refuge 
against the attacks of the natives. 


The first marriage in the town was 
solemnized in this buihling. The 
treat on t?ie occasion was pork and 
peas. Guilford borough was incor- 
porated in 1815. It is handsomely 
located two miles from Long Island 
Sound, on a tract of alluvial plain, 
and near a small stream called the 
Menuakatuc. The buildings in the 
borough are neat, but somewhat 
antiquated in their appearance. — 
Guilford is a place of resort for sea 
air and bathing. The accommoda- 
tions are very good. The scenery 
in the vicinity of Sachem's Head 
is wild and picturesque. The soil 
of Guilford is well adapted to agri- 
cultural pursuits, to which, and some 
coasting trade, the principal part of 
the inhabitants are devoted. It lies 
l(j miles E. from New Haven, and 
33 S. from Hartford. Population, 
1830, 2,344. 

Hasidam, Ct. 

One of the county towns of Mid- 
dlesex CO. Incorporated, 1663. This 
town lies on both sides of Connec- 
ticut river. Haddam Society, on 
the W. side, is the largest part of 
the town, and the seat of justice. 
That part of Haddam on the E. side 
is called Haddam Neck. There 
is but little alluvial land in Had- 
dam. The principal part of tlie 
township is hilly and stony, with 
considerable forests. There are 
valuable quarries of granite on both 
sides of tiie river. About 150 men 
are annually employed in quarry- 
ing it, and about $70,000 worth of 
stone is annually exported. There 
are many vessels built at Haddam. 
The timber in this quarter of the 
county is well adapted for that pur- 
pose. The village of Haddam is 
pleasant, and has a good prospect 
of the river. It lies 23 miles S. 
from Hartford, and 8 S. E. from 
Middletown. Population, 1830, 2,- 

David Brainerd, the devoted 
missionary among the Indians, first 
drew his breath in Haddam. 

" If the greatness of a character 
is to be estimated by the object it 
pursues, the danger it braves, the 
difficulties it encounters, and the 
purity and energy of its motives, 
David Brainerd is one of the great- 
est characters tiiat ever appeared 
in the world. Compared with this 
standard of greatness, what little 
things are the Alexanders, the Ca°- 
sars, the conquerors of the whole 
earth. A nobler object no human 
or angelic mind could ever propose 
to itself than to promote the glory 
of the great Governor of the Uni- 
verse, in studying and laboring to 
diffuse purity and happiness among 
his unholy and miserable creatures. 

" ' His life and diary among the 
Indians,' says a celebrated English 
divine, ' exhibits a perfect pattern, 
of the qualities v/liicli should dis- 
tinguish the instructor of rude and 
barbarous tribes ; the most invinci- 
ble patience and self denial, the 
profouadcst humility, exquisite pru- 
dence, indefatigable industry, and 
such a devotedness to God, or rath- 
er such an absorption of the whole 
soul in zeal for the divine glory 
and the salvation of men, as is 
scarcely paralleled since the age of 
the apostles.' " 

This faithful servant of Christ 
died at the house of the Rev. Jona- 
than Edwards, at Northampton, 
Mass., October 10, 1747, aged 30. 

Hadley, Mass. 

Hampshire co. This is a plea- 
sant town on the E. bank of Con- 
necticut river, and unites with 
Northampton by a beautiful bridge, 
1,080 feet in length. It was first 
settled in 1647. Incorporated, 1661. 
Population, 1837, 1,805. It lies 88 
miles W. from Boston. Two small 
streams afford the town some water 
power. Hadley contains a large and 
fertile tract of alluvial meadow. 
The village, situated on the river, 
is pleasant, and contains many neat 
and valuable buildings. 

Hadley was a retreat of the cele- 


brated Goffe and Whalley, two of 
the judges who condemned Charles 
I. for execution. They remained 
secluded here more than fifteen 
years, when Whalley died. GofFe 
died and was buried at New Ha- 
ven, Ct., some years after. 

The manufactures of Hadley con- 
sist of leather, boots, shoes, hats, 
glue, palm-leaf hats, wire, chairs, 
cabinet ware, brooms, and brushes. 
Total value the year ending April 
1, 1837, .$117,850. This town is 
celebrated for raising broom corn. 
The value of brooms manufactured 
was ;|89,24S. A considerable quan- 
tity of the unmanufactured materi- 
al was sent to other places. 

Halifax, Vt. 

Windham co. This township is 
rather elevated, but of good soil, 
finely adapted for grazing. It is 
a place of considerable trade, and 
of manufactures on its numerous 
streams. Its principal streams are 
Green river and a branch of the 
Deerfield. There are some hand- 
some falls of water in Halifax, and 
a curious cave called Dwi^s Den. 
The productions of the town are 
butter, cheese, pork, sheep and oth- 
er cattle. The cause of education 
flourishes here, and the people are 
generally independent cultivators 
of the soil. Halifax lies 125 miles 
S. from Montpelier, and 15 S. from 
Newfane. First settled, 1761. — 
Population, 1830, 1,562. 

Halifax, Mass. 

Plymouth co. The Indian name 
of this place was Monponset. It 
lies 28 miles S. S. E, from Boston, 
and 12 W. by S. from Plymouth. 
The surface of the town is gener- 
ally level, with considerable good 
soil. Monponset and other ponds 
are large collections of water, and 
the sources of valuable mill privi- 
leges. There are a cotton and wool- 
en mill in the town, and manufac- 
tures of shoes and straw braid ; — 
total annual amount of manufactures 

about ,^150,000. Halifax was in- 
corporated in 1734. Population, 
1837, 781. 

Hallo-ivell, Me. 

Kennebec co. Hallowcll is de- 
lightfully situated on both sides of 
Kennebec river, between Augusta 
and Gardiner, two miles below the 
former and four miles above the lat- 
ter. The principal village is on the 
W. side of the river. The streets 
run parallel with the river, and the 
ground ascends 200 feet from the 
lower street, or business part of the 
village. On this street are 60 com- 
modious stores, constructed princi- 
pally of brick. Most of the dwell- 
ing houses are on the back or ele- 
vated streets : they are built, as are 
the churches, with great taste, and 
being surrounded by beautiful 
groves, make a fine appearance. 
The varied views of the river, the 
neighboring towns, and of a fer- 
tile country of hills and vales, pre- 
sented from the high grounds on 
each side of the village, form an ex- 
hibition of scenery of uncommon 
excellence. Hallowcll is about 3 
miles in width, and extends back on 
each side of the river 5 miles. It 
was incorporated in 1771, and in- 
cluded all the territory of Augusta 
and a part of Gardiner. From this 
place the brave but traitorous Ar- 
nold marched on an expedition 
against Canada, in 1776. 

There is one water mill in the 
town ; two saw mills, an iron foun- 
dry and machine shop, worked by 
steam. Steam boats ply from this 
place to Portland and Boston, dur- 
ing the season of navigation. There 
is considerable tonnage at this place: 
a number of vessels are engaged in 
the freighting business, and others 
run as packets to various places. 

The principal exports are lumber, 
granite, and all the common pro- 
ductions of a fertile northern cli- 
mate. The granite quarries at 
Hallowcll have been worked for 
fifteen years with great success. 


The granite is of a light color and 
easily wrought : in some years 
$100,000 worth of it has been trans- 
ported. Vessels drawing 9 feet of 
water can come to the wharves in 
the centre of the village. 

As Hallowell and Augusta are 
so closely united in all their vari- 
ous interests and pursuits, a repeti- 
tion of what we have said of the 
favorable position of Augusta, and 
of its future prospects, is unneces- 
sary. With common success in our 
national affiiirs, and with a contin- 
uation of that spirit of enterprize, 
every day manifested on the banks 
of the Kennebec, it requires no 
Mormon sjiectacles to foresee that 
within a very few years there will 
be a continuous village from the 
Kennebec dam to the mouth of the 
Cobbessecontee. Population. 1820, 
2,919 ; 1830, 3,96i. The present 
population is about 5,000. 

Hallowell was, for many years, 
the residence of Benjamin Vaug- 
HAiv, LL. D. a gentleman highly 
distinguished for his learning, pub- 
lic benefactions and private virtues. 

Hall's Stream, IV. II., 

Rises in the highlands which sep- 
arate that state from the British do- 
minions, and forms the N. W. boun- 
dary between New Hanip^^hire and 
Lower Canada, from its source to 
its junction with the Connecticut at 

Hamcleii, Ct. 

New Haven co. This town was 
taken from New Haven in 178fi, 
from which it lies about 6 miles N. 
It is situated between the East and 
West Rock ranges of mountains, 
the southern terminus of the Green 
mountain range. The soil in many 
parts is easy of cultivation, but in 
general it is more adapted to graz- 
ing than tillage. Minerals are 
found here, among which are spe- 
cimens of very pure copper. Mill 
river affords numerous sites for wa- 
ter works. 


Whitney sville, about two mileis 
from New Haven, is admirably lo- 
cated for manufacturing opperations^ 
The manufactures at the Carmel 
works, consist of paper, carriages, 
coach and eliptic springs, steps, 
axlctrees, brass work, &c. Mount 
Carmel, a noted elevation, 8 mileg 
N. from New Haven, exhibits aft 
extensive prospect. Population, 
1830, 1,G69. 

Ilaniiltou, Mass. 

Essex CO. This is a beautiful" 
farming town, and most of the in^ 
habitants are employed in cultivat- 
ing it. There are some vessels 
built here, and some manufactures 
of leather, boots, and shoes. The 
town is quite small. Populatioa, 
1837, 827. Taken from Ipswich in 
1793. It lies 8 miles N. by E. from 

Hampden, Me. 

Penobscot co. Hampden lies on 
the west side of Penobscot, below 
and adjoining Bangor. It is also 
watered by the Sowadabscook riv- 
er, a large and valuable mill stream. 
This is an important township in its 
commerce on the Penobscot, its 
manufacture of lumber, and its ag- 
ricultural productions. It is one 
of the most flourishing towns on the 
river. The quantity of wheat pro- 
duced by the farmers, in 1837, was 
5,664 bushels. Population, 1830, 
2,020 ; 1837, 2,520. Hampden is 
6 miles S. from Bangor, and 62 E, 
N. E. from Augusta. 

Kampdcii County, Mass. 

Springfield is the chief town. 
This county is very fertile and well 
cultivated, and in common with all 
the counties on Connecticut river, 
it presents a rich array of delightful 
scenery. Its rivers afford an abun- 
dant water power; and this county 
has become noted for its various and 
extensive manufactures. Much 
inland trade is brought to the banks 
of the Connecticut,and large exports 


are made from this county, the pro- 
duct both of the soil and mechani- 
cal labor. This county was taken 
from Hampshire county in 1812. 
Population, 1820, 23,021 ; 1830, 31,- 
640 ; 1837, 33,627. Area, 585 square 
miles. Bounded S. by Tolland and 
Hartford counties, Connecticut ; W. 
by Berkshire county ; N. by Hamp- 
shire county, and E. by Vv'orcester 
county : 57 inhabitants to a square 
mile. The Connecticut, Westlield, 
Chickopee, and Quinebaugh are its 
chief riv^ers. 

The value of the manufactures 
of this county, the year ending 
April 1,1S37, was $3,056,302. The 
value of wool, the product of 29,950 
sheep, was $44,786. 

Hasnpsliire Coiuuty, Mass. 

JVorthampton is the chief town. 
This ancient county, although its 
Jimits have been greatly reduced by 
the production of Franklin and 
Hampden counties, is still increas- 
ing in agricultural, commercial and 
manufacturing strength. Located 
in the centre of the alluvial basin 
of the noble Connecticut; blessed 
with a rich and variegated soil, and 
great water power, this must ever 
remain one of the mo^t independ- 
ent counties in New England. — 
Area, 532 square miles. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 26,447; 1830,30,210; 
1837, 30,413. Incorporated, 1662. 
This county is bounded S. by Hamp- 
den, W. by Berkshire, N. by Fi-ank- 
lin, and E. by Worcester counties: 
.57 inhabitants to a square mile. 
The Connecticut, Westlield, and 
Swift, are its chief rivers. The 
manufactures of this county, the 
year ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $2,335,652. The value of 
wool, the fleeces of 64,274 sheep, 
amounted to $103,751. 

Hampstead, N. H., 

Rockingham co., lies partly on 
the height of land between Merri- 
mack and Piscataqua rivers. Mo3t 
of the waters descend S W. into 

the Merrimack through Spiggot riv* 
er, which flows from Wash pond, 
near the centre of the town. An- 
gly pond is in the N. E. part of the 
town, the waters of which pass into 
Powow river. Island pond, in the 
S. W. part of the town, contains a 
valuable farm of 300 acres. The 
town was granted by Gov. Benning 
Wentw^orth, January 19, 1749, and 
named by him after a pleasant vil- 
lage five miles N. of London, Eng- 
land. He reserved the island be- 
fore mentioned for his own farm. 
Population in 1830, 913. 

Hampton, Me. 

See " Down East." 

Hampton, N. H., 

Rockingham co., lies on the sea- 
coast, bounded N. E. by North- 
Hampton, S. E. by the Atlantic, S. 
W. by Hampton Falls, N. W. by 
Hampton Falls and part of Exeter 
Distant 13 miles S. W. from Ports- 
mouth, 7 S. E. from Exeter, and 50 
S. E. from Concord. The soil is 
well adapted to tillage and mowing, 
and about one fifth of the territory 
is a salt marsh. Hampton is pleas- 
antly situated ; many eminences in 
the town affording romantic views 
of the ocean. Isles of Shoals, and 
sea-coast from Cape Ann to Ports- 
mouth. Its beaches have long been 
the resort of invalids and parties of 
pleasure, and are little inferior to the 
famous Nahant beach near Boston. 
£oar''s Head is an abrupt emi- 
nence extending into the sea, and di- 
viding the beaches about half way 
between the river's mouth and the 
N. E. corner of the town. On the 
N. beach are numerous fish-houses, 
from which the winter and summer 
fisheries have been carried on with 
much success. Great quantities of 
the winter fish are carried frozen 
into the interior, and to Vermont 
and Canada. 

The Indian name of this town 
was Winnicumet ; it was first set- 
tled in 1638, by emigrants from the 


county of Norfolk, England. The 
first house was erected in 1G35, by 
Nichohis Easton, and was called the 
Bound-house. The town was in- 
corporated in 1G3Q, and then inclu- 
ded within its limits what now con- 
stitutes the towns of North Hamp- 
ton, Hampton Falls, Kensington and 

This town was formerly the scene 
of Indian depredations. On the 17th 
Aug. 1703, a party of Indians kill- 
ed 5 persons in Hampton, among 
whom was a v/idow Mussey, cele- 
brated as a preacher among the 

The Hon. Christopher Top- 
PAiv died here in Feb., 1319, aged 
84: he was a very useful and dis- 
tinguished citizen. Population in 
1830, 1,103. 

Hampton, Ct. 

Windham co. This town was 
taken from Windham and Pomfret 
in 1786. The people are generally 
agriculturalists, with a good strong- 
soil of an uneven surface. The 
village is pleasantly situated on high 
ground, 35 miles E. from Hartford 
and 6 from Brooklyn. Hampton 
has good mill seats on a branch of 
Shetucket river. Population, 1S30, 

Kamytoa Palls, N. H., 

Rockingham co., is situated 45 
miles S. E. from Concord, and IG 
S. W. from Portsmouth. The soil 
is generally good. Hampton Falls 
was originally a part of Hampton, 
from which it was separated and 
incorpoi-ated, in 1712. Population, 
1830, 532. 

Hancock County, Me. 

EUsworthis the chief town. This 
county is bounded N. by Penobscot 
munty, E. by Washington county, 
S. by the Atlantic ocean, and W. 
by Penobscot bay and river, and a 
part by Penobscot county. Its ex- 
tent on the ocean is between 50 and 
60 miles: it comprises numerous 

islands of great beauty, some of 
which are large, fertile and well 
cultivated ; it comprises also nu- 
merous bays, and a vast number of 
coves, inlets and spacious harbors. 
Perhaps there is no district of ita 
extent on the American coast, that 
offers greater facilities for naviga- 
tion, in all its various branches, than 
the county of Hancock. The ton- 
nage of Frenchman's bay, in this 
county, in 1837, was 13,184 tons. 
The soil of the county is generally 
of an excellent quality, particularly 
in the interior. There are a great 
number of ponds in the county : ev- 
ery section of it is watered by mill 
streams, and Union river, nearly 
in its centre, affords the interior 
part great facilities for transporta- 
tion. This county contains an area 
of about 1,850 square miles. Pop- 
ulation, 1S30, 24,347 ; 1837, 23,120. 
Population to a square mile, 15. 
This county produced, in 1S37, 21,- 
446 bushels of wheat, and contain- 
ed 38,870 sheep. 

Hancock, Me. 

Hancock co. This town was tak- 
en from Sullivan and Trenton in 
1828. It is situated between those 
towns, and is nearly stirrounded by 
the head waters of Frenchman's 
bay. It is a place of some naviga- 
tion ; 85 miles E. from Augusta, 
and bounded easterly by Ellsworth. 
Population, 1837, 653. 

Kancocli, N. H. 

Hillsborough co. It is 35 miles 
from Concord, 22 from Amherst, 
and 19 from Kcene. The W. part 
of the town is mountainous, but af- 
fords excellent pasturing and many 
good farms. The other parts of the 
town are agreeably diversified with 
plains, hills and valleys. On the 
Contoocook, and some of its trib- 
utary streams, there are several 
tracts of excellent intervale. There 
are two considerable ponds, one of 
which is in tlie centi-e, a few rods 
N. of the meetinfr-housc. There 



is a cotton factory, a paper mill, and 
several other manufacturing estab- 
lishments here; also a tlourishing 
academy. Hancock was incorpora- 
ted Nov. 5, 1779. It was named 
after Gov. Hancock, of Boston, who 
was one of the original proprietors. 
The first settlement was begun in 
1764. Population, 1830, 1,31S. 

Hantcock, Vt. 

Addison co. Several branches 
of Otter creek rise in this town. 
Hancock is wholl)' on the moun- 
tains, and most of the land fit only 
for grazing. First settled, 1778. 
Population, 1830, 472. It lies 30 
miles S. W. from Montpelier, and 
15 S. E. from Middlebury. 

Hancock) Mass. 

Berkshire co. This is a moun- 
tainous township, on the line of the 
state of New York, the source of 
the Housatonick, and the residence 
of a family of " Shakers." It lies 
129 miles W. from Boston, 15 N. 
by W. from Lenox, and 5 E. from 
New Lebanon, New York. Incor- 
porated, 1776. Population, 1837, 

There are one cotton and three 
woolen mills in the town, and some 
manufactures of leather, boots, 
shoes, iron castings, and wooden 
ware. The value of 5,445 fleeces 
of w^ool, sheared in 1837, amounted 
to $11,544. 

As we are so near the lovely val- 
ley of New Lebanon, its tepid 
springs, and a large family of our 
friends, the Shakers, we must be 
permitted to cross the line a mo- 
ment, "just to take a look." 

J\'^ew Lebanon, New York, is in 
the county of Columbia, and sit- 
uated in a delightful valley, sur- 
rounded by cultivated hills, which 
present scenery greatly variegated 
and peculiarly pleasing. 

A community of Shakers, of be- 
tween 500 and 600, own about 3,000 
acres of excellent land in thi s town- 

ship, which is highly improved by 
this industrious, hospitable, and cu- 
rious people. Their village is about 
tvvo miles southeast of the springs. 

The Springs are on the side of u 
hill, and are so abundant as to sup- 
ply a small water power. The wa- 
ters are tasteless, pure as crystal, 
and appear to differ in no respect 
from other pure mountain waters, 
except in temperature, which is 
always at 12° of Fahrenheit. 

This is a great resort for visitors 
from ail directions: — some to enjoy 
the romantic scenery with which 
this region abounds, and others the 
benign influence of the waters. The 
public resorts are well located, and 
afford excellent accommodations. 
New Lebanon is 134 miles W. from 
Boston, 24 E. from Albany, 25 N. 
E. from Hudson, 7 W. from Pitts- 
field, 23 S. by W. from Williams- 
town, 156 N. by E. from New 
York, and 68 N. W. by W. from 
Hartford. Ct. 

Hanover, N. H. 

Grafton co. The Connecticut 
river separates it from Norwich, 
Vermont. It is 53 miles N. W. 
from Concord, and 102 from Ports- 
mouth. In this town there is no 
river nor any considerable stream 
besides the Connecticut. Mink 
brook, running in aS. W. direction. 
Slate brook in a W. course, and 
Goose-Pond brook in the N. E. part 
of the town, are among the princi- 
pal streams. Neither of them is 
large enough for permanent mill 
privileges. There are several small 
islands in Connecticut river within 
the limits of Hanover, the largest 
of which is Parker's island, contain- 
ing about 20 acres. There are no 
natural ponds. The surface of 
Hanover is agreeably diversified 
with hills and valleys, and the great- 
est part is suitable for farms. There 
is but a small proportion of waste 
land; less, perhaps, than in any other 
town in Grafton county. It is es- 
timated that nearly one half is un- 


der improvement. Moose moun- 
tain i -5 a considerable elevation, ex- 
tending across the town from N. 
to S., at the distance of about five 
miles from Connecticut river. A 
handsome bridge connects the S. 
W. part of the town with Norwich. 
The principal village is in the S. 
W. corner of the town, on a beau- 
tiful and extensive plain, half a 
mile from Connecticut river, and 
180 feet above the level of its wa- 
ters. Vegetable substances are 
found in different parts of this plain 
at a depth of from 50 to 80 feet. 
The principal houses are erected 
round a square, level area, of 12 
acres. The remainder stand on 
different streets, leading from the 
green in all directions. 

In this pleasant village is located 
Dartmouth College. 

See Register. 

Among the worthy men who 
have finished their earthly career 
in thi^ place, may be mentioned 
the fallowing: 

Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, D. 
D., who died April 24, 1779, aged 

Hon. John Wheelock, LL. D., 
president of the college .35 years, 
who died April 4, 1S17, aged 63. 

Hon. Bezaleel Woodward, 
wh-o died Aug. 1SI)4. 

Rev. Joitrj S-a^itii, D. D., who 
died April, 1S09. 

Hon. JoHA'^ Hubbard, who died 
in Sept. 1310. 

Rev. Francis Brown, D. D., 
who died July 27, 1S2!), aged 36. 
These gentlemen were all connect- 
ed with the college. Population, 
1830, 2,.361. 

Hanover, Mass. 

Plymouth co. Hanover is bound- 
ed S. by North river, which fur- 
nishes good mill sites. It was in- 
corporated in 1727. It lies 23 miles 
S. E. from Boston, and 12 N. W. 
from Plymouth. The manufactures 
of Hanover consist of bar iron, iion 
castings, anchors, ploughs, vessels, 
15* • 

tacks, leather, boots, shoes, and 
woolen cloth : total annual amount, 
about $75,000. Pop. 1837, 1,435. 

Ilanson, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This town is wa- 
tered by a branch of North river 
and several ponds. It was taken 
from Pembroke in 1820, and lies in 
the vicinity of large beds of excel- 
lent iron ore. The manufactures 
of Hanson consist of ship anchors 
and knees, nails, carriage springs, 
ii-on castings, leather, shoes, sawed 
boxes and shingles : total annual 
amount, about $70,000. Population, 
1S37, 1,058. It lies 24 miles S. S. 
E. from Boston, and 15 N. N. W. 
from Plymouth. 

Hardwicic, Vt. 

Caledonia co. Hardwick is fine- 
ly watered by Lamoille river, which 
gives the town valuable mill sites, 
and which are well improved for 
manufacturing purposes. The soil 
of the town is generally very good, 
and produces a variety of expoj-ts. 
Between six and seven thousand 
sheep, and many other cattle, are 
kept in the town, a large amount 
of which are annually fattened and 
sent to market. 

Ansong the first settlers of the 
town, in 1790, was Mr. Gideon Sa- 
bin, whose wife became the mother 
of 23 children. Population, 1830, 
1,216. Hardwick lies 20 miles N. 
N. E. from Montpelier, and 13 N- 
W. from Danville. 

Hard^viclc, Mass. 

Worcester co. Ware river and a 
smaller stream pass through the 
S. part of this town, and furnish 
good mill privileges. It lies 62 
miles Vr. from Boston and 22 W. by 
N. from Worcestei-. Incorporated, 
17.38. Population, 1837, 1,818.— 
There are 2 paper mills in the town, 
and manufactures of straw bonnets, 
palm-leaf hats, boots,shoes, ploughs, 
leather, chairs and cabinet ware ; 
annual amount about $50,000.— 


Hardwick is a pleasant town, of 
good soil, with a tine fish pond. 

Harmony, Me. 

Somerset co. This town hag an 
Excellent soil.and is well watered by 
t large and beautiful pond, and bj' 
Other sources of Sebasticook river. 
In 1837 it had a population of 1,048, 
Und produced 6,836 bushels of 
wheat. It was incorporated in 
1803, and lies 53 miles N. by E. 
from Augusta, and 23 N. E. from 

Harpswell, Me. 

Cumberland co. This township 
comprises a promontory in Casco 
bay, formerly JMerryconeag, and 
several islands surrounding it, the 
largest of which is called Sebascod- 
egan. The waters which enclose 
this territory are so situated, at the 
northern and eastern extremity of 
Casco bay, that a canal of about a 
mile in length would unite them 
with Kennebec river, near Bath. 
The soil of Harpsw^ell is very fer- 
tile, and the location delightful in 
summer. It is a resort for invalids 
and parties of pleasure. The peo- 
ple are principally engaged in farm- 
ing and fishing. It lies 22 miles 
N. E. from Portland by water, and 
4 miles S. E. from Brunswick. In- 
corporated, 1758. Population,1837, 

Harrington, Me. 

Washington co. This town is 
bounded on the S. and E. by the 
waters of Narraguagus bay, and W. 
by the river of that name. It has 
good mill privileges, excellent har- 
bors, considerable navigation and 
trade. Incorporated, 1797. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,118 ; 1837, 1,. 354.— 
Harrington lies 118 miles E. from 
Augusta, and 25 W. S. W. from 

Harrison, Me. 

Cumberland co. Crooked river 
passes the E. side of this town, and 

the waters of Long pond are its 
western boundary. This is a good 
township of land, and produced, in 
1837, 3,180 bushels of wheat. In- 
corporated, 1805. Population, 1837, 
1,161. Harrison has Oii lit IJ on 
the E., and is 75 mile? \, . S. W. 
from Augusta, and 45 N. W. from 

Hartford, Me. 

Oxford CO. This excellent town- 
ship is watered by ponds and small 
streams, and produced, in 1837, 9,- 
318 bushels of wheat. It lies 31 
miles W. from Augusta, and 15 N. 
E. from Paris. Population, 1830, 
1,453. Incorporated, 1798. 

Hartford, Vt. 

Windsor co. This town is on the 
west side of the Connecticut, and is 
otherwise finely watered by White 
and Waterqueechy rivers. It lies 
42 miles S, S. E. from Montpelier, 
and 14 N. from Windsor. First set- 
tled, 1764. Population, 1830, 2,044. 
The surface of the town is uneven, 
but the soil is rich, warm, and very 
productive. The two principal vil- 
lages are pleasantly located on the 
banks of the rivers that meet the 
Connecticut at this place, both of 
which are flourishing in manufac- 
tures and trade. Many cattle,beside 
pork, butter, cheese, &.c., are sent 
to market from Hartford. In 1837 
it had 13,207 sheep. 

Hartford County, Ct. 

Hartford is the chief town. This • 
county is bounded N. by Hampden 
county, Mass., E. by Tolland coun- 
ty, S. by the counties of Middlesex 
and New Haven, and W. by the 
county of Litchfield. This is con- 
sidered the most important and val- 
uable county in the state, in re- 
gard to the variety and richness of 
its soil, and the high state of cul- 
ture it has attained. It was con- 
stituted in 1666, since which, Tol- 
land county and parts of Middle- 
sex, Windham, Litchfield, and New 


London have been detached. Its 
present limits coinpiise an area of 
about 727 square miles. Besides 
the Connecticut, which traverses 
its whole length, the Farmington, 
Hackanum, Podunk, Scantic, and 
other streams, water the county in 
almost every direction. On these 
streams important nianuhicturing 
establishments have sprung up, and 
unite with the agricultural interest 
and river trade in rendering tiiis 
county the centre of a large and 
flourishing business. In 1837 there 
were in the county 29,57() sheep. 
Population, 1820, 47,261 ; 1830, 
51,141: 70 inhabitants to a square 

Hartford, Ct. 

Tht first English settlement in 
Hartford was commenced in 1635, 
by Mr. John Steel and his associates 
from Newtown, (now Cambiidge)in 
Massachusetts. The main body of 
the first settlers, with Mr. Hooker 
at their head, did not arrive till the 
following year. 

" About the beginning of June, 
(says Dr. Trumbull,) Mr. Hooker, 
Mr. Stone, and about one hundred 
men, women and children, took 
their departure from Cambridge, 
and traveled more than a hundred 
miles, through a hideous and track- 
less wilderness, to Hartford. They 
had no guide but their- compass, 
and made their way over mountains, 
through swamps, thickets and riv- 
ers, which were not passable but 
"with great difficulty. They had no 
cover but the heavens, nor any 
lodgings but those that simple na- 
ture afforded them. They drove 
with them a hundred and sixty head 
of cattle, and by the way subsisted 
on the milk of their cows. Mrs. 
Hooker was borne through the wil- 
derness upon a litter. The people 
carried their packs, arms, and some 
utensils. They were nearly a fort- 
night on their journey. This ad- 
venture was the more remarkable, 
as many of the company were per- 

sons of figure, who had lived in 
England, in honor, affluence and 
delicacy, and were entire strangers 
to fatigue and danger." 

The Indian name of Hartford was 
Suckiag. A deed appears to have 
been given by Sunckquasson, the 
sachem of the place, about 1636, to 
Samuel Stone and William Good- 
win, who appear to have acted in 
behalf of the first settlers. 

The town of Hartford is bounded 
N. by Windsor and Bloomfield, E. 
by Connecticut river, S. by Weth- 
ersfield, and W. by Farmington and 
Avon. It is about six miles in 
length from north to south, and ave- 
rages about five in breadth. The 
western part of the town has a soil 
of red gravelly earth, very rich and 
productive. That part near the 
river is covered with a strong clay, 
or a rich black mould. The latter 
is principally in the valuable tract 
of meadow adjacent to Connecticut 

Hartford City, incorporated 
in 1784, is over a mile in length 
upon the river, and about three 
fourths of a mile in breadth. The 
alluvial flat upon the river is nar- 
row, being from 40 to 100 rods, and 
is connected with the upland by a 
very gradual elevation. It is situ- 
ated on the west side of Connecti- 
cut river, 45 miles from its mouth. 
It is in N. lat. 41° 45' 59'', W. 
Ion. 72° 40'. It is 260 miles S. 
W. from Augusta, Maine ; 139 S. 
S. W. from Concord, New Hamp- 
shire ; 205 S. from Monfpelier, Ver- 
mont ; 97 W. S. W. from Boston, 
Massachusetts ; 64 W. from Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island; 110 N. E. 
from the city of New York, and 
335 E. from Washington. 

The legislature of Ihe state as- 
sembles alternately at Hartford and 
New Haven, the odd years at Hart- 
ford. The city is rather irregular- 
ly laid out, and is divided at the S. 
part by Mill, or Little river. Across 
this stream a fine bridge of free-^ 


stone has been thrown, which con- 
nects the two parts of the city. 
This structure is 100 feet wide, 
supported by a single arch, 7 feet 
in thickness at the base, and .3 feet 
3 inches at the centre, the chord or 
span of which is 104 feet; eleva- 
vation from the bed of tlie river to 
the top of the arch, 30 feet 9 inch- 
es. Another bridge, across Con- 
necticut river, 1,000 feet long, and 
which cost over $100,000, unites the 
city with East Hartford. Hartford 
is very advantageously situated for 
business, is surrounded by an ex- 
tensive and wealthy district, and 
communicates with the towns and 
villages on the Connecticut above 
by small steam-boats, two of which, 
for passengers, ply daily between 
Hartford and Springfield. The re- 
mainder are employed in towing flat 
bottomed boats, of 15 to 30 tons 
burthen, as far as Wells' river, 220 
miles above the city. The coast- 
ing trade is very considerable, and 
there is some foreign trade carried 
on. A daily line of steam-boats pass 
between Hartford and New York. 
The manufactures of this city ex- 
ceed $900,000 per annum ; among 
these are various manufactures of 
tin, copper, and sheet iron ; block 
tin and pewter ware ; printing press- 
es and ink ; a manufactory of iron 
machinery ; iron foundries, saddle- 
ry, carriages, joiners' tools, paper- 
hangings, looking-glasses, umbrel- 
las, stone ware, a brewery, a web 
manufactory, cabinet furniture, 
boots and shoes, hats, clothing for 
exportation, soap and candles, man- 
ufactories of machine and other 
wire cards, operated by dogs, &c. 
More than twice as many books, it 
is stated, are published here, annu- 
ally, as are manufactured in any 
other place of equal population in 
the United States. 

The city is well built, and con- 
tains many elegant public and pri- 
vate edifices. The state-house, in 
which are the public offices of the 
state, is surmounted by a cupola. 

and is a very handsome and spa- 
cious building. The city hall, built 
for city purposes, is also spacious 
and elegant ; it has two fronts, with 
porticos, — supported each by six 
massive columns. The American 
Asylum for the deaf and dumb, the 
Retreat for the insane, and Wash- 
ington College, are all beautifully 
located, in the immediate vicinity 
of the city. The population with- 
in the city limits, in September, 
1835, was nine thousand and eight 

" The American Asylum for the 
education and instruction of deaf 
and dumb persons, was founded by 
an association of gentlemen in Hart- 
ford, Conn., in 1815. Their atten- 
tion was called to this important 
charity by a case of deafness in the 
family of one of their number. 
An interesting child of (he late Dr. 
Cogswell, who had lost her hearing 
at the age of two years, and her 
speech soon after, was, under Prov- 
idence, the cause of its establish- 
ment. Her father, ever ready to 
sympathize with the afflicted, and 
prompt to relieve human suffering, 
embraced in his plans for the edu- 
cation of his own daughter, all who 
might be similarly unfortunate. — 
The co-operation of the benevolent 
was easily secured, and measures 
were taken to obtain from Europe 
a knowledge of the difficult art, 
unknown in this country, of teach- 
ing written language through the 
medium of signs, to the deaf and 
dumb. For this purpose, the Rev. 
Thomas H. Gallaudet visited Eng- 
land and Scotland, and applied at 
the institutions in those countries 
for instruction in their system ; but 
meeting with unexpected difficult 
ties, he repaired to France, and ob- 
tained, at the Royal Institution at 
Paris, those qualifications for an 
instructor of the deaf and dumb, 
which a selfish and mistaken poli- 
cy had refused him in Great I3rit- 
ain. Accompanied by Mr. Laurent 


Clerc, himself deaf and dumb, and 
for several years a successful teach- 
er under the Abbe Sicard, Mr. Gal- 
laudet returned to this country in 
August, 1816. The Asylum had, 
in May preceding, been incorpora- 
ted by the state legislature. Some 
months were spent by Messrs. Gal- 
laudet and Cierc in obtaining funds 
for the benetit of the institution, 
and in the spring of 1817 the Asy- 
lum was opened for the reception of 
those for whom it was designed, and 
the course of instruction commenced 
with seven pupils. 

" As the knowledge of the in- 
stitution extended, and the facili- 
ties for obtaining its advantages 
were multiplied, the number of pu- 
pils increased from seven to one 
hundred and forty, which for seve- 
ral years past has not been much 
above the average number ; and 
since its commencement, in 1S17, to 
1837, instruction has been imparted 
to four hundred and seventy-seven 
deaf and dumb persons. 
" In 1819, Congress granted the in- 
stitution a township of land in Ala- 
bama, the proceeds of which have 
been invested as a permanent fund. 
The principal building was erected 
in 1820, and the pupils removed to 
it in the spring of the following 
year. It is one hundred and thirty 
feet long, fifty feet wide, and, in- 
cluding tbe basement, four stories 
high. Other buildings have been 
subsequently erected, as the in- 
creasing number of pupils made it 
necessary ; the piincipal of which 
is a dining hall and workshops for 
the male pupils. Attached to the 
institution are eight or ten acres of 
land, which afford ample room for 
exercise, and the cultivation of veg- 
etables and fruits for the pupils. 

" The system of instruction adopt- 
ed at tbis institution is substantially 
the same as that of the French 
school at Paris. It has, however, 
been materially improved and mod- 
ified by Mr. Gallaudet and his as- 
sociates. This system, and indeed 

every other rational system of 
teacbing the deaf and dumb, is bas- 
ed upon the natural language of 
signs. By this we mean those ges- 
tures which a deaf and dumb per- 
son will naturally use to express his 
ideas, and to make known his wants 
previous to instruction. These 
gestures and signs are rather />ic^o- 
rial, that is, an exact outline of the 
object, delineated by the hands in 
the air ; or descriptive, giving an 
idea of an object by presenting 
some of its prominent and striking 
features ; or conventional, such as 
may have been agreed upon by a 
deaf and dumb person and his as- 
sociates. As there are very few 
objects which can be expressed 
with sufficient clearness by the de- 
lineation of its outline alone, a de- 
scriptive sign is usually connected 
with it. Thus, in making a sign 
for a book, the outline is first delin- 
eated by the fore finger of both 
hands. To this is added the descrip- 
tive signs of opening a book, plac- 
ing it before the eyes, and moving 
the lips as in reading. It may 
therefore simplify the classification 
of natural signs if the first two di- 
visions be united ; and it will be 
sufficiently accurate to say that all 
the signs used by the deaf and dumb 
are either descriptive or conven- 
tional. By far the greater part of 
these signs belong to the former 
class; as it includes the signs for 
most common objects, actions and 
emotions. A deaf and dumb child 
constructs his language upon the 
same principle as the child who can 
hear ; that of imitation. 

" In the school-room, the instruc- 
tor makes use of natural signs to 
communicate ideas to his pupils, of 
systematic signs to enable them to 
translate their own into written lan- 
guage ; of the manual alphabet, 
or signs of the hand, corresponding 
to the letters of the alphabet ; and 
of v)ritten symbols to express the 
grammatical relations of words. 

" The pupils usually remain at 


the Asylum four or five years, in 
which time an intelligent child will 
acquire aknov/ledge of the common 
operations of arithmetic, of geogra- 
phy, grammar, history, hiography, 
and of written language, so as to 
enable him to understand the Scrip- 
tures, and books written in a famil- 
iar style. He will of course be able 
to converse with others by writing, 
and to manage his own affairs as a 
farmer or mechanic. There are 
workshops connected with the in- 
stitution, in which the boys have 
the opportunitj" of learning a trade, 
and many of them, by devoting four 
hours each day to this object, be- 
come skillful workmen, and when 
they leave the Asylum find no dif- 
ficulty in supporting themselves. 
The annual charge to each pupil is 
one hundred dollars. 

" The department of instruction 
is under the control of the principal 
of the institution, who has also a 
general oversight of the other de- 
partments. The pupils are distrib- 
uted into eight or nine classes, the 
immediate care of which is com- 
mitted to the same number of as- 
sistant instructors. When out of 
school, the pupils are under the care 
of a steward and matron." 

Retreat for the Insane. " This 
institution is situated on a command- 
ing eminence, at the distance of a 
mile and a quarter, in a southwest- 
erly direction, from the State House 
in Hartford. It was opened April 
1, 1824. The elevation overlooks 
an ample range of fertile country, 
presenting on every side a most in- 
teresting landscape, adorned with 
every beauty of rural scenery, 
that can be found in rich and culti- 
vated fields, and meadows of unri- 
valled verdure ; in extensive groves 
and picturesque groups of forest, 
fruit and ornamental trees ; and 
above all, in the charming diversi- 
ty of level, sloping and undulating 
surfaces, terminating by distant 
hills, and more distant mountains. 

" This site was selected as one 
pre-eminently calculated to attract 
and engage the attention, and soothe 
and appease the morbid fancies and 
feelings of the patient whose fac- 
ulties are not sunk below or raised 
above the sphere of relations that 
originally existed. And if he is 
not beyond the reach of genial sen- 
sations, connected with external 
objects, he will undoubtedly feel the 
conscious evidence that this situa- 
tion most happily unites the tran- 
quilizing influence of seclusion and 
retirement, with the cheering efTec* 
of an animated picture of active 
life, continually passing in review 
before his eyes, while himself is 
remote, and secure from the annoy- 
ance of its bustle and noise. 

" The edifice for the accommoda- 
tion of the patients, and those who 
have the care of them, is construct- 
ed of unhewn free-stone, covered 
with a smooth, white, water-proof 
cement. Its style of architecture 
is perfectly plain and simple, and 
interests only by its symmetrical 
beauty, and perhaps by the idea i< 
impresses of durability and strength, 
derived from the massy solidity af 
its materials. Yet notwithstanding 
these, its general aspect is remark- 
ably airy and cheerful, from the 
amplitude of its lights, and the bril- 
liant whiteness of its exterior. The 
whole building is divided into com- 
modious and spacious apartments, 
adapted to various descriptions of 
cases, according to their sex, nature 
and disease, habits of life, and the 
wishes of their friends. The male 
and female apartments are entire- 
ly separated, and either sex is com- 
pletely secluded from the view of 
the other. Rooms are provided in 
both male and female apartments 
for the accommodation of the sick, 
where they are removed from any 
annoyance, and can continually re- 
ceive the kind attentions of their 
immediate relations and friends. 
Attached to the building are about 
seventeen acres of excellent land. 


the principal part of which is laid 
out in walks, ornamental grounds 
and extensive gardens. With each 
wing and block of the building is 
connected a court-yard, encompass- 
ed by high fences, and handsomely 
laid out, designed to afford the ben- 
efit of exercise, pastime and fresh 
air, to those who cannot safely be 
allowed to range abroad." 

The mode of treatment at this 
institution is similar to that adopted 
at the McLean Asylum, Charles- 
town, Mass. 

" JVashington College. This in- 
stitution was founded in 1826 It 
has two edifices of free stone ; one 
14S feet long by 43 wide, and 4 sto- 
ries high, containing 48 rooms ; the 
other 87 feet by 55, and 3 stories 
high, containing the chapel, libra- 
ry, mineralogical cabinet, philo- 
sophical chamber, laboratory and 
recitation rooms. See Register. 

The Charter Oak. This tree 
stands on the beautiful elevation 
which rises above the pouth mead- 
ows, a few rods north of the ancient 
seat of the AYyllys family. The 
tree is still in a vigorous state, and 
may flourish for another century. 

" That venerable tree, which 
concealed the charter of our rights," 
says a daughter of Secretary Wyl- 
lys, "stands at the foot of Wyllys 
hill. The first inhabitant of that 
name found it standing in the height 
of its glory. Age seems to have 
curtailed its branches, yet it is not 
exceeded in the height of its color- 
ing, or richness of its foliage. The 
trunk measures twenty one feet in 
circumference, and near seven in 
diameter. The cavity, which was 
the asylum of our charter, was near 
the roots, and lar2:e enough to ad- 
mit a child. Within the space of 
eight years, that cavity has closed, 
as if it had fulfilled the divine pur- 
pose for which it had been reared." 

The story of the " Charter Oak" 
is thus told by Mr. Barber. 

" Sir Edmund Andros being ap- 
pointed the first governor-general 
over New England, arrived in Bos- 
ton in Dec. 1686. From this place 
he wrote to the colony of Connecti- 
cut to resign their charter, but with- 
out success. " ' The assembly met 
as usual, in October, and the gov- 
ernment continued according to 
charter, until the last of the month. 
About this time, Sir Edmund, with 
his suite and more than sixty regu- 
lar troops, came to Hartford when 
the assembly were sitting, and de- 
manded the charter, and declared 
the government under it to be dis- 
solved. The assembly were ex- 
tremely reluctant and slow with re- 
spect to any resolve to surrender 
the charter, or with respect to any 
motion to bring it forth. The tra- 
dition is, that governor Treat strong- 
ly represented the great expense 
and hardships of the colonists in 
planting the country ; the blood 
and treasure which they had ex- 
pended in defending it, both against 
the savages arxd foreigners ; to what 
hardships he himself had been ex- 
posed for that purpose ; and that it 
was like giving up his life, now to 
surrender the patent and privileges 
so dearly bought and so long enjoy- 
ed. The important affair was de- 
bated and kept in suspense until the 
evening, when the charter was 
brought and laid upon the table 
v/here the assembly were sitting. 
By this time great numbers of peo- 
ple were assembled, and men suffi- 
ciently bold to enterprise whatever 
might be necessary or expedient. 
The lights were instantly extin- 
guished, and one Capt. Wadsworth, 
of Hartford, in the most silent and 
secret manner, carried off the char- 
ter, and secreted it in a large hol- 
low tree, fronting the house of Hon. 
Samuel Wyllys, then one of the 
magistrates of the colony. The 
people all appeared peaceable and 
orderly. The candles were offi- 
ciously re-lighted, but the patent 
was gone, and no discovery could 


be made of it, or the persons who 
carried it away.' " 

West Hartford, or, as it was 
formerly called, JVest Division, is 
a fine tract of land. The inhabit- 
ants are mostly substantial farmers, 
and the general appearance of the 
place denotes an unusual share of 
equalized wealth and prosperity. 

The venerable Natha:n' Per- 
Kiivs, D. D., still continues his la- 
bors in the ministry in this place. 
In 1833, his sixtieth anniversary 
sermon was published. In that ser- 
mon he says, " I am now the oldest 
officiating minister of the gospel in 
this state, and, as far as I can learn, 
in the United States. And I can- 
not learn, from the history of church- 
es in Connecticut, that there has 
ever been an instance of one of its 
ministers preaching for sixty years 
uninterruptedly to the same con- 

Dr. Perkins stated, as we are in- 
formed, that from the commence- 
ment of his ministry, that in his 
church there had been one thou- 
sand deaths and one thousand bap- 
tisms — that he had delivered four 
thousand written sermons, and three 
thousand extemporaneous ones, on 
other occasions of worship — that he 
had attended i?ixty ordinations and 
installations, and had preached 20 
ordination sermons, twelv^e of which 
had been published by request ; that 
he had attended one hundred eccle- 
siastical councils, to heal difficulties 
in the churches, and that he had 
fitted for college one hundred and 
fifty students, and more than thirty 
for the gospel ministry. 

Hartland; Me. 

Somerset co. This excellent 
township is watered on its eastern 
boundary by one of the principal 
branches of Sebasticook river. The 
inhabitants are principally engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, and the soil 
richly rewards them for their indus- 
try. Hartland produced 4,836 

bushels of wheat in 1837, some 
wool and other valuable commodi- 
ties. It was incorporated in 1820. 
Population, 1837, 890. It lies 42 
miles N. by E. from Augusta, and 
18 N. E. from Norridgewock. 

Hartland, Vt. 

Windsor co. Timothy Lull was 
the father of this flourishing re- 
public. He took his family from 
Dummerston, up Connecticut river 
about 50 miles, in a log canoe, in 
1763, He landed at the mouth of 
a beautiful stream, called LulVs 
Brook. His nearest neighbors were 
more than 20 miles distant. He 
commenced a settlement on Lull's 
Brook, and, after acquiring a hand- 
some property, died there at the 
age of 81. Timothy Lull, jr., was 
the first child born in the town. — 
On the occasion of his birth, a mid- 
wife was drawn 23 miles on a hand 

This is a rich farming town, pleas- 
antly diversified by hills and val- 
leys. Hartland produces many cat- 
tle : ten thousand sheep graze in 
its pastures, it lies on the west 
bank of Connecticut river. V/ater- 
queechy river, at the N. part of the 
town, and Lull's Brook, at the S., 
give it a water power of great val- 
ue. On these streams are neat vil- 
lages and flourishing manufactur- 
ing establishments. Hartland lies 
50 miles S, S. E. from Montpelier 
and 9 N. from "Windsor. Popula 
tion, 1830, 2,503. 

Hartland, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town is 22 
miles N. W. from Hartford. It lies 
in a mountainous part of the state : 
most of the land is cold and fit only 
for grazing. A branch of Farm- 
ington river passes through the 
town, and forms what is called 
Hartland hollow, a deep ravine, 
presenting some bold and pictur- 
esque scenery. Hartland was in- 
corporated in 1761. First settled, 
1753. Population, 1830, 1,221. 


Harvard, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town was 
taken from Stow, Groton and Lan- 
caster, in 1732. It is washed on 
the W. side by Nashua river. It 
lies 30 miles N. W. from Boston, 
20 N. E. from Worcester, and 13 
W. from Concord. Here are two 
large ponds with fine fish, and quar- 
ries of slate used for monuments. 

About 200 of that industrious sect, 
called shakers, reside here, and own 
a considerable tract of excellent 
land. They live about 3 miles N. 
E. from the centre of the town, and 
supply the mai-ket with a great va- 
riety of wares, fruits, seeds, herbs, 
&c. &c., the product of their me- 
chanical ingenuity and horticultu- 
ral skill. 

There are three paper mills in 
Harvard, and manufactures of palm- 
leaf hats, boots, shoes, leather and 
grave stones: annual value about 
$40,000. Large quantities of hops 
have been raised in this place. — 
Population, 1837, 1,566. 

Kar^vicli, Mass., 

Barnstable co., on the S. side of 
Cape Cod, 14 miles E. from Barn- 
stable. Incoi-porated, 1694. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,464; 1837,2,771. 
On Herring river, the outlet of 
Long pond, are cotton and other 
mills. Some vessels are built here 
and some salt manufactured. The 
product of the cod and mackerel 
fishery the year ending April 1, 
1S37, was $33,000. Harwich is a 
pleasant town: the village makes 
a good appearance from the sea, 

Ilarwiiiton, Ct. 

Litchfield co. Har-win-ton de- 
rived its name from three syllabJes 
taken from the names of Harlford, 
Windsor and Farmington. It was 
first settled in 1731; incorporated, 
1737. Population, 1830, 1,516, It 
lies 23 miles W. from Hartford, 40 
N, by W. from New Haven, and 8 
E. from Litchfield. Harwinton is 

situated on high ground, abounding 
with granite rocks and more fit for 
grazing than tillage. 

Hatfield, Mass. 

Hampshire co. This is a weal- 
thy agricultural township, noted 
for its good soil and fine beef cattle. 
It lies on the W, side of Connecti- 
cut river, 5 miles N. from North- 
ampton, and 95 W, from Boston, — 
Incorporated, 1670, Population, 
1837, 937, The manufactures of 
the town consist of corn brooms, 
boots, shoes, palm-leaf hats, and car- 
riages ; annual value about $50,000. 

There is an elm tree in Hatfield 
which is said to measure, two feet 
fiom the giound, thirty four feet in 

Haverliill, IV. H., 

Grafton co., is one of the shire 
towns. It lies 31 miles N, W. from 
Plymouth, and 70 N. N. W, from. 
Concord, It is watered by Olive- 
rian and Hazen brooks, Haverhill 
is a pleasant town. The soil is suit- 
ed to every species of cultivation. 
There is a quarry of granite suita- 
ble for mill stones and buildings, 
and a bed of iron ore, on the W. 
side of Coventry, bordering this 

The principal village is at the S. 
W, angle of the town, and known 
by the name of Haverhill Corner. 
There is a beautiful common in this 
village, laid out in an oblong square, 
around which the buildings regu- 
larly stand. The site is a handsome 
elevation, overlooking the adjacent 
country many miles N. and S,, and 
not less than 6 or 7 miles E. and W. 
From the sts-eet, the ground slopes 
with unu?ual elegance to the W., 
and is succeeded by broad inter- 
vales. The prospect here is de- 
lightful. There is another village 
at the N. W. angle of the town, on 
a street nearly a mile in length, 
straight and very level. 

Haverhill was granted, 1764. Its 
first settlement was made in 1764, 


by Capt. John Hazen, who settled 
on the Little Ox Bow, near where 
there had formerly been an Indian 
fort and burying ground, and where 
many Indian skulls and relics have 
been found. Several of the early 
settlers wers from Newbury and 
Haverhill, Mass., and fi-om the last 
place, this town derived its name. 
Its former name was Lower Coos. 

Hon. Moses Dow was one of the 
most distinguished citizens of this 

Hon. Charles Johivston, who 
died March 5, 1813, aged 76, resid- 
ed here. He was a valuable offi- 
cer in the revolution, and was ma- 
ny years judge of probate in Graf- 
ton county. 

Hon. James Woodward and Hon. 
Ezekiel Ladd were among the early 
settlers, and were judges of tlie old 
county court. Population, in 1S30, 

Haverhill, Mass. 

Essex CO. This ancient, respect- 
able and flourishing manufacturing 
town, lies on the N. side of the 
Meriimack river, at the head of 
navigation, and united to Bradford by 
two beautiful bridges. It i-j 30 miles 
N. from Bo5ton, 31 N. N. W. from 
Salem, 12 W. by S. from Newbu- 
ryport, 18 N. E. from Lowell, 30 
S. V/. from Portsmouth, N. II. and 
40 S. E. from Concord, N. H. Lit- 
tle river passing through the town 
affords a good hydraulic power, on 
which are manufacturing establish- 
ments of various kinds. The man- 
ufactures consist of woolen goods, 
leather, boots, shoes, hats, shovels, 
spades, forks, hoes, chairs, cabinet 
v/are, combs, ploughs, tin ware, 
vessels, palm-leaf hats, shoe lasts, 
spirits, morocco leather, chaises and 
harnesses: total amount the year 
ending April 1, 1S:J7, $1,357,.52(). 

Haverhill is delightfully located, 
handsomely built, and has been the 
birth place and residence of many 
of the mmt valuable and distin- 
guished citizens of New England. 

Haverhill is so situated as to com- 
mand an extensive inland trade : it 
is easily appi-oached from Boston 
by the Andover and Wilmington 
rail-road, which is extending to Ex- 
eter, N. H., and from thence to 

Haverhill, the Indian Pentuck- 
ett, was first settled in 1641 : it was 
a frontier settlement for nearly half 
a century and suffered great calam- 
ities by savage depredations. 

It was incorporated in 1645. — 
Population, 1820, 3,070; 1830, 3,- 
896; 1837, 4,726. 

Hawley, Mas9. 

Franklin co. Hawley is on el- 
evated ground, and watered by 
branches of Deerheld river. The 
soil is good for grazing, and feeds 
about 3,000 sheep. A consider- 
able quantity of leather is tanned 
in this town. Incorporated, 1792. 
Population, 1837, 995. Hawley 
has good iion ore and some iron 
works." It lies 107 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and 14 W. by S. from 

Kayiiesville, Me. 

"Washington county. See " Down 


Ileatli, Mass. 

Franklin co. A mountainous 
township 2:ood for grazing sheep, of 
which 2,.312 were kept in 1837. 
There are in Heath some manufac- 
tures of leather, boots, shoes and 
palm-leaf hats. Incorporated, 17S5. 
Population, 1837, 953. It lies 125 
miles W. N. W. from Boston, and 
13 W. N. W. from Greenfield. 

Hcljron, Me. 

Oxford CO. This is a good farm- 
ing town, lying S. E. from Paris 
about 7 miles," and 42 W. S. W. 
from Augusta. Incorporated, 1792. 
Population, 1837, 972. 

Hebron, K. H., 

Grafton co., lies 9 miles S. W. 


from Plymouth, and 40 N. W. from 
Concord. A conshlorable part of 
Newlound lake lies in the S. E. 
part of tliis town. It has no i-iver, 
nor any important streams. Near- 
ly one half of thi? town was inclu- 
ded in the grant of Cockermouth, 
now Groton. The remaining; part taken from Plymouth. It was 
Incorporated, 1792. Population in 
1830, 538. 

HeljrdJi, Ct. 

Tolland co. Hop river, a branch 
of the Willimantic, waters thi? town. 
The village of Hebron, with its 
Gothic church, 20 miles S. E. from 
Hartford, and 14 S. from Tolland, 
is pleasant and commands a good 
pro-pect. There are in the town 2 
cotton, 1 woolen, and 1 paper, mills ; 
a large iron furnace and other man- 
ufactories. The surface of the 
town is hilly, but fertile. North 
pond in the S. part of the tov.'n is a 
handsome sheet of water. Hebron 
wa^ fir^st settled. 1704. Incorpora- 
ted, 1707. Population, 1330, 1,939. 

Hciiuiker, N. H. 

Merrimack co. It is 23 miles N. 
W. from Amherst, and 15 W. from 
Concord. Contoocook river passes 
easterly through its centre, and di- 
vides the town into nearly equal 
portions of territory and population. 
Its coarse is rather circuitous, and 
in many places presents scenes of 
con-iiderable interest and beauty. 
Few places afford better pro=:pects 
for the successful operation of wa- 
ter machinery than this. There 
are several ponds of considerable 
size. Long pond is the largest, be- 
ing between 1 and 2 miles in length, 
and from 40 to 80 rods wide — situa- 
ted 1 mile N.of the cc-ntrc village. 
Craney hill is the pj-incipal eleva- 
tion, and embraces a large portion 
of territory on the S. of the town. 
It is mostly in a state of cultivation. 
The soil of the hills is favorable for 
wheat— the valleys produce good 
crops of corn. 

Ilenniker was granted in 1752, 
under the name of A^umbei' 6. Its 
settlement commenced in 1731. It 
was incorpoi-ated in 1768, v.hen it 
received its present name from Gov. 
Wentworth, in honor of his friend 
Henniker, probably John Flenni- 
ker, Esq., a merchant in London and 
a member of the Briiish parliament 
at that time. Population, in 1330, 

Ilcrmon, Me. 

Penobscot co. A good township 
of land, 7 miles W. from Bangor. A 
large pond and the Sowadabscook 
river water its S. W. corner. In 
1837, 1,870 bushel of wheat was 
raised. Incorporated, 1814. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 535. 

KigSigate, Vt. 

Franklin co. This town lies on 
the E. side of Lake Champlain, at 
the N. W. corner of New Eng- 
land, and of the United States. It 
is 60 miles N. 'W. from Montpe- 
lier, and 12 N. from St. Albans. 
First settled, about 1784. The soil 
is generally sandy, in some pai-ts 
swampy. Bog iron ore, of a good 
qualit}', is found here. There are 
many mill privileges in Highgate, 
particularly at a fall of the river 
Missisque, where are iron works, 
and other manufactories. The 
scenery at this place is quite wild 
and picturesque. Population, 1830, 
2,038. Highgate is a place of con- 
siderable trade with Canada, and 
down the lake. 

Hill, N. H. 

Grafton co. This town is 24 miles 
N. N. W. from Concord, and 44 S. 
S. E. from Haverhill. It is watered 
by Pemigewasset and Smith's 
rivers, and several small streams. 
Eagle pond is the only one of note. 
Ragged mountain is a considerable 
elevation, and but little infji'or to 
Kearsarge. Viewed from the sum- 
mit of the neighboring hills, this 
town appears very uneven, yet 


there are many fine tracts converted 
into productive farms. The soil in 
some parts is rich and fertile — it is 
generally good. There is at the S. 
E. section of the town, a flourish- 
ing village, situated on a spacious 
street 1 mile in length. 

This town was granted Sept. 14, 
1753, to 87 proprietors, who held 
their tirst meeting at Chester, and as 
the greater part of the inhabitants 
belonged to that place, it was called 
New Chester; which name it retain- 
ed until Jan. 1837, when it was 
changed to the name of Hill, in 
compliment to the then governor 
Hill. The first settlement was in 

In Dec. 1820, six children of Mr. 
William Follansbee were consum- 
ed in the flames of his house, while 
he and his wife were absent. In- 
corporated, 1778. Population, 1830, 

Hillslioroiigli County, N. H. 

Amherst is the shire town. Hills- 
borough has Merrimack county on 
the N., Rockingham on the E., the 
state of Massachusetts on the S., 
and Cheshire county on the W. 
The surface of this county is gen- 
srall}' uneven, though there are but 
few lofty mountains. Lyndebo- 
rough mountain, in the township of 
Lyndeborough, the Unconoonock, 
in Goffstown, Crotched, in Frances- 
town and Society Land, are of con- 
siderable altitude. 

This section of New Hampshire 
is well watered. The noble and nia- 
jestic Merrimack passes its south- 
eastern border. At Nashua, the 
Nashua, a beautiful stream from 
Massachusetts, discharges its wa- 
ters into the Merrimack. North of 
the Nashua, the Souhegan and Pis- 
cataquog, streams of much value and 
consequence to the manufacturing 
interests, discharge themselves in- 
to the Merrimack ; the former in 
the township of Merrimack, the 
latter in Bedford. Part of a large 
collection of water, denominated a 

lake, the Massabesick, on the E. 
boundar)^ of Manchester. Besides 
these there are numerous ponds, 
interspersed through the whole ex- 
tent of territory. Some of the 
largest of these are Gregg's pond, 
in Antrim, Pleasant pond, in Fran- 
cestown, Babboosuck pond, in Am- 
herst, and Potanipo, in Brookline. 
There are several mineral springs 
which have been found serviceable 
in cutaneous affections, but no one 
has yet acquired general celebrity. 
Minerals have been found in vari- 
ous places, but not in great abun- 

This county possesses many advan- 
tages for manufactuiing establish- 
ments, and it is gratifying to find 
that many of its citizens are turn- 
ing their attention to this branch of 
national and individual wealth. 

The settlement of this county 
was made at Nashua, lately Dun- 
stable, some years before the war 
with king Philip, in 1675. It was 
constituted a county by an act of 
the General Assembly, 19 March. 
1771. It received its name from 
the Earl of Hillsborough, one of 
the privy council of George III. 
The population, in 1775, was 13,- 
132; in 1790, 21,.536; in 1800,31,- 
260; in 1810, 34,410; in 1820, 
35,761; and in 1830, 37,762. In 
1837, there were 45,511 sheep in 
this county. 

Hillstoorougli, N. H. 

Hillsborough co. It is 23 miles 
N. W. from Amherst, 24 W. S. W. 
from Concord. This town is well 
watered. Contoocook river passes 
through the S. E. corner, and affords 
several excellent water privileges. 
Hillsborough river has its source 
from ponds in Washington ; runs in a 
S. E. course through the whole ex- 
tent of Hillsborough, receiving the 
outlets of several ponds on the E., 
and forms a junction with the Con- 
toocook, on the S. line of this town. 
The land here is vineven, but it af- 
/^•^rds many good farms. There is 


a pleasant village on the 2d New 
Hampshire tuiupike, which parses 
N. VV. through this town, contain- 
ing a number of dwelling liouscs, 
stores, mills, and a cotton and wool- 
en f ictory. 

Hillsborough was formerly known 
by the name of JVumber 7 of fron- 
tier towns. The tirst settlement 
was made in 1741. The first chil- 
dren borii in Hillsborough were 
John M'Calley and ]Mary Gib: on, 
who intermaniod, and received as 
a gift a tract of land, from the prin- 
cipal proprietor. It was incorpo- 
rated in 1772. Population, 1830, 

liiiiesljurgli, Vt. 

Chittenden co. Piatt river and 
Lewis creek water this town. A 
part of the town is mountainous, 
but the soil is generally very good, 
particularly for grazing. About 
9,000 sheep are kept heie, and 
some products of the farms are ex- 
ported. Hincsbui-gh contains a 
pleasant village, and numeious 
manufacturing operations are found 
on its streams. First settled about 
1785. Population, 1S30, 1,669. It 
lies 13 miles S. S. E. f:om Burling- 
ton, and 26 W. from Montpelier. 

Hmgliain, Mass. 

Plymouth co. A pleasant town 
on Boston harbor, and an agreeable 
resort for citizens and strangers. 
It lies 11 miles S. E. from Boston, 
by water, and 14 by land. Hing- 
ham cove is 5 miles S. W. from 
Nantasket beach, about 6 W. from 
Coha^sct harbor, and 24 N. N. W. 
from Plymouth. Fir;7t settled, 1633. 
Incorporated, 1635. Population, in 
1830, 3,3.57; 1837, 3,445. 

Major-general Bexjamin Lin- 
coln, was born in this town, Jan. 
23, 1733; he died May 0, 1810. 

This town i^ remarkable for its 
healthiness and longevity. Dur- 
ing 50 years, S persons died in one 
house, whose average age was 84 


About 80 sail of vessels belong to 
this place, which are engaged in 
the cod and mackerel fishery, and 
coasting trade ; — aggregate tonnage 
about 5,000 tons. 

In this town is an iron foundry, 
considerable ship building, a steam 
bucket factory ; and large quanti- 
ties of other wooden wares arc 
manufiicturcd, and some salt. 

The amount of manufactures of 
Hingham, for the vearendins; April 
1 , 1337, was $237"0T3. They con- 
si-ted of leather, boots, shoes, iron 
castings, hats, ploughs, cabinet, tin 
and wooden wares, silk, salt, ves- 
sels, umbrellas, spars and blocks, 
cordage, carriages, hammers, and 
hatchets. The product of the cod 
and mackerel fishery, the same 
year, was $113,700. Total amount 
of the fishery and manufactures 

Derby Academy, a free school, 
and the Wlllnrd Private Academy, 
are highly respectable seminai-ies, 
and promise great privileges to pa- 

A cominodious steam-boat plies 
between this and Boston, in sum- 
mer months, two or three times a 
day. The hotels are large, and 
furnish excellent accommodations. 
Baker's Hill present^- extensive and 
delightful views of Boston harbor. 
An excursion to Hingham is very 

Hinsdale, N. H. 

Cheshire co. It is 75 miles S. 
W. by \V. fiom Concord. It is well 
watered with springs and rivulets 
of the purest water. The Connec- 
ticut washes its western border; 
and the Ashuclot runs through the 
centre, forming a junction with the 
Connecticut, a little below the great 
bend, called Cooper's point. Kil- 
burn brook rises in Pisgah moun- 
tain, runs S. and falls into Ashuelot 
river. Ash-swanip brook rises in 
West river mountoin, runs a S. W. 
course, and falls into the Conufcti- 
cut, near the side of Hinsdale's fort. 


There are several islands in the Con- 
necticut in this town. On the N. 
line of Hinsdale, is West river 
mountain, which extends from the 
banks of the Connecticut, E. across 
the whole width of the town. Its 
greatest elevation is at the W. end. 
President Dwight states the height 
above low water mark to be from 
800 to 900 feet. In this mountain is 
found iron ore, and some other min- 
erals and fossils. South of Ashue- 
lot, is Stebbins' hill, a tract of ex- 
cellent land, and principal!}^ in a 
high state of cultivation. The in- 
tervales here are extensive, and 
of an excellent quality. On the 
point of a hill, not far from Con- 
necticut river, there is to be seen 
the remains of an Indian fortifica- 
tion, constructed prior to the set- 
tlement of the town. There is a 
deep trench drawn across the hill, 
to separate it from the plain back, 
and is continued to the river. 

Hinsdale was incorporated in 
1753. It was originally a part of 
Northfield, and was settled as early 
as 1633. The former name of this 
place was Fort Dummer and Bridg. 
tnari's Fort. This town encoun- 
tered all the difficulties of the In- 
dian wars, and struggled with oth- 
er hardships incident to frontier 
settlements, begun in the wilder- 
ness and remote from cultivated 
lands. Population, 1830, 937. 

Hinsdale, Mass. 

Berkshire co. Hinsdale is the 
source of a branch of Housatonick 
river. It is an elevated township, 
and well adapted for grazing. — 
There are two woolen mills in 
Hinsdale, and manufactures of 
boots, shoes, leather, hats, chairs, 
and cabinet ware : total amount in 
one year $86,550. The value of 
11,020 fleeces of wool, sheared in 
Hinsdale in 1837, weighing 32,116 
pounds, was $19,266. This town 
was incorporated in 1801. Popuhi- 
tioD, 1837, 832. It lies 125 miles 

Vv^ from Boston, and 15 N. N. W. 
from Lenox. 

Hiram, Me. 

Oxford CO. This town lies on 
both sides of a brand) of Saco riv- 
er, 86 miles W. S. V/. iVom Augus- 
ta, and 40 S. W. from Paris. The 
township is fertiie and productive 
of wool and wheat. Incorporated, 
1807. Population, 1830, 1,148. 

Kodgdon, Me. 

Washington co. Incorporated, 
1S32: 179 niiles from Augusta. In 
1837, with a population of 552, it 
produced 3,184 bushels of wheat. 
See " Down East." 

Holdeii, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town is fine- 
ly watered by branches of Black- 
stone and Nashua rivers. It has a 
valuable water power on Quinipox- 
et river. It has some good mead- 
ow land on the borders of the 
streams. There are 5 cotton and 
2 woolen mills in the town, and 
manufactures of leather,boots, shoes, 
straw bonnets, and palm-leaf hats ; 
total amount of the manuflictures 
for the year ending April 1, 1837, 
$201,960. Holden'^is 48 miles W. 
fiom Boston, and 6 N. W. from 
Worcester. Incorporated, 1740. — 
Population, 1337, 1,789. 

Holderncss, IV. H. 

Grafton co. It is 65 miles N. W. 
from Portsmouth, and 40 N. fiom 
Concord. The soil is hard and not 
easily cultivated, but when sub- 
dued is tolerably productive. From 
the sap of the sugar maple, a con- 
siderable quantitj^ of sugar is made. 
The Pemigewasset imparts a por- 
tion of its benefits to this place, and 
there are various other streams 
which serve to fertilize the soil, and 
to furnish mill seats. Squam river, 
the outlet of Squam ponds, runs in 
a S. W. dii-ection and empties into 
the Pemigewasset near the S. W. 


an^le of the town. This stream 
affjrds excellent mill privileges, 
having on it 2 paper mills and oth- 
er machinery. There are 3 ponds 
or lakes. 

The road from Plymouth through 
this place to \Mnnepisiogee lake, 
and Jilong the borders of" that lake 
to Wolfeborough is highly interest- 
ing ; displaying scenery which is 
scarcely equalled in this part of 
our country. Holderness was fii-st 
granted in 1751. The tirst settle- 
m nt was made about the year 
1763. Population, 1830, 1,429. 

Holland, Vt. 

Orleans CO. This is an excellent 
township of land, producing in great 
abundance all the varieties common 
to the climate. Previous to the 
year 1800, it was a wilderness. It 
is bounded N. by Canada : 56 miles 
N. N. E. from Montpelier and 20 
N. E. from Irasburgh. Population, 
1830, 432. 

Holland, Mass. 

Hampden co. Holland was tak- 
en from Brinifieldin 1785. It lies 
70 miles S. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 20 E. by S. from Springfield. 
Population, 1837, 495. Holland 
has several ponds, and is otherwise 
watered by Quinnebaugh river. 
There is a cotton mill in the town, 
and 658 sheep. 

Hollis, Me. 

York CO. This town lies on the 
W. bank of Saco river, and contains 
numerous mill sites. Incorporated, 
1812. Population, 1337, 2,374. It 
lies 72 miles S. W. from Augusta, 
and 30 N. from York. 

Hollis, N. H. 

Hillsborough co. It is 8 miles 
S. from Amherst, and 36 S. from 
Concord. Nashua river waters the 
S. E. part, and Nisitissit crosses 
the S. W. extremity. There are 4 
ponds, known by the name of 
Flint's, Penichook, Long and Rocky 

ponds. There is a pleasant villase 
near the centre of the town, on a 
site som.ewhat elc/ated. The ori- 
ginal name of Hollis was Alsitis- 
sit, its Indian name. The first 
settlement was made in 1731. It 
was incorporated in April, 1746. — 
The name is either derived from 
Thomas Hollis, a distinguished ben- 
efactor of Harvard college, or from 
the Duke of New Castle. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,501. 

Hollistou, Mass. 

Middlesex co. First settled, 1710. 
Incorporated, 1724. Population in 
1837, 1,775. It lies 24 miles S. W. 
by W. from Boston, and 21 S. from 
Concord. There is a woolen mill 
in the town, and some manufactures 
of boots, shoes, leather, chairs and 
cabinet ware, combs, ploughs, straw 
bonnets, books, clothing, wagons 
and harnesses : total value in one 
year $335,948. The value of boots 
and shoes amounted to $241,626, 
employing 461 hands. Holliston 
is watered by a small branch of 
Charles river. 

Holmes' Hole, Mass. 

See Tisbvry. 

Hooksett, N. H. 

Merrimack co. It lies nine miles 
S. S. E. fi'om Concord. The river 
Merrimack, whose course here is 
nearl}'^ N. and S., passes through 
this town a little W. of the centre. 
Here are those beautiful falls, knowa 
by the name of Hooksett Falls. — 
The descent of water is about 16 
feet perpendicular in 80 rods. A 
high rock divides the stream, and a 
smaller rock lies between that and 
the western shore. There is a 
pleasant village on the W. side of 
the ri^^er. There is a strong and 
well built bridge over Merrimack 
river. Hooksett canal is in this 
town. It is 1-4 of a mile long — the 
fall is 16 feet perpendicular. Hook- 
sett was detached from Chester, 
Goffstown and Dunbarton, and in- 


corporated as a separate town in 
June, 1822. On the E. side of the 
river is an extensive cotton factory, 
owned by the Amoskeag Company. 
Population, 1830, 880. 

Hoosack River and Mountain. 

Two branches of the Hoosack, 
Hosick, or Hoosick river, rise in 
New Enghind : one in the high 
lands in the county of Berkshire, 
Mass. ; the other in the mountain- 
ous tracts of Bennington county, 
Vt. These brandies unite near 
Hoosack Falls, in the state of New 
York, about 3 miles W. of the cel- 
ebrated Bennington battle ground. 
Hoosack river meets the Hudson 
at Schagthicoke, 15 miles N. of 
Troy, N. Y. This stream, in many 
places, is exceedingly rapid in its 
course, and afibrds a great number 
of mill sites. 

Hoosack mountain lies princi- 
pally in Clai-ksburgh and Berkshire, 
Mass., and is the source of a branch 
of Hoosack river. Its elevation is 
from 1,500 to 2,000 feet from its 

Hope, Me. 

Waldo CO. Hope is a township 
of choice land, having Camden and 
Megunticook lake on its south-east- 
ern border. It lies 41 miles E. S. 
E. from Augusta, and 16 S. by W. 
from Belfast. Hope produced in 
1837, 3,142 bushels of wheat. Pop- 
ulation, same year, 1,733. Incor- 
porated, 1804. 

Moplciiitou, N. H. 

Merrimack co. It is 28 miles N. 
from Amherst, 7 AV. from Concord, 
46 N. E. from Keene, 30 S. E. from 
Newport, 50 W. from Portsmouth, 
and 65 N. N. W. from Boston. Con- 
toocook river flows from Henniker 
into the south-westerly part of this 
town, and meanders in a N. E. di- 
rection. In its course it receives 
Warner and Blackwater rivers, .ind 
several large brooks, and empties 

into Merrimack river at Concord. 
On these streams are some valuable 
tracts of intervale and meadow lands. 
The principal village in Hopkiuton 
is 7 miles from the state-house in 
Concord. In this town Ihe county 
jail is located. In the W. part of 
the town is a thriving village on 
the Contoocook river, known as 
HilVs Bridge, or Contoocookville, 
where is a valuable water power, 
and several mills. Hopkin'on was 
granted Jan. 16, 1735, to John Jones 
and others, and was called jYianber 
5, and afterwards JVew- Hopkinton. 
The first settlement was made about 
1740, by emigrants from Hopkinton, 
Mass. This town suffered from In- 
dian depredations. Population in 
1830, 2,474. 

Hopkinton, Mass. 

Middlesex county. Branches of 
Charles and Mill rivers rise in this 
town, on which are manufacturing 
establishments. There are 3 cot- 
ton mills in Hopkinton, and m.anu- 
factures of boots and shoes, ($152,- 
300,) leather, ploughs, and straw 
bonnets : total value, the vear end- 
ing April 1, 1837, $217,-550. The 
town was incorporated in 1715. 
Population, 1830, 1,809 ; 1837, 

The mineral spring in this town 
has become celebrated. It con- 
tains carbonic acid, and carbonate 
of lime and iron. It is situated near 
White Hall pond, which abounds 
in tine fish of various kinds. The 
Boston and Woi'cestcr rail road 
passes within 3 1-2 miles of it, at 
Westborough, and it is 7 miles from 
the Blackslone canal, at North- 
bridge. It is 30 miles W. S. W. 
from Boston, 14 E. by S. from Wor- 
cester, and 30 N. by V/. from Pio- 
vidence, R. I. There is a large and 
convenient hotel at this place, at 
which visitors for health or plea- 
sure are kindly entertained. A trip 
to Hopkin'ion springs is both plea- 
sant and fashionable. 


Hopkiuton, R. I. 

Washington co. Wood river, a 
valuable null stream, passes through 
this town, on which are cotton and 
woolen mills, iron works, and vari- 
ous other manufactories. The soil 
of the town is generally well adapt- 
ed for grazing, and the cultivation 
of grain. It produces large quanti- 
ties of fruit and excellent cider. 
Shad and alewives are taken in 
Pavvcatuck river. There at"e seve- 
ral ponds within the town. Con- 
siderable wood and timher are sent 
to market from this place. 

Hopkinion City, at the south 
part of the town, on the Toinma- 
quaug branch of Charles river, is 
very pleasant and flourishing. It 
lies 35 miles S. W. from Provi- 
dence, and 1.5 W. from South 
Kingston. Hopkinton was tirst set- 
tled in 1660. Incorporated, 1757. 
Population, 1830, 1,777. 

Houltou, Me. 

Washington co. This town is 
situated on the east line of the state 
and of the United States, on the 
border of the Province of New 
Brunswick. It lies 120 miles N. 
N. E. from Bangor, and about 75 
W. N. W. from Frederickton, the 
capital of New Brunswick. The 
town was first settled in ISOS, and 
for twenty years it was entirely cut 
off from all communication with the 
western part of the state by a dense 
wilderness of nearly 100 miles in 

In 1829, a military post, the "Han- 
cock Barracks," was established 
here by the U. S. government, and 
in 1834 the military and state roads 
between Bangor and Houlton were 
completed and opened for travel. 
The great thoroughfare between 
the Ui.'ted States "and the British 
Province of New Brunswick is 
through th'<« town. The i-oads be- 
tween Bangv.r and Hovil'on are ex- 
cellent : stages pass and repass fi-om 
Bangor through Houlton to Frede- 

rickton, three times a week. Fred- 
erickton is 80 miles N. N. W. from 
St. Johns. A good road between 
Houlton and Calais, on the river 
St. Croix, about 90 miles distant, is 
now open for travel. This town is 
well watered by branches of Me- 
duxnekeag river, which empties 
into the St. John's. The garrison is 
located about a mile north of the 
village, and has generally contain- 
ed four companies of infantry. In 
thi3 town the courts of probate are 
held, and the office of registry of 
deeds kept for the northern district 
of Washington county. 

The soil of Houlton and its vicin- 
ity is of a superior quality. Twen- 
ty-five bushels of wheat to the acre 
is an average crop : 40 bushels to 
the acre is frequently obtained. — 
Houlton, with a population of 667, 
raised 5,869 bushels of wheat in the 
year 1837. 

We have heard it is said , that per- 
sons might go so far " down east" 
as to "jump off." If Houlton is 
the jumping off place, we advise 
some of our western brethren to go 
and view the precipice. 

Ilomsatoiiick River. 

The sources of this river are in 
the towns of Lanesborough and 
Windsor, Berkshire county, Mass. 
The two branches meet at Pitts- 
lield, where the river forms ; it then 
passes south, through Berkshire 
county, and enters the state of Con- 
necticut. After meandering through 
the county of Litchfield, in that 
state, it separates the counties of 
New Haven and Fairfield, and 
meets the tide water at Derby, 14 
miles above its entrance into Long 
Isliuid Sound. The source of this 
mountain stream is more than 1,000 
feet above the ocean ; and in its 
course, of nearly 150 miles, it af- 
fords numerous mill sites, and pre- 
sents many pleasant and well cul- 
tivated towns. The volume of wa- 
ter of this river is not very large 
except in seasons of freshet, when 


the rains from the mountains that 
environ its boi-ders, inundate the 
valleys anti greatly fertilize the soil. 
The scenery on the Hou-atonick 
is exceedingly beautiful ; in some 
places it is enchanting. The roman- 
tic cataract at Canaan, Conn., of 60 
feet perpendicular, is well worthy 
the notice of travellers. The In- 
dian name of this river, signifies 
ovei' the mountains. A vocabula- 
ry of Indian names, so beautiful and 
expressive, would be not only cu- 
rious but valuable. 

Hovilantl, Me. 

Penobscot co. This is a large 
township of good land, in which the 
Piscataquis and Schools river-; form 
a junction : at the mouth of the for- 
mer, about 50 rods from the Penob- 
scot, are several saw mills. The 
banks of the river are low and ve- 
ry beautiful. Rowland was incor- 
porated in IS26. It lies 117 miles 
N. E. from Augusta, and 34 N. from 
Bangor. Population, 1830, 329; 
1837, 507. 

Ilubbartlston, Vt. 

Rutland co. Elizabeth Hickok, 
tlie daughter of Elizabeth and Uriah 
Hickok, was the lirst white child 
born in this town. This event oc- 
curred in 1774. The face of the 
town is uneven, and in some parts 
mountainous. It is watered by se- 
veral ponds, the largest of which, 
lying partly in Sudbur}', is Grego- 
ry's pond, the outlet of which is 
called Hubbardston river. This 
river empties into Lake Champlain 
at West Haven and is an excellent 
mill stream. The village at the 
northwesterly part of the town is 
pleasant and flouiishing: it con- 
tains mills for the manufacture of 
various articles. 

Hubbardston lies 50 miles S. W. 
from Montpelier, and 10 N. W. from 
Rutland. Population, 1S30, 885. 

Iliibbardston, Mass. 

Worcester co. Hubbardston is 

on elevated ground, and the source 
of several branches of Ware river. 
There is much unimproved water 
power in the town. There are con- 
siderable tracts of valuable mead- 
ow land, and the uplands are good 
for grazing. It was incorporated 
in 17G7. Population, 1837, 1,780. 
The manufactures of the town con- 
sist of copperas, leather, boots, shoes, 
palm-leaf hats, chairs, cabinet and 
wooden wares. Hubbardston lies 
54 miles W. from Boston, and 22 
S. from Worce-ster. 

Hudson, N. H. 

Hillsborough co. This town lies 
17 miles S. E. fi'om Amherst, and 
38 S. from Concord. The land here 
is of easy cultivation. On the river 
are fine intervales, of a deep rich 
soil. Distant from the river, the 
land is hilly and somewhat broken. 
There are two ponds, known by the 
name of Little Massabesick, and 
Otternick ponds. This town was 
included in the grant of Dunstable, 
and was settled as early as 1710. 
The first settlements were made on 
the banks of the river, Vviiere the 
Indians had cleared fields for culti- 
vating corn. The first inhabitants 
lived in garrisons. While the men 
were abroad in the fields and forests, 
the women and children were lodg- 
ed in these places of security. 
Near the Indian cornfields have 
been found cinders of a blacksmith's 
forge, which have led to the con- 
jecture that they emplojed a smith 
to manufacture their implements of 
war and agriculture. Incorporated, 
1716, by the name of Nottingham- 
West, which it retained until July 
1, 1830, when it wis changed to 
Hudson. Population in 1830, 1,282. 

Hull, Mass. 

Plymouth CO. Hull was first set- 
tled about the year 1625. Incor- 
porated, 1644. 'Population, 1837, 
180. This town comp.ises the pen- 
insula of Nantasket, which forma 
the S. E. side of Boston harbor. It 


extends N. by W. from Cobasset, 5 
miles, and is celebrated for its beau- 
tiful beach, 4 miles in length, and 
for its shell fish and sea fowl. The 
town lies between two hills of line 
land, near point Alderton, opposite 
Boston Iiglit-house. It lies 9 miles 
E. S. E. from Boston, by water, and 
22 by land, via Hingham. On one 
of the lulls in this place, is a well 
90 feet in depth, wliich is frequently 
almost full of water. Capital in- 
vested in the manufacture of salt, 

Hull is remarkable for the una- 
nimity which always prevails ..mong 
its inhabitants in their deliberative 
assemblies, and for a spirit of com- 
promise manifest on all occa.sions in 
their selection of public servants. 

Iluiitingtou, Vt. 

Chittenden co. First settled, 
1786. Population, in 1830, 92i).~ 
Huntington lies 20 miles W. from 
Montpelier, and 15 S. E. from Burl- 
ington. Huntington river passes 
through this town ; it is a branch 
of Onion river, is rapid in its course, 
affording several towns an abund- 
ant water power. The soil of Hun- 
tington is poor : its surface is gen- 
erally too hilly for cultivalion. — 
Camel's Back mountain lies in the 
eastern part of the town. 

Huntsiigtoii, Ct. 

Fairtield co. This is a township 
of uneven surface, but well adapt- 
ed to agricultural purposes, to which 
the inhabitants are principally de- 
voted. Huntington was incorpora- 
ted in 1789. It lies 4 miles W. 
from Derby Landing, 12 N. E. from 
Fairfield, and 12 \V. from New 
Haven. Population, 1830, 1,371. 

Hyannis Ilarlbor, Slass. 

See Barnstable. 

Hyde Park, Vt. 

Lamoille CO. County town. The 
Lamoille, Green, and other rivers 
give this town a great water power. 

some of which is advantageously 
improved. The soil is s;onerallyof 
a good quality and easily cultiva- 
ted. It lies 24 miles N. from Mont- 
pelier, and 32 N. E. fiom Burling- 
ton. Population, 1830, 823. First 
settled, 1787. 

Indian Rivers. 

Indian river. Me., Washington 
coynty, is a small stream in the town, 
of Addison. 

Indian stream, N. H., Coos coun- 
ty, is the piincipal and most north- 
eily source of Connecticut river, 
rising in the highlands near the N. 
limit of the state, and pursuing al- 
most a direct S. W. course to its 
junction with the E. branch flow- 
ing fi-om lake Connecticut. 

Indian river, Vt., rises in Ru- 
pert, and falls into the Pawlet. An- 
other stream of this name, in Vt., 
rises in Essex, and falls into Col- 
chester bay. 

Indian Stream Territory. 

Is a tract in New Hampshire N 
of lat. 45°, extending to the British 
possessions in I;. Canada. It was 
surveyed in 1805, and contains 160,- 
363 acres. Lake Connecticut and 
several considerable ponds are sit- 
uated within this tract. 

Industry, Me. 

Franklin co. This town borders 
N. W. on Sandy river, and is a 
valuable tract of land. It lies 32 
miles N. W. from Augusta, and is 
bounded S. W, by Fariuington. 
Industry was incorporated in 1803: 
it has a pleasant village, and raised, 
in 1837, 6,078 bushels of wheat, 
with a population of 1,014. 

Ipsivicli, Hass. 

Essex CO. This is one of the 
shire towns of the county, and a 
port of entry, on a river of the 
same nan-.e, sometimes called -iga' 
li-am, the Indian name of (he place. 
Ip-^wich village is veiy pleasant, 
and the countrj' around it is well 


cultivated, and "beautifully varie- 
gated. There is a cotton mill in 
the town, and a number of vessels 
are engaged in the coasting trade 
and fishery. The manufactures 
consist of cotton goods, hosiery, 
vessels, leather, boots, shoes, chairs, 
and cabinet ware : — total annual 
amount, about $120,000. Ipswich 
is 12 miles N. by E. from Salem, 
10 S. from Newburyport, and 26 
N. E. by N. from Boston. First 
settled, 1633. Incorporated, 1634. 
Population, 1820, 2,553 : 1837, 2,- 

Ira, Vt. 

Rutland co. This township is 
elevated : it contains good land for 
rearing cattle : it has about 5,000 
sheep. Castleton river and Ira 
brook wash a part of the town, but 
aflbrd no valuable mill privileges. 
Ira lies 60 miles S. S. W, from 
Montpelier, and 8 S. W. from Rut- 
land. Population, 1830, 442. 

Irasl>iirgli, Vt. 

Shire town of Orleans county. 
This township was granted to Ira 
Allen and others, in 1781. It was 
first settled in 1199. Population, 
1830, 860. It lies 40 miles N. by 
E. from Montpelier, and 30 N. by 
W. from Danville. The surface of 
the town is undulating, with an 
easy soil to cultivate, and general- 
ly fertile. Black and Barton riv- 
ers water the town, but move too 
sluggishly to produce any valuable 

Isinglass River, N. H., 

Takes its rise from Long pond 
in Barrington, and Bow pond in 
Strafford, and, after receiving the 
waters of several other ponds, unites 
with the Cocheco near the S. part 
of Rochester. 

Isles of SUoals. 

These islands, 8 miles from the 
mouth of Portsmouth harbor, N. H. 
are seven in number, viz: Hog, 

Smutty Nose, Star, Duck, White, 
Malaga, and Londonner islands. 
Hog contains 350 acres of rock, and 
its greatest elevation is 57 feet above 
high water mark. Smutty Nose 
contains about 250 acres of rock 
and soil — greatest elevation 45 feet. 
Star island contains about 180 acres 
of rock and soil, and its height is 55 
feet. These islands, as a town, are 
called Gosjyort. Star and Smutty 
Nose are inhabited by fishermen, 
who carry on considerable business 
in their way ; supplying Portsmouth 
and the neighboring towns with 
fresh fish, and sending large quan- 
tities of cured fish to Boston and 
other places. The celebrated dun 
fish are found here, which have 
heretofore been considered a dis- 
tinct species of the cod. They 
differ however from the common 
cod only in the circumstance of 
their being caught and cured in 
winter. Star island and Smutty 
Nose are connected by a sea wall, 
built at the expense of government, 
for the purpose of breaking a strong 
south east current passing between 
them, and forming a safe anchor- 
age on the north west side of it. 
These objects have been attained, 
and the miniature iieet of the Shoal- 
ers, riding at anchor in this artifi- 
cial harbor, is no unpleasant sight. 
Smutty Nose and Malaga are con- 
nected by a sea wall, built at the 
expense of Mr. Haley, " the King 
of the Shoals." This wall, 14 rods 
in length, 13 feet in height, and 
from 20 to 30 feet in width, effec- 
tually secures Haley's inlet and 
wharf from the easterly storms, 
although the waves not unfrequent- 
ly break over it in a severe storm. 
These islands are composed of ledges 
of gneiss, bearing evidence of their 
igneous origin, as thajt are often 
traversed by veins of quartz, trap, 
and iron stone. 

There are a few spots of dry soil 
upon them under cultivation. The 
Shoals are a pleasant resort for 
water parties, and their delightful 


bracinj; air, cannot be otherwise 
than advantageous to those who are 
in want of pure sea breezes. The 
present popuhition is about 100. 

These islands were discovered 
by the celebrated John Smith, in 
1614, and were named by him 
Smith's Isles. The line between 
Maine and New Hampshire passes 
through these islands, leaving the 
largest on the side of Maine. Up- 
on all of them are chasms in the 
rocks, having the appearance of 
being caused by earthquakes. The 
most remarkable is on Star island, 
(Gosport)in which one Betty Moodj- 
secreted herself when the Indians 
visited the island and took away 
many female captives; and thence 
called to this day " Betty A[Gody''s 
hole." For more than a century 
previous to the revolution, these 
islands were populous, containing 
from 800 to 600 souls. They had 
a court-house on Haley's island ; 
a meeting-house, tirst on Hog isl- 
and, and afterwards on Star island. 
From 3 to 4 thousand quintals tish 
were annually caught and cured 
here, and 7 or 8 schooners, besides 
nuraei'ous boats, were employed in 
the business. The business has 
since very greatly decreased. 

William Pepperell and a Mr. Gib- 
bons, fiom Topsham, England, were 
among the tirst settlers at the Shoals; 
the former an ancestor of the cele- 
brated Sir William Pepperell. 

A woman, of the name of Pul- 
sey, died in Gosport, in 1795, aged 
90. In her life time she kept two 
cows. The hay on which they 
fed in winter, she used to cut in 
summer, among the rocks, with a 
knife, with her own hands. Her 
. cows, it was said, were always in 
good order. They were taken from 
her, but ngid for, by the British, in 
1775, antp^iilled, to the no small 
grief of the good old woman. 

Islesborougli, Mc. 

Waldo CO. This town comprises 
& large and fertile island, in Penob- 

scot bay, and several islands in its 
vicinity. This island has excellent 
harbors, and is much frequented by 
fishermen and coasters. The inhab- 
itants are independent farmers and 
fishermen, who are accustomed to 
render tlieir insular situation a 
place of comfort to the wayfarer, 
or the invalid in pursuit of ocean 
breezes. Islesborough lies 10 miles 
S. E. from Belfast, and 56 E. from 
Augusta. Incorporated, 1789. — 
Population, 1837, 67-4. 

Israel's River, N. H., 

Coos CO., is formed by the waters 
which descend in cataracts from the 
summits of Mounts Adams and Jef- 
ferson, and running N. W. it passe? 
through Randolph and Jefferson, 
discharging itself into the Connec- 
ticut near the centre of Lancaster. 
It is a beautiful stream, and receiv- 
ed its name from Israel Glines, a 
hunter, who with his brother fre- 
quented these regions, long before 
the settlement of the county. 

Jackson, Me. 

Vk'aldo CO. An interior township 
of good land that produced, in 1837, 
4,893 bushels of as tine wheat as 
can be raised in Tennessee. Pop- 
ulation, same year, 523. Jackson 
is 49 miles N. Yl. from Augusta, and 
15 N. N. W. from Belfast. Incor- 
porated, 1818. 

Jackson, IV. II., 

Coos CO., situated on the E. side 
of the White mountains. The sur- 
face of the town is uneven, but the 
soil is rich and productive. It is 
watered principally by the two 
branches of Ellis' river, passing 
from the N. and uniting on the S, 
border near Spruce mountain. — 
The principal elevations are called 
Black, Baldface, and Thorn moun- 
tains. Benjamin Copp was the first 
settler; he moved info Jackson in 
1779, and with his family buflfe'e'J 
the terrors of the wilderness four- 


teen years, before any other person 
settled there. The town was in- 
corporated December 4, 1800, by 
the name of Adams, which name 
it retained until 1S29, when it was 
changed to Jackson. Population, 
in 1830, 515. 

Jafli-ey, N. II. 

Cheshire co. This town lies 62 
miles N. Vv". from Boston, and 40 S. 
W. by S. from Concord. The Grand 
Monadnock is situated in the N. W, 
part of this town and in Dublin. 
Innumerable streams of water issue 
from the mountain. Those which 
issue from the western side dis- 
charge themselves into the Con- 
necticut river ; those from the east- 
ern form the head waters of Con- 
toocook river. The largest stream 
rises about 100 rods from the sum- 
mit, and descends in a S. E. direc- 
tion. With this brook, the thirsty 
and fatigued visitors of the moun- 
tain associate the most pleasing re- 
collections. The uneven soil of 
Jaffrey, affording numerous mead- 
ows, and early and rich pastures, 
is peculiarly adapted to raiding cat- 
tle. There are several ponds in 
this town. Out of 3, issue streams 
sufficient to carry mills erected near 
their outlets. In the largest, which 
is 400 rods long, and 140 wide, is 
an island com.prising about 10 acres. 
About 1 1-2 miles S. E. from the 
mountain is the " Monadnock mine- 
ral spring." The spring is slightly 
impregnated with carbonate of iron 
and sulphate of soda. It preserves 
60 uniform a temperature as never 
to have been known to freeze. 
Where the spring issues from the 
earth, yellow ochre is thrown out. 
In this town are a cotton and wool- 
en factory, and various mills. The 
first permanent settlement was made 
in 1758. Jaffrey was incorporated 
in 1773, receiving its name from 
George Jaffrey, Esq., of Portsmouth, 
one of the original proprietors. Pop- 
ulation in 1830, 1,354. 

Jamaica, Vt< 

Windham co. W^est river waters 
this town, and gives good mill seats. 
At a pleasant village near the cen- 
tre of the town are valuable man- 
ufacturing-establishments. The sur- 
face of the town is very uneven ; 
in some parts mountainous, but the 
soil is generally good and produc- 
tive. Lime-stone of a good quality 
is found here. Jamaica was first 
settled in 1780. Population, 1830, 
1,523. It lies 90 miles S. from 
Montpelier, and 14 N. W. from 

Jamestown, R. I. 

Newport co. This town compris- 
es Connanicut, a beautiful island 
in Narraganset bay, about 8 miles 
in length : its average breadth is 
about a mile. The soil is a rich 
loam, and peculiarly adapted for 
grazing and the production of In- 
dian corn and barley. 

The inhabitants of this island are 
remarkable for their industry and 
agricultural skill, which, united 
with the fertility of the soil and the 
location of the inland, renders it a 
delightful place. The distance from 
the town or island to Newport and 
South Kingston is about a mile each 
way ; to each of those places a fer- 
ry is established. The island was 
purchased of the Indians in 1657. 
Jamestown was incorporated in 
1678. Population, 1830, 415. 

Jay, Me. 

Franklin co. Jay lies at a bend 
of Androscoggin river, 29 miles W. 
by N. from Augusta, and 12 S. S. W. 
from Farmington. There is much 
valuable land in Jay. The inhab- 
itants are piincipally farmers, and 
cultivate the eoil with much indus- 
try. The town produced, in 1837, 
8,129 bushels of wheat, and con- 
siderable wool. Population, 1830, 
1,276; 1837, 1,685. Incorporated, 


Jay, Vt. 

Orleans co. A part of this town 
is very mountainous — Jay's peak 
lying in the S. W. part; the other 
part is good arable land, and would 
produce good crops if well culti- 
vated. A number of streams issue 
from the mountain and produce an 
ample water power. Jay was char- 
tered in 1792, but it was not per- 
manently settled until about ISIG. 
It lies 50 miles N. from Montpe- 
lier, and 15 N. W. from Ir.isburgh. 
Population, 1S30, 196. 

JelTersoii, Me. 

Lincoln co. This town lies at 
the head of Damariscotta river, and 
embraces a large body of water. 
It is otherwise watered by several 
ponds producing streams Ibr mill 
seats, which give to Jefferson great 
facilities for sawing and tiansport- 
ing lumber. This is a llourishing 
town in its trade and ogi-icultui-al 
pursuits; it produced 3,361 bushels 
of wheat in 1837. Incorporated, 
1S07. Population, 1S37, 2,246. It 
lies 28 miles E. S. E. from Augus- 
ta, and 15 N. E. from Wiscasset. 
Jefferson, N. H. 

Coos CO. Pondicherry pond, in 
this town, is about 200 rotls in di- 
ameter, and is the piincipal source 
of John's river. Pondichei-ry bay 
is abouc 200 rods wide and 100 long. 
Mount Pliny lies in the eastci-ly 
part of this town, and around its 
base there is excellent grazing and 
tillage land. On the S. W. side of 
this mountain are several tine farms, 
which command a most delightful 
view of the White mountains. Is- 
rael's river passes through Jeffer- 
son from S. E. to N. W., and here 
receives a considerable branch. The 
town was first settled about-the year 
1773. Jefferson is 77 miles N. from 
Concord, and 9 S. E. from Lancas- 
ter. Population, 1830, 495. 

Jerico, Vt. 

Chittenden CO. First settled, 1774. 

Population, 1830, 1,654. Jerico lies 
25 miles N. \V. from Montpelier, 
and 12 E. from Burlington. This 
town lies on the N. side of Onion 
river, and is otherwise finely sup- 
plied with mill seats by Brown's 
river and other streams. The soil 
varies in quality, from good inter- 
vale, on the streams, to common 
grazing pastures, on the hills. There 
is a pleasant village at the falls, on 
Brown's river, and some manufac- 

Joiiiisoii, vt. 

Lamoille co. Johnson was first 
settled in 1784, by a revolutionary 
hero, of the name of Samuel Ea- 
ton. Mr. Ealon frequently passed 
through this township, while scout- 
ing between Connecticut river and 
lake Champlain; and several times 
encamped on the same flat which 
he afterwards occupied as a farm, it 
being a beautiful tract of intervale. 
Like many other settlers of this 
state, he had many diflficulties to 
encounter. In indigent circumstan- 
ces, and with a numerous family, 
he loaded his little all upon an old 
horse, and set out in search of that 
favorite spot which he had selected 
in his more youthful days. He 
had to travel nearly 70 miles through 
the wilderness, guided by the trees 
which had been marked by the 
scouts, and opening a path as he 
passed along. He depended, for 
some time after he arrived at John- 
son, entirely upon hunting and fish- 
ing for the support of himself and 

The river Lamoille enters this 
township near the southeast cor- 
ner, and running westerly about 
two miles, through a rich tiact of 
intervale, falls over a ledge of i-ocks 
about 15 feet in height into a ba:>in 
below. This is called jW ConneVs 
falls. Thence it r-uns northwest- 
erly over a bed of rocks, about 100 
rods, narrowing its channel and in- 
creasing its velocity, v/hen it foims 
a whirlpool and sinks under a bar- 


rier of rocks, which extends across 
the river. The arch is of solid 
rock, is about eight feet wide, and 
at low water is passed over by 
footmen with safety. The water 
rises below through numerous aper- 
tures, exhibiting the appearance of 
the boiling of a pot. 

The surface of this township is 
uneven, being thrown into ridges, 
which are covered with hemlock, 
spruce and hard wood. The soil is 
a dark, or yellow loam, mixed with 
a light sand, is easily tilled, and 
very productive. The alluvial ilats 
are considerably extensive, but back 
from the river the lands are, in 
some parts rather stony. In the 
northeastern part has been discov- 
ered a quantity of soapstone. 

The village, in Johnson, is very 
pleasant, and contains a number of 
mills, for the manufacture of vari- 
ous articles. Johnson lies 28 miles 
N. by W. from Montpeiier, and 6 
N. W. from Hyde Park. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,079. 

JoIiiLston, R. I. 

Providence co. This town lies 
5 miles W. from Providence, from 
which it was taken in 1759, It is 
pleasantly variegated by hills and 
vales, with a soil adapted to the cul- 
ture of corn and barley, and par- 
ticularly to all sorts of vegetables 
and fruits, of which large quantities 
are annually sent to Providence 
market. The quarries of freestone 
in Johnston are valuable ; they sup- 
ply the wants, not only of the city 
and immediate vicinity, but distant 
places, with that useful material. 
The Wonasquatucket and Pochasset 
rivers with their tributary streams 
give this town a good hydraulic pow- 
er. Beautiful manufacturing vil- 
lages are scattered along the banks 
of these waters, presenting to the 
eye of the traveller the pleasant 
union of our agricultural and man- 
ufacturing interests. Population, 
1S30, 2,113. 

Jonesboi-ougli, Me. 

Washington co. This town has 
Chandler's river and the head of 
Englishman's bay on the E., Jores- 
port on the S., and the town of Ad- 
dison on the W. Incorporated, 1809. 
Population, 1837, 435. It lies 134 
miles E. by N. from Augusta, anfl 
12 S. W. from Machias. 

Jonesport, Me. 

Washington co. Taken from Jones- 
borough in 1836, and is bounded N. 
by Jonesborough, E. by English- 
man's bay, S. by Mispeeky reach, 
and W. by Addison bay and har- 
bor. This place has an excellent 
harbor, and is finely located for ship 
building, the fisheries and coasting 
trade. "^It lies 138 miles E. by N. 
from Augusta, and 16 S. W. from 
Machias. Population, 1837, 581 
Beal and Head islands lie off S. 
from Jonesport. 

Judith. Point, R. I. 

A noted headland in South Kings- 
ton, 11 miles S. S.W. from Newport, 
in N. lat. 41° 24', W. Ion. 71° 35'. 
A light-house was erected here in 
1810, the tower of which is 35 feet 
in height. This point opens to the 
ocean about midway between Vine- 
yard and Long Island Sounds. — 
When off this place, travellers un- 
accustomed to the sea frequently 
experience some little inconveni- 
ence for a few miles. From this 
light, Montauk, on Long Island, 
bears about S. W. 30 miles, and Gay 
Head, on Martha's Vineyard, about 
E. by S., 35 miles. 

KatalidLu Mountain, Me. 

This celebrated mountain, the 
greatest elevation in the state, lies 
ibetween the eastern and western 
branches of Penobscot river, in the 
county of Piscataquis, about eighty 
miles N. N. W. from Bangor, and 
120 N. N. E. from Augusta. Dr. 
Jackson has ascertained its height 


to be 5,300 feet above the level of 
the sea. The Indians had a notion 
that this mountain was the abode 
of supernatural beings. It is steep 
and rugged, and stands in alnio.-;t 
solitary grandeur. It may be seen 
in a clear day from Bangor. Tho-e 
who have visited its summit pro- 
nounce the scenery unrivalled in 

Kearsarge ?)Iouiitaii:i, IV. H., 

In the county of Mcriimack, sit- 
uated between the towns of Sutton 
and Salisbury, extending into both 
towns. The line between Wilmot 
and Warner passes over the sum- 
mit. Kearsarge is elevated 2,4ol 
feet above the level of the sea, and 
is the highest mountain in Merii- 
mack county. Its summit is now 
a bare mass of granite, presenting 
an irregular and broken surface ; 
the sides are covered with a thick 
growth of wood. 'The pro-pect fiom 
this mountain, in a clear sky, is 
very wide and beautiful. 

Keene, X. 11., 

Chief town of Cheshire co., is one 
of the most flourishing towns in 
N. H. It is 80 miles W.^N. W. froin 
Boston, GO S. from Dartmouth col- 
lege, 4;^ S. S. E. from Windsor, Vt., 
40 W. from Amherst, and 55 W. S. 
"W. from Concord. The soil is of va- 
rious kinds and generally good. 

Ashueloi river has its source in a 
pond in Washington, and discharges 
itself into the Connecticut, at Hins- 
dale, 20 miles distant from Keene. 
Keene has been called one of the 
" pi-ettiest villages" in New Eng- 
land ; and president Dwight, in his 
travels, pronounces it one of the 
pleasantest inland towns he had 
seen. The principal village is sit- 
uated on a flat, E. of the Asluielot, 
nearly equidistant from that and the 
upland. It is particularly entitled 
to notice for the extent, width, and 
uniform level of it^ streets. The 
main street, extending one mile in 
a straight line, is almost a perfect 

level, and is well ornamented with 
trees. The buildings are good and 
well arranged ; some of them are 
elegant. Keene is a place of con- 
siderable business. It has 2 glass 
houses, a woolen factory, iron found- 
ry, and many other valuable manu- 
factuiing establishments. Its flrst 
settlement ccmmenced about the 
year 1734, by Jeremiah Hall and 
others. Its original name was Up- 
per JlshuelGt. It was incorporated 
with its present name, Apiil 11, 
1753, which is derived from Sir 
Benjamin Keene, British minister 
at Spain, and contemporary with 
Gov. B. Wentworth. 

In 1736 the settlement had so 
increased, that ameeting-houre was 
erected and in two years after, a 
minister was settled. But the usual 
scourge, which attended the fron- 
tier settlements, visited this town. 
In 1745 the Indians killed Jo-iah 
Fisher, a deacon of the church : 
in 1746, thej' attacked the fort, the 
only protection of the inhabitants. 
They were, however, discovered 
by Capt. Ephraim Dorman in sea- 
son to prevent their taking it. — 
He was attacked by two Indians, 
but defended himself successfully 
against them, and reached the fort. 
An action ensued, in which .John 
Bullard was killed; Mrs. M'Ken- 
ney, v»'ho being out of the fort, wag 
stabbed and died ; and Nathan Blake 
taken prisoner, carried to Canada, 
where he remained two years. Mr. 
Blake afterwards returned to Keene, 
where he lived till his death, in 181 1, 
at the age of 99 years and 5 months. 
When he was 94 he married a wid- 
ow of 60. The Indians burnt all the 
buildings in the settlement, includ- 
ing the meeting-house. The in- 
habitants continued in the fort un- 
til April, 1747, when the town was 
abandoned. In 1753 they return- 
ed, and re-con. menced their settle- 
ments. In 1755 the Indians again 
attacked the fort. Their number 
was great, and the onset violent, 
but the vigilance and courasic of 


Capt. Syms successfully defendod 
it. After burning several build- 
ings, killing cattle, &c., they with- 
drew. They again invaded the 
town, but with little success. 

Col. Isaac Wyman, an active 
and influential man, marched the 
first detachment of men from this 
town, in the wav of the revolution, 
and was present at the battle of 
Breed's Hill. Population, in 1830, 

Keiiduskea§f Stream, Me. 

This stream rises in Dexter and 
Garland, and after meandering very 
circuitously through Corinth, Le- 
vant and Button, it falls into the 
Penobscot river, at the centre of 
the city of Bangor. This is a valu- 
able mill stream ; it has numerous 
tributaries ; its banks are fertile, 
romantic and beautiful. 

Kennebec River, Me. 

The first source of this import- 
ant river is Moose Head lake, of 
which it is the outlet. From thence 
it passes in a S. W. course nearly 
20 miles, where it receives the wa- 
ters of Dead river ; it then proceeds 
S. to Starks, about 40 miles, where 
it receives the waters of the Sandy : 
here it changes its course easterly, 
about 12 miles, passing Norridge- 
wock and Skowhegan : it then again 
changes its course to the S. till it 
receives the waters of the Sebasti- 
cook, about 1-5 miles : it continues 
to descend in nearly a S. course to 
Hallowell, about 20 miles ; here 
it inclines to the E. a few miles, 
and then resuming a S. course, and 
passing through Merry meeting bay, 
where it receives the Androscog- 
gin river, it passes Bath and meets 
the ocean. The whole length of 
this river, from Moose Head lake 
to the sea, is about 150 miles. 
The tributaries already named are 
the most considerable ; but there 
are many others that would be con- 
sidered important rivers in other 
sections of country. The whole fall 

of this river is more than 1,000 feet, 
and its hydraulic power, with that 
of its tributaries, is incalculable. 

We are enabled to state that the 
average, or mean time, of the clos- 
ing of this river by i a, at Hallow- 
ell, for 45 sncccs:ji,e years, was 
December 12th, and of its opening, 
April 3d. The most remarkable 
years were, 1792, when the riv- 
er closed November 4th, and open- 
ed April Ist, the following year; 
and 1S31, when it closed January 
10th, and opened April 13th, 1832. 
Since the year 1736 the Kennebec 
has not been obstructed by ice in 
any spring after the 20th of April. 

lieuiicljee Coiinty, Me. 

Augusta is the shire town. This 
county is bounded N. by Franklin, 
Somerset, and Penobscot counties, 
E. by Waldo and a part of Lincoln 
counties, S. by Lincoln county, and 
W. by Oxford county. This county 
is watered by numerous ponds and 
rivers, but principally by the noble 
Kennebec, which passes nearly 
through its centre, from which the 
name of the county is derived. The 
face of the county is undulating, 
not hilly ; its soil is of a superior 
quality, producing, in great abund- 
ance, all the variety of grasses, 
grains, vegetables and fruits com- 
mon to its climate. The union of 
hydraulic power with navigable 
waters, which this county enjoys ; 
its fertility, locality, and other nat- 
ural advantages, rendei- it a highly 
favored section of our country. — 
Area, about 1,050 square miles. In 
1S37 this county contained 101,233 
sheep, and proiluced 186,876 bush- 
els of wheat. Population, 1837,62,- 
375 : 59 inhabitants to a square mile. 

I£enne1>unl£, Me. 

York CO. This town is situated 
on the S. W. side of the Kenne- 
bunk river, and is regarded as one 
of the plea^antest towns in New 
England. Population, 1837, 2,34.3. 
In former years the business of the 


town was mostly of a commercial 
character, there being a large num- 
ber of vessels owned here, which 
were engaged in the West India 
trade. But this trade is now near- 
ly abandoned, and the navigation is 
engaged in the freighting, coasting, 
and fishing business. Shipbuild- 
ing has been carried on here to a 
great extent, for about seventy 
years, and some of the finest ships 
in the country have been built in 
this place within the last few years. 
There is one large cotton factory in 
operation, and other privileges for 
large manufacturing establishments 
on the Kennebunk, and the Mou- 
sum, a pleasant stream which meets 
the ocean in this town. Kenne- 
bunk is a port of entry : tonnage of 
the district, in 1837, 6,964 tons. 
Incorporated, 1820. It lies 80 miles 
S. W. from Augusta, 25 S. W. from 
Portland, and 15 N. N. E. from 

Kenueliiiuk Port, Me., 

York CO., is situated on the N. 
E. side of the Kennebunk river. 
This town was formerly extensive- 
ly engaged in the West India trade, 
but its navigation is now employed 
i'n the freighting, coasting, and fish- 
ing business. The extensive gran- 
ite quarries here are likely to be- 
come a source of considerable busi- 
ness. The stone, bearing a strong 
resemblance to the Quincy, finds 
a ready market where granite is 
made use of in building. Thirty 
years ago, this town, and Kenne- 
bunk, on the opposite side of the 
river, were the most active and busy 
ports in Maine ; but the tide of 
emigration has carried off most of 
the young men, leaving a surplus 
of girls; so that whatever activity 
there now is in the place, is of a 
domestic character, not creating 
that noise and bustle incident to the 
operations of the other sex. Ken- 
nebunk Port lies about 4 miles N. 
E. from Kennebunk. This town 
and Kennebunk are much united in 

maritime pursuits, and both enjoy 
a good harbor for shipping. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 2,730. 

I£eusiiigtoii, N. H., 

Rockingham co., is 45 miles N. 
from Boston, 15 S. W. from Ports- 
mouth, and 40 S. E. from Concord. 
This town has no streams of any 
note; its surface is pretty even. 
Kensington was settled at an early 
peiiod, and was originally a part of 
Hampton, from which it was de- 
tached in 1737. Population, 1830, 

Kent County, R. I. 

East Greenwich is the county 
town. Kent county is bounded N. 
by Providence county, E. by Pro- 
vidence bay, S. by Washington 
county, and W. by the state of Con- 
necticut. The surface of the coun- 
ty is generally rough and uneven: 
in the eastern part are tracts of le- 
vel land. The soil is either a gra- 
velly or sandy loam, and very pro- 
ductive of Indian grain, rye, fruits, 
and vegetables. The grazing busi- 
ness is extensively pursued in this 
county. The Pawtuxet and Flat 
rivers are the principal, but a num- 
ber of large ponds produce smaller 
streams. in abundance. The manu- 
f^icturing interests of this county, 
particularly of cotton and wool, are 
very extensive, and probably pur- 
sued with as much spirit and suc- 
cess as in any portion of the state. 
Some navigation is employed on the 
bay in the coasting trade and fish- 
ery. Kent county consprises an 
area of 1S8 square miles. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 10,228; 1830, 12,789. 
Population to a square mile, 69. 

Kent, Ct. 

Litchfield co. First settled, 17.3S. 
Incorporated, 1739. Population, 
1830, 2,001. Kent is 50 miles W. 
from Hartford, 50 N. W. from New 
Haven, and 15 W. from Litrhfieli!. 
This is a mountainous township, 
with some fine land on the banks 


of the Housatonick, which passes 
through its western border. Good 
iron ore is found here. There are 
three furnaces in town, but the 
manufacture of iron is not so exten- 
sive as formerly. The Housaton- 
ick, cahn and still, winding grace- 
fully at the foot of a high and rug- 
ged mountain, renders the scenery 
from the neat and quiet village, 
highly picturesque and beautiful. 

" There is in this town," says Dr. 
Trumbull, " convincing evidence 
that it was a grand seat of the na- 
tive inhabitants of this country, 
before Indians, who more lately in- 
habited it, had any residence in it. 
There are arrow heads, stone pots, 
and a sort of knives, and various 
kinds of utensils, frequently found 
by the English, of such curious 
workmanship as exceeds all the 
skill of any Indians since the Eng- 
lish came into this country, and 
became acquainted with them. — 
These were not only found when 
the town was tirst settled, bat the}"- 
are still found on the sides of Housa- 
tonic river." 

Kilkenny, IV. II. 

Coos CO. This place was granted 
in 1774, and contained, in 1830, but 
27 inhabitants. They are poor, and 
for aught that appears to the contra- 
ry, must always remain so, as they 
may be deemed actual trespassers 
on that part of creation destined by 
its author for the residence of bears, 
■wolves, moose, and other animals 
of the forest. An exception, how- 
ever, may possibly be made in fa- 
vor of a narrow strip of land along 
the S. boundary of the town. Pi- 
lot and Willard's mountains, so call- 
ed from a dog and his master, cov- 
er a considerable part of this town. 
Willard, a hunter, had been lost 
two or three days on these moun- 
tains, on the east side of which his 
camp was situated. Each day ha 
observed his dog Pilot left him, as 
he supposed in pursuit of game; 
but towards night he would con- 

stantly return. Willard being, on 
the second or third day, nearly ex- 
hausted with fatigue and hunger, 
put himself under the guidance of 
his dog, who in a short time con- 
ducted him in safety to his camp. 

Killiiigly, Ct. 

Windham co. This town lies 45 
miles E. from Hartford, 25 W. from 
Providence, R. I., and 5 N. E. from 
Brooklyn, First settled in 1700. 
The first white person known to 
have been buried here was Mr. 
Nell Alexander's great-giand-mo- 
ther. (See Jllexande7-''s Lake.) This 
town is rough and hilly, but there 
is a great deal of beauty about it, 
and its history is full of romantic 
stories relating to the first settlers 
and the red men. The town is 
well watered by the Quinnebaugand 
its branches. There are three vil- 
lages. Pleasant Valley, Daysvilley 
and Danielsonville, all pleasant and 
flourishing manufacturing places. 
They contain 14 cotton and 3 wool- 
en mills, a furnace, an axe factory, 
and other mechanical operations. 
Killingly contains excellent quar- 
ries of freestone, and of a slate rock 
resembling granite, soft, and easily 
wrought ; also of a slate rock com- 
posed of granular quartz, almost 
white. A rich bed of porcelain 
clay is found on Mashentuck hill, 
said to equal French or Chinese 
clay. Population, 1S3G, 4,000. 

I^illiiigtoni Peals, Vt.. 

This noted elevation of the Green 
Mountain range, 3,924 feet above 
the ocean, lies in Sherburne, 10 
miles E. from Rutland. 

Killing^vortli, Ct. 

Middlesex co. This town, the 
Indian Hammonjiasset, was first 
settled in 16«J3. The central part 
of the town is 38 miles S. E. fiora 
Hartford, 27 W. fVom New Lon- 
don, and 17 S. by E. from Mid- 
dlelown. Population, 1830, 2,484. 
This town lies on Long Island 


Sound with a harbor for small ves- 
sels. Many vessels are built at 
this place. There is 1,000 acres 
of good salt meadow in Killing- 
worth, and the soil of the uplands, 
although hard and uneven, are ren- 
dered productive by industry and 
skillful management. The village 
is very pleasant, with a wide street 
a mile and a half in length, crossed 
about midway by Indian river, a 
small stream which enters the har- 
bor. This was a great resort for 
the Indians. " Immense masses 
of mouldering shells still point out 
the places where they dwelt." 
Killingworth is a healthful, inter- 
esting place. 

Kilinaruock, Me. 

Piscataquis co. This town is 
well watered by Piscataquis river 
and the outlet of Scootum lake. It 
lies 103 miles N. E. from Augusta, 
and 22 N. N. E. from Dover. In- 
corporated. 1824. Population, 1830, 
138; 1837, 313. 

Ivinglield, Me. 

Franklin co. A fine farming 
township, east of Mount Abraham, 
and watered by Seven Mile brook 
and one of its tributaries. It lies 
55 miles N. W. by N. from Au- 
gusta, and 25 N. from Farmington. 
Population, 1837, 614. Incorpora- 
ted, 1808. Wheat crop of 1837, 
3,877 bushels. 

Kingsbury, Me. 

Incorporated, 1836. See "Down 

Kingston, N. H. 

Rockingham co. This town is 
distant from Concord 37 miles S. E., 
from Exeter 6, and from Portsmouth 
20. There are several ponds in 
this town. The largest is Great 
pond, which lies on the W. of the 
village, and contains upwards of 
800 acres, with an island of 10 or 12 
acres, covered with wood. There 
are no high hills in Kingston ; those 

called the Great hill and Rockri- 
mon are the highest. The soil of 
Kingston is generally loamy. The 
charter of Kingston was granted, 
1694. The grant also comprehend- 
ed what now forms the towns of 
East Kingston, Danville, and San- 
down. This town suffered in com- 
mon with others in the vicinity, from 
Indian depredations. Many Indian 
implements, with some ancient 
French coin, have been ploughed 
up in the vicinity of the ponds. 

Maj. Ebenezer Steve^vs, one 
of the early settlers, was a very 
distinguished and useful citizen. 

This town was also the residence 
of the Hon. Josiah Bartlett, 
one of the first worthies of the state, 
and an eminent physician. His 
public career commenced in 1765, 
and from that time to his death he 
was an unwearied advocate and 
supporter of the liberties of Amer- 
ica. He was the first governor of 
the state under its free constitution. 
He died in 1795, aged 65. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 929. 

Kingston, Vt. 

Addison co. A mountainous town- 
ship settled soon after the revolu- 
tionary war. Population, 1S30, 403. 
White river is formed in Kingston 
by the union of several streams. 
Here is a beautiful v.'atcr fall of 
100 feet, 50 of which is perpendic- 
ular. At the bottom of the fall the 
water has worn a hole 10 feet in 
depth. Kingston lies 21 miles S. 
W. from Montpelier, and 14 E. from 

Kingston, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This town lies 
within Plymouth harbor, 4 miles 
N. W. from Plymouth, and 31 S. 
E. from Boston. Kingston has a 
good harbor, a considerable stream 
of water and some excellent land. 
There are a number of vessels en- 
gaged in the coasting trade, and 
some in foreign commerce. Many 
vessels are built here of the south 


shore white oak, noted for its 
strength and durability. During 
the year ending April ],1S37, there 
were 19 vessels engaged in the cod 
and mackerel fisliery. They took 
14,214 quintals of cod fish, and 8S3 
barrels of mackerel, the value of 
which amounted to $48,590. There 
is a cotton mill in Kingston, and 
manufactures of bar iron, nails, ax- 
es, cutlery, anchors, leather, shoes, 
palm-leaf hats, and shingles : total 
value inone year $105,302. Monk's 
hill presents an excellent view of 
Plymouth harbor. Kingston was 
incorporated in 1726. Population, 
1837, 1,371. 

I£irl>y, Vt. 

Caledonia co. First settled, 1799. 
Population, 1830, 401. There are 
some tracts of good land in Kirby, 
but the township is generally either 
wet and cold, or too mountainous for 
cultivation. It has a number of 
springs, brooks, and a good fish 
pond. The town lies 36 miles N. 
E. from Montpelier, and 14 N. E. 
from Danville. 

Klrklaud, Me. 

Penobscot co. Kirkland is finely 
watered by Dead stream, Pushaw 
lake and its principal tributary riv- 
er. It lies 8S miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 15 N. N. W. from 
Bangor. Incorporated, 1825. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 258. 

Kittery, Me. 

York CO. A sea port town on 
the N. E. bank of the Piscataqua 
river, being the extreme southwest- 
ern boundary of the state on the 
Atlantic, adjoining York on the N. 
E. and Elliot on the N. W. It is 
one of the earliest settlements in 
the province, or state, and had its 
share of trial and suffering with 
others of their days, from repeated 
incursions of the Indians. The 
river or inlet, called Spruce creek, 
affords a convenient harbor for ves- 
sels usually employed in the coast- 

ing trade and fishery, and formerly 
considerable trade was carried on 
with the West Indies from this 
place ; — but there is little or none 
at present. 

Kittery point was the residence 
of Sir William Pepperell, who com- 
manded the New England troops in 
the celebrated expedition to Cape 
Breton, in 1745, which resulted in 
the capture of Louisburg. It is 
divided from Portsmouth, N. H. by 
the Piscataqua. A bridge connects 
it with that place. Another bridge 
connects it with Badger's island, on 
which is the United States Navy 
Yard. Kittery lies 103 miles S. W. 
from Augusta, and 50 S. W. from 
Portland. Incorporated, 1653. — 
Population, 1837, 2,322. 

Ik^uoT, Me. 

Waldo CO. A beautiful farming 
town, named in honor of Gen. Hejv- 
RY Kivox, a patriot of the revolu- 
tion, who died at Thomaston, 1806, 
aged 56. This is one of the many 
towns in Maine fast rising in wealth 
and respectability, by the fertility of 
the soil and industry of the people. 
It lies 32 miles N. E. by E. from 
Augusta, and 14 S. W. from Bel- 
fast. Incorporated, 1819. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 815. Wheat crop, 
same year, 4,037 bushels. 

liagrange, Me. 

Population, 1837, 287. Wheat 
crop, same year, 1,749 bushels. 
See " Down East." 

Liamoille County, Vt. 

Hyde Park is the shire town. — 
This county was established in 1836. 
It is bounded N. by Franklin and 
Orleans counties, E. by Orleans and 
Caledonia counties, S. by Washing- 
ton county, and W. by Chittenden 
and a part of Franklin counties. 
This county lies on the Green moun- 
tain range, and is the source of ma- 
ny streams. The river Lamoille 
passes nearly through its centre, 
and, with its tributaries, give the 


county a great hydraulic power. 
The elevation of the county ren- 
ders the soil more adapted for graz- 
ing than for tillage, yet there are 
large tracts of excellent meadow 
bordering its streams. Manufac- 
tures flourish, and the exports of 
beef cattle and the products of the 
dairy are valuable, and annually 
increasing. In 1837, there were 
28,677 sheep. Population, 1830, 

Ijamoille River, Vt. 

This river is formed in Greens- 
borough. Its general course is N. 
W. It passes through Hardwick, 
Wolcott, Morriston, Johnston, Cam- 
bridge, Fairfax and Georgia, and 
falls into Lake Champlain at Mil- 
ton, 12 miles N. from Burlington. 
This river has numerous tributaries : 
it has several falls, which produce 
a valuable water power. Its banks 
in many parts arc very fertile. It 
was discovered by Champlain in 

liOncaster, N. II. 

Coos CO. Shire town of the coun- 
ty, and situated on the southeastern 
bank of Connecticut river, which 
forms and washes its N. W. bound- 
ary, a distance of 10 miles. It lies 
distant 110 miles W. from Portland, 
130 N. from Portsmouth, 95 N. 
from Concord, and 75 above Dart- 
mouth College. Besides the Con- 
necticut, which is deep and about 
22 rods in width while it passes 
through Lancaster, the town is wa- 
tered by Israel's river, and several 
considerable brooks. Across this 
river a bridge and several dams are 
thrown, forming a valuable water 
power. There are several ponds 
in Lancaster, the largest of which 
is called Martin-meadow pond, from 
Martin, a hunter. This communi- 
cates with Little pond. 

Lancaster is situated near lofty 
mountains, but is not itself moun- 
tainous. There are three hills in 
the S. part of the town, called Mar- 

tin meadow hills; and the land in 
the S. E. part lies too high up the 
mountains for cultivation. The soil 
along the Connecticut is alluvial, 
the meadows extending back near- 
ly three-fourths of a mile ; and at 
the mouth of Israel's river much 

The village, or most compact part 
of the town, lies on a street extend- 
ing from the bridge across Israel's 
river northwardly : — it is pleasant, 
and is the site of some manufactur- 
ing establishments. Lancaster was 
granted and settled in 1763. The 
war of the revolution tended to re- 
tard the settlement of the town. — 
After the war closed, the town set- 
tled with considerable rapidity, and 
has since gradually increased in 
wealth and business. Population, 
1830, 1,187. 

Iiancaster, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town, the 
JVasaivogg of the Indians, is the 
oldest town in the county ; it was 
for many years a frontier settlement, 
and greatly harrassed by the na- 
tives. In 167G, the town was at- 
tacked by 1,500 Indians; many 
were killed on both sides ; the town 
was destroyed, and a number car- 
ried into captivity, among whom 
was the celebrated Mrs. Mary 
Rowlandson. Lancaster lies on 
both sides of Nashua river, and has 
a remarkably fine, alluvial soil, in 
a high state of cultivation. Per- 
haps there is no inland town in New 
England that possesses more natu- 
ral beauties, or that strikes the eye 
of the traveller more agreeably. — 
The village is very beautiful : — it is 
neatly built on an alluvial plain, 
surrounded by hills, and watered by- 
a large and placid stream. There 
are 3 cotton and 1 woolen mills in 
the town, and manufactures of 
leather, boots, shoes, hats, forks, 
combs, palm-leaf hats, tenon ma- 
chines, copper pumps, piano-fortes, 
chairs, and cabinet ware : — annual 
value about $100,000. Some min- 


eral substances are found here. 
Lancaster was first settled, 1643. 
Incorporated, 1653. Population, 
1837, 1,903. It lies 35 miles W. 
N. W. from Boston, and 15 N. N. 
E. from Worcester. 

Grafton co. Its distance from 
Haverhill is about 12 miles N. E., 
and from Concord 90 N. by W. 
Wild Amonoosuck river runs from 
S. E. to N. W. through the S. part 
of the town. Through the north- 
westerly extremity passes the Great 
Amonoosuck river. Landaff moun- 
tain in the E. part. Cobble hill in 
the centre, and Bald hill in the ^V., 
are the principal elevations. The 
soil is fertile. Landaff was granted 
in 1764, to James Avery and others. 
Population,in 1830, 951. 

!Laiiclgrove, Vt. 

Bennington co. This town is on 
elevated land at the N. E. corner 
of the count}'^, 33 miles N. E. from 
Bennington, and about 30 S. W. 
from Windsor. Some of the head 
branches of West river have their 
sources here. The lands are too 
rough and high for much improve- 
ment. First settled, 1769. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 335. 

lianesliorougli, Tilass. 

Berkshire co. This township lies 
on elevated ground, the sources of 
some of the head branches of Hoiis- 
atonick and Hoosack rivers. It is 
situated on two hills, with an inter- 
vening valley. The lands in the 
valley are very luxuriant, and the 
billy parts are admirably adapted 
for grazing. Lanesborough is a 
beautiful town, under good cultiva- 
tion, and very productive. The in- 
habitants are principally farmers, 
who make agriculture a Misijiess, 
and reap its rewards. In 1837 (here 
were in this town 12,333 sheep, 
whose fleeces weigbed 4:?,4S9 lbs., 
estimated at ^26,100. Limestone 
abounds here } also beautiful mair- 

ble, and graphic slafe. There is a 
delightful pond partly in this town 
and partly in Pittsfield : it con- 
tains trout and other fine fish. — 
Lanesborough was incorporated, 
1765. Population, 1837, 1,090. It 
lies 125 miles W. by N. from Bos- 
ton, and UN. from Lenox. 

liaugclon, US. H. 

Sullivan CO. Langdonis 18 miles 
S. S. W. from Newport, and 50 W. 
by S. from Concord. The princi- 
pal village it 3 miles E. from Con- 
necticut river, and 6 fi-om Bellows 
Falls. A considerable I'ranch of 
Cold river passes S. W. through the 
whole extent of this town, and unites 
with the main branch near the S. 
line. Langdon, named in honor 
of Gov. Langdon, was incorporated 
1787. Its settlement commenced in 
1773. Population, 1830, 667. 

liClianou, Me. 

York CO. This town is bounded 
W. by Salmon Fall river, on the 
line of New Hampshire. It is a 
large agricultural township, with 
some trade and manufactures. It 
lies 99 miles S. W. from Augusta, 
50 S. W. by W^ from Portland, and 
11 S. W. from Alfred. Incorpora- 
ted, 1767. Population, in 1837, 

Izclianoii, N. IT. 

Grafton co. This pleasant town 
on Connecticut river, is 4 miles S. 
from Dartmouth College, 49 N. W. 
from Concord, and 90 N. W. from 
Portsmouth. Besides the Connec- 
ticut on its W. bolder, this town is 
watered by Mascomy river, running 
<Vom E. to W. through its centre, 
and affording many valuable mill 
seats and a constant supply of wa- 
ter. The soil here is alluvial, the 
intervales on (he Connecticut ex- 
tending back from the river about 
half a mile. There are meadows or 
intervales on Mascomy river. The 
principal village is situated on a 
plain near the central part, at the 


head of the falls of Mascomy riv- 
er. There are falls in the Connect- 
icut in this town, which have been 
5)cked and canalled by a company, 
called the White River Company. 
Lyman's bridge connects this town 
with Hartford, Vt. A medicinal 
spring has been discovered. A 
lead mine ha-; been opened, and 
there has been found on Entield line, 
near the outlet of the Great pond, 
a vein of iron ore. 

This is a place of considerable 
manufactures, and of extennve 
trade. Lebanon was granted 176L 
It was the first town settled on Con- 
necticut river to the N. of Charles- 
town. The first settlers were a 
hardy, brave people, tenacious of 
their principles : most of them were 
men of strong minds, good habits, 
correct principles, and good com- 
mon education. Population, 1839, 

Lebanon, Ct. 

New London co. Lebanon lies 
SO miles S. E. from Hartford, and 
10 N. W, from Norwich. First 
settled about 1700. Population, in 
1830, 2,554. The surface of the 
town is uneven — moderately hilly. 
The soil is of a chocolate color ; — 
a rich deep mould, very fertile, and 
well adapted for grab's. Husbandry 
is the principal bu-iness of the in- 
habitants. The village is on a street 
more than a mile in length, wide, 
pleasant and interesting : it was the 
residence of the Trumbull, fami- 
ly, celebrated for thi'ir genius and 
patriotism. On tiie family tomb, in 
the village, is the following inscrip- 
tion to the memory of the first gov- 
ernor Trumbull. 

" Sacred to the memory of Jonnthan 
Trumbull, Esq. who, unaided by birth 
or powerful connexions, but blessed 
with a noble and virtuous mind, arrived 
to the highest station in government. 
His patriotism and firmness during 50 
years employment in public life, and 
particularly in the very important part 
ne acted in the American Revolution; 


as Governor of Connecticut ; the 
faithful page of History will record. 

Full of years and honors, rich in be- 
nevolence, and firm in the faith and 
hopes of Christianity, he died August 
yth, 1785,yEtatis 75." 

This tomb contains the ashes of two 
governors, one commissary general, 
and a signer of the Declaration of 

Ledyard, Ct. 

New London co. This town was 
taken from Groton in 1836. It was 
formerly called North Groton. It 
is 7 miles N. by E. from New Lon- 
don, and 8 S. from Norwich. There 
is a pretty village, of some thirty 
houses, at Gale's ferry, on the 
Thames. The population of the 
town, in 18,36, was about 2,000. 
About twenty of the Pequot tribe 
of Indians reside here : a miserable 
remnant of a great and powerful 

This town was named in honor 
of two brothers, natives of Groton: 
Col. LEDVARD,the brave defend- 
er of Groton Heights, in 1781 ; — 
and John Ledyard, the celebra- 
ted traveler, who died at Cairo, in 
Egypt, in 1789, aged 38. John Led- 
yard was probably as distinguished 
a traveler as can be found on re- 
cord. " Endowed with an original 
and comprehensive genius, he be- 
held with interest, and described 
with energy, the scenes and objects 
around him; and by comparing them 
with what he had seen in other re- 
gions of (he globe, he was enabled to 
give bis narrative all the varied ef- 
fect of contrast and resemblance." 

This accurate observer of man- 
kind pays the following tribute to 
female character. 

" I have always remarked," says 
he, " that women in all countries 
are civil and obliging, tender and 
humane : that they are ever inclin- 
ed to be gay and cheerful, timo- 
rous and modest; and that they do 
not hesitate, like men, to perform 


a generous action. Not haughty, 
nor arrogant, nor supercilious, they 
are full of courtesy, and fond of 
society ; more liable in general to 
err than man, but in general also 
more virtuous, and performing more 
good actions, than he. To a wo- 
man, whether civilized or savage, I 
never addressed myself, in the lan- 
guage of decency and friendship, 
without receiving a decent and 
friendly answer. With man it has 
often been otherwise. In wander- 
ing over the barren plains of in- 
hospitable Denmark, through hon- 
est Sweden and frozen Lapland, 
rude and churlish Finland, unprin- 
cipled Russia, and the wide spread 
regions of the wandering Tartar ; 
if hungry, dry, cold, wet, or sick, 
the women have ever been friend- 
ly to me, and uniformly so. And 
add to this virtue, so worthy the 
appellation of benevolence, their 
actions have been performed in so 
free and kind a manner, that if I 
was dry, I drank the sweetest 
draught, and if hungry, I ate the 
coarsest morsel, with a double rel- 

liCe, Me. 

Wheat crop, 1837, 8,450 bushels : 
population, the same year, 536. It 
lies 125 miles from Augusta. See 
•' Down East." 

Lee, 'S. H. 

Strafford co. In the N. part of 
the town lies Wheelwright's pond, 
containing about 165 acres, and 
forming the principal source of Oys- 
ter river. 

This pond is memorable for the 
battle which was fought near it in 
1690, between a scouting party of 
Indians, and two companies of ran- 
gers, under Capts. Floyd and Wis- 
wall. The engagement lasted two 
hours. Wiswall, his lieutenant, 
sergeant, and 12 men were killed 
and several wounded. Floyd con- 
tinued to fight till his men, wearied 
and wounded, drew off and obliged 

him to follow. The enemy also re- 

Lee is 28 miles E. S. E. frorn 
Concord, and 12 S. W. from Dover. 
From the N. E. extremity of Ep- 
ping, Lamprey river enters Lee, 
and after a serpentine course of 
about 7 miles, it passes into Dur- 
ham. Other parts of the town are 
watered by Little, North, and Oys- 
ter rivers. Lee was originally a 
part of Durham, and was incorpo- 
rated, 1766. Population, in 1830, 

Lee, Mass. 

Berkshire co. This is a pleasant 
town on the Housatonick river, ad- 
mirably located for manufacturing 
purposes. It contains a cotton and a 
woolen mill, 12 paper mills, and va- 
rious other manufactures by wa- 
ter power. The amount of manu- 
factured goods for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, was $405,000. The 
paper manufactured, amounted to 
$274,500. The articles manufac- 
tured, besides paper, cotton and 
woolen goods, were leather, hats, 
boots, shoes, bar iron, iron castings, 
axes, shovels, spades, hoes, forks, 
ploughs, chairs, tin, cabinet and 
wooden ware, carriages, chair stuff, 
&c. The soil of the town is good, 
particularly for grazing. The wool 
of 2,000 sheep, in 1837, was val- 
ued at $4,500. There is an abund- 
ant supply of iron ore and marble 
of excellent qualities. Lee was 
incorporated in 1777. It lies 130 
niiles W. from Boston, and 5 S. E. 
from Lenox. Population, in 1830, 
1,825; 1837,2,095. 

Ijeeds, Me. 

Kennebec co. This is a large 
and flourishing agricultural town, 
finely watered by a large and beau- 
tiful pond. The outlet of this pond 
into the Androscoggin, gives the 
town a good water power, for saw 
mills and other manufactories. 

The villages in Leeds are very 
neat and pleasant. The soil i& fer- 


tile and productive. Wheat crop, 
1837, 5,421 busheb. Leeds was 
incorporated in 1802. It lies 30 
miles W. S. AV, from Augusta. — 
Population, 1837, 1,743. 

licic ester, Vt. 

Addison co. Leicester is water- 
ed by a river of its own name, by 
Otter creek, and by a part of lake 
Dunmore. These waters are too 
sluggish to afford the town much 
water power. The soil is a sandy 
loam, interspersed with some flats 
of clay. Along the rivers the soil 
is rich and productive. The high 
lands are hard and tit for grazing. 
About 4,000 sheep are kept here. 
Leicester lies 36 miles S. Vi. from 
Montpelier, and 10 S. by E. from 
Middlebury. First settled, 1773. 
Population, 1830, 638. 

liCicester, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town is on 
the height of ground between Bos- 
ton harbor and Connecticut river. 
It lies 46 miles W. from Boston, 6 
W. S. W. from Worcester, 42 E. S. 
E. from Northampton, and 44 N. W. 
from Providence. It was first set- 
tled in 1713, and incorporated about 
the year 1721. Its Indian name 
was Towtaid. Population, 1837, 
2,122. This town is well watered 
by French river, and branches of 
the Connecticut and Blackstone, 
which rise here, and afford mill sites 
for numerous manufactories. 

Leicester Academy was founded 
in 1784. It has considerable funds, 
commodious buildings, and is highly 
respectable. It accommodates 100 
pupils throughout the year. 

The surface of the town is uneven 
with a strong, deep soil. There 
are 5 woolen mills in the town, and 
manufactures of machines, hand 
cards, machine cards, chairs, cabi- 
net ware, scythes, leather, boots and 
ehoes : total value the year ending 
April 1, 1837, $531,939. 

A society of Jews built a syna- 
gogue, and resided here from 1777 to 

1783. They were much esteemed. 
The families of Denny, Earle and 
Henshaw, have been numerous in 
Leicester, and highly respectable. 

licmniiiigtoii, Vt. 

Essex CO. A mountainous town- 
ship, on the W. side of Connecticut 
river, with a small portion of inter- 
vale. There are several brooks in 
the town, and a beautiful cascade 
of 50 feet. There is a mountain in 
the town called " the Monadnock 
of Vermont," from which may be 
discovered that this town, general- 
ly, is not fit for cultivation. It lies 
64 miles N. E. from Montpelier, 
and 24 N. from Guildhall. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 183. 

lieiupster, TS, It. 

Sullivan co. It is 40 miles W. 
from Concord. The surface is, in 
general, uneven, and the eastern 
part is mountainous. The soil is 
moist, and better suited for grass 
than grain. The town is well 
watered, although its streams are 
small. One branch of Sugar river, 
and the S. and W. branches of Cold 
river afford conveniences for water 
machinery. Near the W. bound- 
ary line is a pond 320 rods long 
and 80 wide. Sand pond lies in 
this town and Marlow. Lempster 
was granted 1761. It was settled 
about 1770, by emigrants from Con- 
necticut. Population, in 1830, 999. 

lienox, Me. 

See " Down East." 

Lieiiox, Mass. 

Berkshire co. Shire town. This 
is an excellent township of land, 
watered by Housatonick river, and 
surrounded by beautiful mountain 
scenery. It lies 130 miles W. from 
Boston, 25 N. E. from Hudson, N. 
Y., and 55 N. W. from Hartford, 
Ct. Lenox is accommodated with 
a water power, and contains mines 
of rich iron ore, and quarries of 
beatitiful marble. There are some 


manufactures of iron, leather, mar- 
ble, &.C., in the town, but agricul- 
ture is the chief pursuit of the in- 
habitants. Incorporated, 1767. Pop- 
ulation, 1S37, 1,277. 

lieoiuiiister, Mass. 

Worcester co, A beautiful town, 
of an excellent soil, and great wa- 
ter power, on both sides of a prin- 
cipal branch of Nashua river, 42 
miles N. W. from Boston, and 20 
N. from Worcester. This town was 
taken from Lancaster in 1740, and 
shared with that town in the suffer- 
ings occasioned by Indian hostility. 
The manufactures of Leoniiaster, 
for the year ending Apiil 1, 1S37, 
exclusive of the product of 5 paper 
mills, was $111,505. The articles 
manufactured were leather, boots, 
shoes, hats, axes, chairs, cabinet 
ware, combs, tin ware, straw bon- 
nets, palm-leaf hats, chaises, car- 
riages, and harnesses. Population,, 
1037, 1,914. 

A rich alum rock has been found 
in this town which is said to be a 
decomposed mica slate. It con- 
tains an abundance of beautiful 
plumose, or feather form alum, like 
that of Mi!o, one of the Grecian 
isles, mixed with the green crys- 
tals of copperas, or sulphate of iron. 

lie-vant, Me. 

Penobscot co. This town lies 
principally on the S. W. side of 
Kenduskeag stream, by which and 
its tributaries it is well watered. 
The soil is good and productive. — 
The wheat crop of 1837 was 3,432 
bushels. Levant lies 78 miles N. E. 
from Augusta, and 10 N. W. from 
Bangor. Incorporated, 1813. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 747 ; 1837,1,081. 

Licverett, Mass, 

Franklin co. A good grazing 
town, on high ground, 85 miles W. 
N. W. from Boston, and 10 S. E. 
from Greenfield. The town is wa- 
tered b}' Roaring brook, a rapid 
stream, on which is a cascade, and 

some wild scenery, worthy of the 
traveler's notice. Incorporated, 
1774. Population, 1837, 902. 

lie^v^istou; Me. 

Lincoln co. Lewiston lies on the 
E. side of Androscoggin river, at 
the falls. The waters of that river 
descend 47 feet in the distance of 
12 to 15 rods, and produce a valu- 
able hydraulic power. The town 
extends on the river about 13 miles, 
and is connected with Minot by a 
bridge, at the foot of the falls, of 
1,000 feet in length. This is a town- 
ship of good land, with some manu- 
factui-es of woolen and cotton goods, 
and a number of saw mills. Wheat 
crop, 1837, 1,920 bushels. Incor- 
porated, 1795. Population, 1830, 
1,549; 1837, 1,737. Lewiston is 
23 miles S. W. from Augusta, 34 
N. by E. from Portland, and 25 N. 
W. from Bath. 

Lexiugton, Me. 

Somerset co. This town lies 57 
miles from Augusta. Popuhttion, 
1837, 457. Wheat crop, same year, 
2,346 bushels. See " Down East.'* 

liexiugton, Mass* 

Middlesex co. This pleasant town 
lies 10 miles N. W. from Boston, 
and 7 E. from Concord. Incorpo- 
rated, 1712. Population, 1837,. 
1,622. There are some excellent 
farnss in this town, large tracts of 
meadow on some of the branches 
of the Shawsheen, which rise here, 
and some valuable woodland. The 
manufactures consist of boots, shoes, 
caps, clocks, cabinet ware, and cal- 
ico printing : annual value, about 

Lexington will ever be an inter- 
esting place, as here the first blood 
was shed in the cause of American 
Independence. " A detachment of 
British soldiers were sent at day- 
light on the morning of the 19th of 
April, 1775, to take or destroy a 
quantity of military stores collected 
at Concord. They were under the 


command of Col. Smith and Maj. 
Pitcairn. On reaching this place, 
a militia company were exercis- 
ing on the common. A British offi- 
cer rode up and ordered thera to 
disperse, but not being instantly 
obeyed, he discharged his pistol 
and ordered his men to fire, which 
they did, and eight of the Ameri- 
cans fell dead on the spot ! The 
militia retreated, and the British 
proceeded to Concord, and in part 
succeeded in destroying the stores, 
but were so harassed on their re- 
turn, that they would inevitably 
have been cut off, had they not 
been met at this place by a strong 
detachment of artillerj'^ under Lord 
Percy. The party suffered ex- 
tremely by the fire of the Ameri- 
cans, aimed with deadly effect from 
the buildings, trees, and fences ; 
and left 65^ killed, and had 180 
wounded. The Americans had 50 
killed and 34 wounded. There is 
a monument on the spot where the 
first victims fell, to perpetuate the 
memory of the slain, and of this 

lieydeu, Mass. 

Franklin co. Leyden is watered 
by Green river and several small 
streams. It is 100 miles N. W. from 
Boston, and 7 N. by W. from Green- 
field. It is a mountainous town- 
ship, more fit for grazing than tiil- 
age. The number of sheep in the 
town, in 1837, was 3,142 ; their 
fleeces weighed 9,326 pounds; val- 
ue of the wool, $5,129. The town 
was incorporated in 1809. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 656. 

There is a romantic spot in Ley- 
den, called " the Glen," a curious 
place, worth looking at. 

liiberty, Me. 

Waldo CO. This town is 29 miles 
E. from Augusta, and 18 W. S. W. 
from Belfast. It is watered by 
large ponds and small streams. The 
soil is good and produced, in 1837, 
2,022 bushels of wheat. Incorpo- 


i-ated, 1827. Population, 1837, 804. 
A short time since a pine tree 
was cut in Liberty, which measur- 
ed 7 feet in diameter, at the stump. 
It had three branches. The tree 
was sound, and 10,610 feet of square 
edged boards were made from it. 

liiiuerick, Me. 

York CO. Little Ossipee river 
waters this town. It lies 28 miles 
W. front Portland, 85 S. W. from 
Augusta, and 15 N. by W. from 
Alfred. This is a good farming 
town, with a pleasant village, and 
an academy, incorporated in 1812. 
The town was incorporated in 1787 
Population, 1837, 1,484. 

liimingtou, Me. 

York CO. This town is bounded 
on the S. by Limerick, and is wa- 
tered by Saco river on the S. and 
W. The town has a good soil, very 
productive of hay, wheat and other 
grain. It lies 89 miles S. W.ti-om 
Augusta, and 28 W. S. W. from 
Portland. Incorporated, 1762. — 
Population, 1837, 2,223. 

Lancoln. County, Me* 

TViscasset, Topsham and War- 
ren are the county towns. Lincoln 
county is bounded N. by the coun- 
ties of Kennebec and Waldo, E. 
by Waldo county and Penobscot 
bay, S. by the Atlantic ocean, and 
W. by Cumberland county and Cas- 
co bay. Area about 950 square 
miles. This county is bounded on 
the ocean nearly fifty miles, and 
like the county of Hancock in thjs 
state, comprises an almost innumer- 
able number of bays, coves, inlets, 
commodious harbors and fertile isl- 
ands. The waters of the Muscon- 
gus, Damariscotta and Sheepscot 
pierce its centre, and the noble 
Kennebec finds all its Atlantic har- 
bors in the county of Lincoln. 

Considerable attention is paid to 
agriculture, for the soil Im generally 
fertile and well adapted to the pur- 
suit; but this county is essentially a 


maritime section of New England, 
possessing every requisition for for- 
eign commerce, the coasting trade 
and fisheries. The tonnage of the 
three districts, Bath, Wiscasset and 
Waldohorough, in 1837, was 9.3,347 
tons. This county contained, in 
1887, 84,000 sheep, and raised 37,- 
963 bushels of wheat. Population, 
1820, 53,189 ; 1830, 57,181 ; 1837, 
60,226 : 63 inhabitants to a square 

'Lincoln, Me. 
Penobscot co. This is a very 
large town, more than double the 
common size. It lies on the E. side 
of the Penobscot, at the mouth of 
Matanaucook river, where is a 
pleasant and flourishing village, 45 
miles N. by E. from Bangor, and 
114 N. E. from Augusta. Lincoln 
has recently been incorporated, and 
possesses a soil of remarkable fertil- 
ity. Population, 1830,414; 1837, 
1,045. Wheat crop, 1837, 4,263 

Itiucoln, N. H., 

Grafton co., a mountainous town- 
ship 70 miles N. from Concord. — 
The middle branch of the Pemige- 
wasset passes through nearly the 
centre of the town. It has its 
source in Ferrin's pond, in the S. 
part of Franconia. There are sev- 
eral ponds, viz : Bog, Fioh and Loon 
ponds. There are many elevations, 
of which Kinsman's mountain is 
the most considerable. In the N. 
part of the town are two large gulfs, 
made by an extraordinary discharge 
of water from the clouds in 1774. 
The numerous " slips," as they are 
called, from the mountain are wor- 
thy of notice. They commence 
near the summit of the mountain, 
and proceed to its base, forcing a 
passage through all obstructions. 
The soil here is poor. W ild ani- 
mals, such as bears, raccoons, foxes, 
gables, otters, deer, &c., are very 
numerous. Lincoln was granted in 
1764, to James Avery and others. 
Population, 1830, 5Q. 

liincoln; Vt.- 

Addison co. Lincoln was first 
settled by a number of "Friends,'* 
in 1790. The town is on high 
ground with an uneven surface. It 
lies 21 miles S. W. from Montpe- 
lier, and 15 N. E. from Middlebury. 
Population, 1830, 639. 

Xiincoln, Mass. 

Middlesex co. Lincoln is bound- 
ed W. by Sudbury river. It lies 
16 miles N. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 3 S. from Concord. Incorpora- 
ted, 1754. Population, 1837, 694. 
It has some good farms and a large 
fish pond. The manufactures of 
the town consist of clothing, leath- 
er, straw bonnets, boots and shoes. 

Xdncolnville, Me. 

Waldo CO. On the Vi. side of 
Penobscot bay, 10 miles S. from 
Belfast, 7 N. from Camden, and 51 
E. from Augusta. Incorporated, 
1802. Popufation, 1837, 1,999.— 
This township has a good soil for 
grass, grain and potatoes. Wheat 
crop of 1887, 4,212 bushels. The 
town is well located for any branch 
of navigation. Duck Trap is an ex- 
cellent harbor, and a busy place in 
the coasting trade. 

Xiluneiis, Me. 

Washington co. This town is 
the source of a branch of the Mat- 
tawamkeag ; and of a branch of the 
Meduxnekeag, flowing into the St. 
John's. It lies 8 miles S. W. from 
Houlton. Population, 1837, 208. 
Wheat crop same year, 2,514 bush- 
els. Incorporated, 1836. 

liisbou, Me. 

Lincoln co. Lisbon lies on the 
E. side of Androscoggin river, and 6 
miles below Lewiston Falls. There 
are falls in the river at this place, 
called the " Ten mile falls." Lis- 
bon has some manufactures of cot- 
ton and wool, a number of saw mills, 
and is united with Durham by a 


bridge. Wheat crop 1837, 3,781 
bushels. Population, same year, 
2,660. It lies 30 miles S. S. W. 
from Augusta, and 22 W. by N. 
from Wiscasset. 

liisbon, N. II. 

Grafton co. It i-s 20 miles N. E. 
from Haverhill, and 90 from Con- 
cord. It is watered by Amonoo- 
suck river, running through the 
whole extent of the town, and by 
several smaller streams. There 
are several ponds, the most noted 
of which is called Mink pond, ly- 
ing in the S. part of the town, af- 
fording mill seats at its outlet. The 
soil admits of three divisions ; the 
meadows or intervales on Amonoo- 
suck river, which are generally 
very productive ; the plain land, of 
a light, thin soil, requiring consid- 
erable manure to make it produc- 
tive ; and the uplands, of a strong 
deep soil, which afford many good 
farms. Blueberry mountain is the 
principal elevation. Large quan- 
tities of iron ore and limestone are 
found here. Maple sugar is man- 
ufactured and clover seed is raised 
in considerable quantities. This 
town was called Concord until 1824. 
Population, 1830, 1,485. 

Lisljou, Ct. 

New London co. This town is 7 
miles N, from Norwich, from which 
it was taken in 1736. It is water- 
ed by Quinnebaug and Shetucket 
rivers, which unite in the S. part 
of the town. The soil is a gravel- 
ly and sandy loam, with some allu- 
vial meadow. This is an excellent 
farming town : the inhabi!ants are 
generally industrious and independ- 
ent. In that part of the town call- 
ed Hanover, is a woolen and silk 
factory. Lisbon is 45 miles S. E. 
from Hartford. Population, 1830, 

liitclifield, Me. 

Kennebec co. An excellent 
township of land, pleasantly situa- 

ted 10 miles S. W. from Gardiner, 
and the source of some of the Cob- 
besseecontee waters. Litchfield lies 
16 miles S. S. W. from Augusta, and 
was formerly a part of Lincoln 
county. Incorporated, 1795. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,341. Wheat crop, 
same year, 5,123 bushels. 

liitclifield, N. H., 

Hillsborough co., is a small fer- 
tile township on the E. bank of 
Merrimack river. It is 8 miles E, 
from Amherst, and 30 S. by E. from 
Concord. This town has an excel- 
lent soil. There are two ferries, 
Thornton's, near the meeting house, 
on the post road from Amherst to 
Portsmouth ; and Read's, 3 miles 

Litchfield was taken from Dun- 
stable in 1734. It was originally 
known by the Indian name of JVat- 
ticott, and by the English one of 
Brentori's Farm. The settlement 
commenced about 1720. 

The Hon. Wyseman^ Clagett 
closed his life in this town. He 
was a native of England, came to 
this country before the revolution 
commenced, and sustained several 
important offices. He was attorney 
general under the provincial and 
state governments, and filled the 
office with dignity and honor. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 505. 

liitclifield County, Ct. 

Litchfield, county town. This 
is the largest and most elevated 
county in the state. The surface 
is hilly and in some parts mountain- 
ous. The soil is chiefly a gravelly 
loam, under good cultivation, and 
very productive of butter, cheese, 
beef and pork. It abounds in iron 
ore, which is extensively manufac- 
tured. This county contains an area 
of 885 square miles. Population, 
1820, 41,267; 1830, 42,855; con- 
taining 48 inhabitants to a square 
mile. This count}' is watered by 
numerous ponds ; by the beautiful 
Housatonick, and by many rivers 


rising in fhe high grounds. The 
streams give a valuable water pow- 
er, and floui'ishing manufacturing 
establishments are found in almost 
every town. The number of sheep 
in this county, in 1S37, was 72,832. 
Litchfield county was incorporated 
in 1751. It is bounded N. by Berk- 
shire county, Mass., E. by Hart- 
ford and New Haven counties, S. 
by the counties of New Haven and 
Fairfield, and W. by the state of 
New York. 

liitcliiield, Ct. 

Litchfield CO., chief town. This 
town, the Indian Bantam, com- 
prising, as it was supposed, ten miles 
square, was valued at £300 in the 
year 1718. Bantam Avas first set- 
tled in 1720, and incorporated by 
its present name in 1724. It was 
a frontier town for many years, and 
during the wars between England 
and France was much harassed by 
the Canadians and Indians. Litch- 
field is an elevated township, and 
its surface presents a diversity ol 
hills and valleys. The soil is a gra- 
velly loam, deep, strong, and admi- 
rably adapted iov grazing. Great 
pond is a beautiful sheet of water; 
it comprises an ai'ca of 900 acres, 
and is the largest pond in the state. 

The waters of the Naugatuck, 
Shepung and Bantam give the town 
a good water power, and manufac- 
tures of cotton, wool, iron, and oth- 
er articles are in successful opera- 
tion on their banks. 

Litchfield village, on " Litchfield 
Hill," was incorporated in 1818. It 
is a delightful place. It is situated 
on an elevated plain, surrounded by 
interesting scenery, and affords ex- 
tensive prospects. The two prin- 
cipal streets cross each other nearly 
at right angles ; they are wide, well 
shaded, and built upon with great 
taste and elegance. It lies 30 miles 
W. from Hartford, and 35 N. W. 
from New Haven. Population of 
the town, 1830, 4,458. 

In the W. part of the town Mount 

Tom rears a front of 700 feet above 
the Naugatuck, presenting a pano- 
ramic landscape of great beauty and 
vast extent. Near this mountain 
is a mineral spring " which is satu- 
rated with iron and sulphur. The 
water issues from the E. side of the 
mountain in considerable quantities. 
The mud from the bottom of the 
spring burns with a blue flame, and 
the principal part of it consumes." 

A law school of great respecta- 
bility was established in this town, 
by the Hon. Tappijvg Reeve, in 
1784, The Hon, James Gould 
was associated with Judge Reeve, 
as instructor, for some years. This 
institution continued nearly thirty 
years, and furnished instruction to 
many of our most eminent jurists. 

Oliver Wolcott, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, resided here. He was 
the son of the Hon. Roger Wolcott. 
He died December 1, 1797, aged 
72. He was distinguished for in- 
tegrity, decision of character, and 
for his love of order and religion. 

Oliver Wolcott, son of the 
preceding, was born in 1760. — 
When a lad of 17, he lent his aid to 
the cause of his country : he was 
present in the engagement with the 
British at the time of their invasion 
of Danbury. On the formation of 
the U. S. Government, in 1789, he 
was appointed first auditor of the 
treasury ; and in 1794 he succeeded 
Gen, Hamilton as secretary of the 
treasury. In 1817 he was elected 
governor of Connecticut, which of- 
fice he held till 1827. He v>'as the 
last survivor of the administration 
of Washington. He died in New 
A'ork, June 2d, 1833, aged 74. 
%Bejvjami]v Tallmage, a colo- 
nel in the revolutionary army, was a 
resident of this town. He was an 
ardent patriot and sincere christian. 
He was honored with the confidence 
of Washington in several hazard- 
ous and important trusts. He died 
at Litchfield, March 7, 1835, aged 


ETHATf Alle^-, a brigadier-gen- 
eral in the American service, dis- 
tinguished for his daring and intre- 
pid spirit, was a native of this town. 

" Wliile he was young, his pa- 
rents emigrated to Vermont. At 
the commencement of the disturb- 
ances in this territory, about the 
year 1770, he took a most active 
part in favor of the Green Moun- 
tain boys, as the settlers were then 
called, in opposition to the govern- 
ment of New York. An act of 
outlawry against him was passed by 
that state, and 500 guineas were of- 
fered for his apprehension : but his 
party was too numerous and faith- 
ful to permit him to be disturbed by 
any apprehensions for his safety. 
In all the struggles of the day he 
was successful ; and he not only 
proved a valuable friend to those 
whose cause he had espoused, but 
Tie was humane and generous to- 
wards those with whom he had to 
contend. When called to take the 
field, he showed himself an able 
leader and an intrepid soldier. 

" The news of the battle of Lex- 
ington determined Col. Allen to en- 
gage on the side of his country, and 
inspired him with the desire of dem- 
onstrating his attachment to liberty 
by some bold exploit. While his 
mind was in this state, a plan for 
taking Ticonderoga and Crown Point 
by surprise, which was formed by 
several gentlemen in Connecticut, 
was communicated to him, and he 
readily engaged in the project. 
Receiving directions from the gen- 
eral assembly of Connecticut to 
raise the Green Mountain boys, and 
conduct the enterprise, he collected 
230 of the hardy settlers and pro- 
ceeded to Castleton. Here he was 
unexpectedly joined by Col. Ar- 
nold, who had been commissioned 
by the Massachusetts committee to 
raise 400 men, and effect the same 
object, which was now about to be 
accomplished. As he had not rais- 
ed the men, he was admitted to act 
as an assistant to Col. Allen. They 

reached the lake opposite Ticonde- 
roga on the evening of the 9th of 
May, 1775. With the utmost diffi- 
culty boats were procured, and 83 
men were landed near the garrison. 
The approach of day rendering it 
dangerous to wait for the rear, it was 
determined immediately to proceed. 
The commander in chief now ad- 
dressed his men, representing that 
they had been for a number of years 
a scourge to arbitrary power, and 
fam.ed for their valor, and conclud- 
ed with saying, ' 1 now propose to 
advance before you, and in persoa 
conduct you through the wicket 
gate; and you, who will go with 
me voluntarily in this desperate at- 
tempt, poise vour firelocks.' At 
the head of the centre file he 
marched instantly to the gate, where 
a sentry snapped his gun at him, 
and retreated through the covered 
way : he pressed forward into the 
fort, and formed his men on the 
parade in such a manner as to face 
two opposite "barracks. Three huz- 
zas awaked the garrison. A sentry, 
who asked quarter, pointed out the 
apartments of the commanding offi- 
cer; and Allen with a drawn sword 
over the head of Capt. De la Place, 
who was undressed, demanded the 
surrender of the fort. ' By what 
authoritj' do you demand it ?' in- 
quired the astonished commander. 
' I demand it (said Allen) in the 
name of the great Jehovah and of 
the continental congress.' The 
summons could not be disobeyed, 
and the fort, with its very valuable 
stores and 49 prisoners was imme- 
diately surrendered. Crown Point 
was taken the same day, and the 
capture of a sloop of war, soon af- 
terwards, made Allen and his brave 
party complete masters of Lake 

Gen. Allen possessed strong pow- 
ers of mind, but they never felt the 
influence of education. Though 
he was brave, humane and gener- 
ous, yet his conduct does not seem 
to have been much influenced by 


considerations respecting that holy 
and merciful Being, whose charac- 
ter and whose commands are dis- 
closed to us in the scriptures." 

Gen. Allen died at Colchester, 
Feb. 13, 17S9, aged 52. 

liittle Androscoggin River, 

In Maine, has its sources in ponds 
in the towns of Woodstock, Green- 
wood, and Norway : it passes in a 
southeasterly direction through Ox- 
ford, and falls into the Androicog- 
gin between Ivlinot and Danville, 
opposite to Lewiston. 

liittle Compton, R. I. 

Newport co. This very pleasant 
town, the. Indian Seaconnet, lies on 
the ocean, at the eastern entrance 
into Narraganset bay, 9 miles E. by 
N. from Newport, 30 S. S. E. from 
Providence, and 12 S. from Fall 
River, Mass. The soil of the town 
is uncommonly fertile, and being 
cultivated by an industrious class 
of men, is very productive of corn 
and other grain ; beef, pork, but- 
ter, cheese, and wool. 

Seaconnet Rocks, at the south- 
eastern extremity of the town, 
where a break- water has been 
erected by government, is well 
known to sailors, and memorable as 
the place where a treaty was made 
between the English and the Queen 
of the powerful Seaconnet tribe, in 
1674. That tribe is now extinct: 
Seaconnet Rocks is their only mon- 

Little Compton is becoming cel- 
ebrated as a placeof resort, in sum- 
mer months, for sea air and bath- 
ing ; and very justly so, for very 
few parts of our coast exhibit a 
more interesting location. 

liittle Macliia* «fc liittle Rivers. 

See Cutler. 

Littleton, N. H. 

Grafton co. On Connecticut riv- 
er. Its extent on Connecticut river 
is about 14 miles. It is 30 miles 

N. by E. from Haverhill, and 80 
N. N. W. from Concord. Connec- 
ticut river, in passing down the 
rapids called Fifteen JMile Falls, 
extending the whole length of Lit- 
tleton, runs in foaming waves for 
miles together, which render it im- 
possible to ascend or descend with 
boats in safety. ' There are three 
bridges over the Connecticut in Lit- 
tleton. Amonoosuck river waters 
the S. part, having on its banks small 
tracts of excellent intervale. The 
principal village is on this river, in 
the S. part of the town, and is called 
Glynville. Raspberry, Black, Palm- 
er's and Iron mountains are the 
most prominent elevations. Near 
Amonoosuck river, there is a min- 
eral spring, the water of which is 
said to be similar to the Congress 
spring at Saratoga. The land com- 
prehending Littleton was first grant- 
ed in 1764, by the name &f Chis- 
wick. It was re-granted in 1770, 
by the name oi Apihorp. In 1784, 
Apthorp was divided, and the towns 
of Littleton and Dalton incorporat- 
ed. Population, 1830, 1,435. 

Littleton, Mass. 

Middlesex co. The Indians call- 
ed this town A'^ashahah. It is 27 
miles W. N. W. from Boston, and 
10 N. W. from Concord. Incorpo- 
rated, 1715. Population, 1837, 876. 
There are several beautiful ponds 
in the town, and limestone. The 
soil is tolerably good, and adapted 
for the growth of rye and hops. 
There are some manufactures of 
boots, shoes, and straw bonnets. 

Liivemiore, Me. 

Oxford CO. An excellent town- 
ship of land, on both sides of the 
Androscoggin river, 25 miles W. 
from Augusta, and 18 N. E. from 
Paris. Incorporated, 1795. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,456; 1837, 2,681. 
There are three pleasant villages 
in the town, line falls on the river, 
saw mills and other manufactures. 


Wheat crop of 1837, 8,472 bush- 

liOndoudcrry, N. II> 

Rockingham co. Adjoining the 
E. line of the county of Hillsbo- 
rough. This town contains very lit- 
tle waste land, and it is believed, 
has as extensive a body of fertile 
soil as any town in the E. section 
of the state. It lies 25 miles S. S. 
E. from Concord, and 35 S. W, from 
Portsmouth. Population, in 1830, 

Londonderry, which formerly in- 
cluded the present town of Derry, 
was settled in 1719, by a colony of 
Presbyterians, from the vicinity of 
the city of Londonderry, in the N. 
of Ireland, to which place their an- 
cestors had emigrated about a cen- 
tury before from Scothmd. They 
were a part of 120 families, chielly 
from three parishes, who with their 
religious instructors came to New 
England in the summer of 1718. 
In October,^ 1718, they applied to 
the government of Ma'=isachusetts 
for the grant of a township, and 
received assurances that a grant 
should be made them when they 
should select a place for its location. 
After some time spent in viewing 
the country, they selected the tract 
afterwards composing the town of 
Londonderry, at first known by the 
name of JVutfield. In 1719, six- 
teen families, accompanied by Rev. 
James McGregore, one of the cler- 
gymen who had emigrated from 
Ireland with them, took possession 
of the tract, and on the day of 
their arrival attended religious ser- 
vices and a sermon under an oak 
on the east shore of P)eaver pond. 
The inhabitants of Londonderry in 
1720, purchased the Indian title, 
and although it was long a frontier 
town, were never molested by the 
Indians. They introduced the cul- 
ture of the potatoe, a vegetable till 
then unknown in New England, 
and the manufacture of linen cloth, 
which, though long since declined, 

was for many years a considerable 
source of their early prosperity. 

Rev. Matthew Clark, sec- 
ond minister of Londonderry, was 
a native of Ireland, Avho had in 
early life been an officer in the 
army, and distinguished himself in 
the defence of the city of London- 
derry, when besieged by the army 
of King James I'l. A. D. ,1683-9. 
He afterwards relinquished a mili- 
tary life for the clerical profession. 
He possessed a strong mind, mark- 
ed by a considerable degree of ec- 
centricity. He died January 25, 
1735, and was borne to the grave, 
at his particular request, by his for- 
mer companions in arms, of whom 
there were a considerable number 
among the early settlers of this 
town ; several of whom had been 
made free from taxes throughout 
the British dominions by King Will- 
iam, for their bravery in that mem- 
orable siege. 

A company of 70 m,en from this 
town, under the command of Capt. 
George Reid, were in the battle of 
Breed's hill, and about the same 
number were iu that at Benning- 
ton, in which Capt. David M'Clary, 
one of their citizens, a distinguish- 
ed and brave officer, was killed. 
Major-general John Stark and Col. 
George Reid, officers of the army 
of the revolution, were natives ©f 
thi^ town. 

LiOiitlonderrj', Vt. 

Windliam co. West river passes 
though this town and receives sev- 
eral tributaries in it. The land on 
the streams is rich and fertile ; th» 
uplands are good for grazing, ex- 
cept those parts that are mountain- 
ous. First settled, 1774. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,302. It lies 28 miles 
S. W. from Windsor, and 30 N. E. 
from Bennington. 

liOug^ Island Sound. 

This inland sea washes the wh'olt 
southern boundary of Connecticut, 
and is formed by Long Island, in the 


state of New York. This island 
extends from Montauk Point, off 
Stonington, to' the harbor of New 
York. Its length is 120 miles. 
The widest pait, 20 miles, is off 
New Haven ; the nanowest parts, 
on the border of New England, are 
off the mouth of Connecticut river, 
about 8 miles, and off Greenwich, 
or Saio Pits, 7 miles. 

This Sound, as far as Hurl Gate, 
is navigable for vessels of any bur- 
then, and the passage to and from 
the sea round Montauk, is remark- 
ably easy at any time of tide, and 
in all weather. See Judith Point. 
Hurl Gate, soraetimes called Hell 
Gate, but properly Horll Gatt, 
a Dutch term, signifying a whirl- 
pool, is a narrow strait of difficult 
passage between Long and New 
York Islands. At half tide the 
current runs 7 or 8 miles an hour. 
It contains numerous whirlpools, is 
rocky and bears a threatening as- 
pect; but good pilots navigate it 
with ease when the tide is favora- 
ble. Steam-boats press through at 
all times of tide. Through this 
passage a vast amount of the pro- 
ductions of Connecticut and Rhode 
Island pass to New York market. 

A survey for a ship canal, uniting 
these waters and Narraganset bay 
with Boston harbor, was commenc- 
ed by the government of the Uni- 
ted States in 1827. From a tide 
lock at Braintree, in Boston harbor, 
to a tide lock at Somerset, Mass., 
on Taunton river, the distance is 36 
miles. The summit level is at 
Randolph, Mass., 134 feet above 
high water mark at Boston. A ship 
canal in this direction, or one across 
Cape Cod, at Sandwich, would save 
many lives, and a vast amount of 

Some of the distances from Prov- 
idence, and along the northern coast 
of this Sound, to the city of New 
York, are here given. 

From Providence to Newport, 30 
irfiles:— to Judith Point, 11—41 :— 
to the mouth of Stonington har- 

bor, 27 — 68 : — to the mouth of New 
London harbor, 8--76 : — to the mouth 
of Connecticut river, 13 — 89 : — to 
the mouth of New Haven harbor, 
27— 116:— to Stratford Point, 10— 
126 : — to the mouth of Fairfield har- 
bor, 6—132 ;— to Norwalk, 8—140 : 
— to Greenwich, or Saw Pits, 15 — 
ISo :— to Throg's Point, 14—169 :— 
to Hurl Gate, 6 — 175: — to New 
York, 8 mi!es, making the distance 
from Providence to New York, by 
water, 183 miles. 

As the rail-road from Boston to 
Albany, although in good progress, 
is not completed; and as}^ of 
our friends at the north visiting the 
interior of the state of New York 
tind it more agreeable to pass 
through the city of New York and 
up the Hudson river, rather than 
cross the countr}^, we think it may 
be useful to give some of the dis- 
tances on that noble river, from the 
city of New York to the city of 

Note. — w. denotes u*est side, e. 
east side. 

From New York to Hoboken,w. 
2 miles : — to Manhattanville, e. 6 — 
8 :— to Fort Lee, w. 2—10 :— to 
King'sBridge,.3— 13:— (The Palis- 
adoes, perpendicular cliffs of great 
elevation, on the west bank of the 
river, commence at Hoboken, and 
extend 20 miles to Tappan bay) to 
Fort Independence, e. 2 — 15: — to 
Tarrytown, e. 12 — 27 : — to Sing 
Sing, e. 5 — 32 : — to Stony Point 
light-house, w. 8—40 :— to Fort 
Fayette, Verplanck's Point, e. 1 — 
41 : — to Dunderburgh Mountain, 
w. and Pcckskill, e. 2—43 :— (Here 
we enter the justly celebrated 
Highlands, pronounced by every 
honest Yankee to be equal if not 
superior to any scenery of the kind 
in his own country) to St. Antho- 
ny's Nose, e. and Forts Montgome- 
ry and Clinton, w. 3 — 46 : — to But- 
termilk Falls, w. 4—50 :— to West 
Point — Fort Putnam, w. 2 — 52: — 
to West Mountain, w. and Cold 


Spring, e. 4 — 56: — to Newbur2;h, 
w. 5—61 :— to Hamburgh, e. 7— 
6S: — to Poughkeepsie, e. 4 — 72: — 
to Hyde Park, e. 9— SI:— to Lew- 
is' Landing, e. and Esopus, w. 5 — 
86: — to Kingston Landing, w. and 
Rhinebeck Landing, e. 4 — 90 : — 
to Upper Red Hook Landing, e. and 
Ulster, w. 11—101 :— to ''Catskill 
Landing, w. 9 — 110: — to Hudson, 
e. and Athens, w. 6 — 116: — to 
Coxsackie Landing, w, 8 — 124 : — 
to Kinderhook Landing, e.3 — 127: — 
to CcEinans, w. 5 — 132 : — tc the 
Overslaugh, (sand bars) 9 — 141 : — 
to Albany, w. 3 — 144 : — to Troy, e. 
6 — 150. The whole di-^tance from 
Boston to Troy, by this route, is 357 

At Catskill Landing, visitors to 
the Catskill mountains stop. Pine 
Orchard Hotel, a splendid building, 
is 12 miles distant. This Mountain 
House is 2,274 feet above the tide 
of the Hudson. A few years ago 
this enchanting spot was a wilder- 

" From this lofty eminence all 
inequalities of surface are overlook- 
ed. A seemingly endless succes- 
sion of woods and waters — farms 
and villasces, towns and cities, are 
spread out as upon a boundless map. 
Far beyond rise the Tagkaunuc 
mountains, and the highlands of 
Connecticut and Massachusetts. To 
the left, and at a still greater dis- 
tance, the Green mountains of Ver- 
mont stretch away to the north, and 
their blue summits and the blue sky 
mingle together. The beautiful 
Hudson, studded with islands, ap- 
pears narrowed in the distance, 
with steam-boats almost constantly 
in sight; while vessels of every 
description, spreading their white 
canvas to the breeze, are moving 
rapidly over its surface, or idly 
loitering in the calm. These may 
be traced to the distance of nearly 
seventy miles with the naked eye ; 
and again at times all below is en- 
veloped in dark clouds and rolling 


mist, which, driven about by the 
wind, is constantly assuming new, 
wild, and fantastic forms. From 
the Pine Orchard a ride or walk of 
a mile or two brings you to the 
Kauterskill falls. Here the outlet 
of two small lakes leaps down a 
perpendicular fall of 130 feet — then 
glides away through a channel 
worn in the rock, to a second fall 
of 80 {ect. Below this it is lost in 
the dark ravine through which it 
finds its way to the valley of the 

Troy is a beautiful city. It lies 
on the east side of Hudson river, 
in the county of Rensselaer, New 
York, at the head of navigation, 
and at the junction of the northern 
and western canals with that noble 
river. The city is on an elevated 
plain, regularly laid out: the streets 
are wide and well shaded : the 
buildings are uniformly neat, and 
many of them in a style of superior 
elegance. St. Paul's church, and 
the new Presbyterian, are splendid 
edifices, and display great taste in 
their construction. 

The city of Troy is abundantly 
supplied with excellent water from 
the neighboring hills, at an expense 
of $150,000. The source of the 
water is 75 feet above the level of 
the city. At the corner of every 
street are hydrants, and a hose plac- 
ed on these sends the water up 
higher and with greater force than 
a fire engine. 

The squares and private gardens 
are ornamented with perpetual wa- 
ter fountains. 

In Washington Square is an Ital- 
ian marble fountain, chaste and clas- 
sic in its construction, in the centre 
of the city. It sends up the water 
ten or fifteen feet, and in its descent 
resembles the weeping willow. — 
This significant emblem of purity 
gives this beautiful square an addi- 
tional charm. 

Two streams, affording immense 


water facilities, empty into the 
Hudson within the limits of the 
city, and one of them rolls down a 
beautiful cascade, a short distance 
from Washington square ; an ob- 
ject worthy of a visit from the curi- 
ous traveler. These streams move 
the machinery of numerous mills. 

About a quarter of a mile from 
the centre of the city, Mount Ida 
rears its head three or four hundred 
feet in height, from whose summit 
every building in the city, the 
windings of the canals and river, 
the foaming of the Mohawk, and 
the neighboring towns of Albany, 
Waterford, and Lansingburgh, are 
distinctly seen. 

Troy was incorporated as a vil- 
lage in 1801. It then had a popu- 
lation of 2,000. Population, 1810, 
3,895. In 1816 it became a city. 
Population, 1820, 5,264; 1825, 
7,875; 1330,11,405; 1836,18,000. 

Troy has risen to its present state 
of opulence and population by its 
favorable position for trade, but 
more especially the enterprize ami 
economical habits of its people. — 
Many of the tirst settlers of Troy 
came from New England in humble 
circumstances. Some of those who 
thus came have amassed princely 
fortunes, and acquired a name more 
valuable than gold. A recent 
Blayor of the city came from the 
east as a day laborer. The late 
chief magistrate of the justly styled 
" Empire State," a New Englander, 
was found in 1822 soliciting the 
patronage of the Trojans as an at- 
torney at law. Troy was formerly 
called Vanderheyden, in honor of 
a worthy Dutchman whose farm 
comprised the most compact part of 
the city. 

A notice of Mrs.Willard's Fe- 
male Seminary must not be omitted 
in this brief account of the "Foun- 
tain City," as it is an institution of 
rare excellence, conducted by a 
lady of extraordinary attainments. 
This school was commenced at 

Troy in 1S21, since which tiine a 
commodious building, on a pleas- 
ant site, has been erected, 130 feet 
by 40. The number of scholars 
varies from 200 to 275. They come 
from every state in the union, the 
Canadas, the West Indies, and even 
from Europe, but chiefly from the 
state of New York and New Eng- 
land. Mrs. Willard's plan of edu- 
cation has received the approbation 
of some of the wisest men in Eu- 
rope. Dr. Combe quotes it, in his 
essay on education, with unqualifi- 
ed approbation. This institution is 
conducted almost entirely by fe- 
males : it is, in fact, a female col- 
lege, and many are the degrees of 
usefulness conferred by its learnetl 
principal on its numerous and love- 
ly graduates;' 

The institution is incorporated, 
and it cannot fail of receiving the 
best wislies of the community. — 
May no event occur to mar its pros- 
perity and usefulness. 

The traveler will visit the "Foui> 
tain City" again, on his way from 
Champlain Lake. See Burlington, 
Vt., in the Register. 

Liong MeadoAV, Mass:. 

Ham.pden co. This is a beauti- 
ful town with a fine soil, on the E. 
side of Connecticut river, 97 miles 
S. W. by W. from Boston, 5 S. from 
Springfield, and 22 N. from Hart- 
ford, Ct. Incorporated, 1783. Pop- 
ulation, 1337, 1,251. There are 
several tanneries in the town, and 
some other manufactures, but t!;je 
inhabitants are generally engaged 
in cultivating the soil. The Indian 
name of the place was Massacsich. 

Long Lake, Me. 

This is a sheet of water at the 
northern part of Piscataquis county, 
about 15 miles in length and 2 in 
width, which empties by Namjam- 
skillecook river into Temiscouata 
lake, the head waters of Madawas- 
ka river. It lies about 210 miles 
N. by E. from Augusta. 


Iiong Pond, Me. 

See Bridgeton. 

Hioudou, N. H. 

Merrimack co. Soucook river 
passes from Gilmanton S. through 
Loudon, furnishing valuable mill 
I)rivileges. There is sonic good in- 
tervale on ils borders. Loudon was 
originaUy a part of Canterbury ; 
was incorporated, 1773. Loudon 
lies 7 miles N. E. from Concord. 
Population, ISaO, 1,642. 

Iiovell, Me. 

Oxford CO, This town embraces 
Kezer pond, a large sheet of water, 
and other ponds whose outlet is into 
the Saco, at Fryeburgh. Lovell 
lies 10 miles N. fiom Fryeburgh, 
20 W. S. W- from Paris, and 07 W. 
S. W. from Augusta. Incorpora- 
ted, 1800. Population, 1837, 876. 

" In this town are Lovell's Falls, 
which are an object of great natu- 
ral curiosity. Where the water 
makes over into the tremendous ba- 
gin below, it falls perpendicularly 
40 feet. Above the falls, there is 
a chain of eight ponds, partly in 
Lovell and partly in Waterford, con- 
nected by small natural dams one 
or two rods in width, through which 
there are sluiceways, which will 
admit the passage of a common sail 
boat. The scenery of the moun- 
tains and ascending lands in the vi- 
cinity is rural and beautiful." 

liOwell, Me. 

Penobscot co. Formerly called 
Huntressville. Incorporated by its 
present name in 1838. " See Down 

liowell, Vt. 

Orleans co. This town was first 
settled in 1806, and was called Kel- 
leyvale for a number of years. It 
lies 36 miles N. from Montpelier, 
and 10 S. W. from Irasburgh. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 314. This township 
is mountainous, and the fountain 
head of Missisque river. 

liO'well, Mass. 

Middlesex co. County town. — • 
This city, the American Manches- 
ter, is remarkable for the extent of 
its water power, its rapid growth, 
and the height to which it has rais- 
ed the American character, by the 
perfection of its manufactures. 

Lowell has risen to eminence by 
the remarkable energy and skill of 
a few individuals ; among whom 
Patrick T. Jackson, Esq. of 
Boston, and the late Kirk Boot, 
Esq. were distinguished. 

It lies on the S. side of Merri- 
mack river, below Pawtucket Falls, 
and at the union of Concord river 
with the Merrimack. 

In 1815, the site where the city 
stands was a wilderness, with the 
exception of a few lonely dwell- 
ings. In 1824, Lowell, then a part 
of Chelmsford, was incorporated as 
a town. In 1835, it became a city. 
Lowell is situated 25 miles N. from 
Boston, 14 N. N. E. from Concord, 
37 N. E. from Worcester, and 38 S. 
S. E. from Concord, N. H. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 6,474; 1837, 18,010. 

The hydraulic power of this place 
i-3 produced by a canal, of a mile 
and a half in length, 60 feet in 
width, and 8 feet in depth, extend- 
ing from the head of Pawtucket 
Falls to Concord river. This canal 
has locks at its outlet into Concord 
river ; it also serves for the passage 
of boats up and down the Merri- 
mack. From this canal, the water 
is conveyed by lateral canals to va- 
rious places where it is wanted for 
use, and then discharged, either in- 
to the Merrimack or Concord. 

The canal is owned by " The 
Proprietors of the Locks and Canals 
on Merrimack river." This com- 
pany was incorporated in 1792, and 
have a capital of $600,000. They 
dispose of lands and mill privileges, 
and own the machine shop, and 
carry on the manufacture of ma- 
chinery. The first cotton mill at 
this place was erected in 1822. 

The whole fall of the Merrimack 


at this place is 30 feet, and the 
quantity of water never falls short 
of 2,000 cubic feet per second, 
and is very rarely so low as that. 
This quantity of water is estimated 
to carry 286,000 spindles, with all 
the preparatory machinery. There 
is therefore an unimproved water 
power at this place sufficient to 
carry eleven mills of the usual size, 
making the whole number of mills 
39, when all the water is improved. 

There are 10 corporations, with a 
capital stock of $8,250,000: 28 mills 
besides machine shops, print works, 
&c., all warmed in cold weather by 
hot air or steam. 

There are 150,404 spindles, and 
4,861 looms. There are 51,147,200 
yards of cloth manufactured per an- 
num ; 12,220,000 yards dyed and 
printed, and 16,161,600 lbs. of cot- 
ton used annually, besides a large 
quantity of wool. 

There are annually used in these 
manufactories, 11,000 tons of An- 
thracite coal, 4,810 cords of wood, 
500,000 bushels of charcoal, 63,439 
gallons of oil, 510,000 pounds of 
starch, and 3,800 barrels of flour 
for starch in the print works and 

The number of females employ- 
ed in the mills, is 6,295 : number of 
males, 2,047. Total number of 
hands, 8,342. The average wages 
of females per week, clear of board, 
is $1,75; of males, 80 cents per 
day, clear of board. The average 
amount of wages paid per month 
is $106,000. 

The goods manufactured in these 
mills consist of sheetings, shirtings, 
drillings, calicoes, broadcloths, cas- 
simeres, carpets, rugs, negro cloth ; 
machinery for mills, and for en- 
gines and cars for rail-roads. The 
quality of these goods is general- 
ly superior to those imported. The 
annual amount of goods manu- 
factured by these mills is about 

The mills are built of brick, and 
are about 157 feet in length, 45 in 

breadth, and from 4 to 7 stories in 

The Locks and Canals Machine 
Shop, included among the 28 mills, 
can furnish machinery complete for 
a mill of 5,000 spindles in four 
months, and lumber and materials 
are always at command, with which 
to build or rebuild a mill in that 
time, if required. When building 
mills, the Locks and Canals Com- 
pany employ directly and indirect- 
ly from a thousand to twelve hun- 
dred hands. 

There are also in Lowell 10 
powder mills, a flour mill, glass 
works, the I^owell hleachery, flan- 
nel mills, and manufactories of cards, 
whips, planing and reed machines, 
boots, shoes; brass, copper and tin 
wares, carriages, harnesses, iron 
castings, &c. &,c. ; the annual pro- 
ceeds of which amount to about 
$500,000, employing about 200 

Lowell is finely situated in regard 
to health : it is surrounded by pleas- 
ant hills and valleys, and seated on 
a rapid stream. We are enabled to 
state on aood authority that 6 of 
the females out of 10 enjoy better 
health than before being employed 
in the mills, and that one half of the 
males derive the same advantage. 

Lowell is very handsomely locat- 
ed : it is laid out into wide streets j 
all the buildings are of recent con- 
struction, and in a style of neatness 
and elegance. 

With regard to the future pros- 
perity of this interesting city, noth- 
ing need be said to those who know 
that it was founded, and is princi- 
pally sustained, by the most emi- 
nent capitalists of Boston ; a city 
renowned for its enterprize, wealth, 
and public spirit. 

To strangers we would say — visit 
it. It is a pleasant ride of about an 
hour from Boston, by the rail-road. 
Foreigners view Lowell with ad- 
miration ; and every American who 
sees it feels proud that such a city 
exists on this side of the Atlantic. 


Tivibec, Me. 

Washington co. Lubec compris- 
es a township of good land, lying 
at the northeasterly corner of the 
state, and contains a point of land 
extending easterly on which West 
Quoddy Head light-house is situa- 
ted, at the western entrance into 
Passamaquoddy bay. This place 
possesses an admirable harbor for 
vessels of any draught of water; it 
is easy of access and never obstruct- 
ed by ice. There are also within 
the town a number of bays, coves, 
and several islands. Grand Menan 
stretches oft' the mouth of the har- 
bor on the E. 5 or 6 miles distant, 
and Campo Ballo, another English 
island, lies very near and protects 
the harbor on the north. This 
town was taken from Eastport in 
1811, and contained 380 inhabit- 
ants. Population, 1820, 1430; 1830, 
2,081; 1837, 4,161. 

Lubec, in common with Eastport, 
enjoys a very extensive trade with 
the Bay of Fundy and the great 
waters of Passamaquoddy bay. 
The village, or principal place of 
business, is beautifully located on a 
point of land jutting out into the 
harbor ; it makes a fine appearance, 
commands an active trade, and is 
flourishing in its navigation and 
fishery. It lies 3 miles S. from 
Eastport, 30 E. from Machias, 173 
E. by N. from Augusta, and 31 S. 
E. from Calais, at the head of navi- 
gation on the St. Croix river. 

liUcllo-sv, Vt. 

Windsor co. Black and Williams' 
rivers give this town a good water 
power. It is likewise watered by 
a number of large ponds well stor- 
ed with fish. Ludlow was first set- 
tled in 17S4. It lies 61 miles S. 
from Montpelier, and IS S. W. from 
Windsor. Population, 1830, 1,227. 

The town is mountainous, but 
contains good land for the grazing 
of sheep and other cattle. The 
village is very pleasant, and (he 
centre of considerable trade with 


the surrounding country. Some 
valuable minerals have been discov- 
ered here. 

liUtlloAv, Mass. 

Hampden CO. This town lies N. 
of Wilbraham, and is .^^parated from 
it by Chickopee river. It is 84 
miles W. by S, from Boston, and 10 
N, E. fiom Springfield. Incorpo- 
rated, 1774. The Chickopee here 
is a large stream, and adds much to 
the beauty of the place. There 
are two cotton mills in the town, 
and manufactures of palm-leaf hats 
and ploughs: total value, in one 
year, $160,850. Population, 1837, 

JLunenburgli, Vt. 

Essex CO. On the west side of 
Connecticut river, and watered by 
Neal's branch and pond, and Cat- 
bow branch ; — good mill streams. 
Some of the land is very good, but 
the most of it is stony, appearently 
of diluvial formation, consisting of 
rounded masses of granite embed- 
ded in clay and gravel. This is a 
good grazing town, and produces 
some cattle, and butter and cheese 
for mai'ket. First settled about 
1770. Population, in 1830, 1,054. 
Lunenburgh lies 45 miles E. N. 
E. from Montpelier, and 8 S. from 

liuneuburgli, Mass. 

Worcester co. The soil of this 
town is good, the surface uneven 
and watered by some branches of 
Nashua river. Considerable amount 
of books are printed and bound in 
this town, and there are some man- 
ufactures of palm-leaf hats, chairs, 
cabinet ware, leather, boots and 
shoes. Lunenburgh is a very pleas- 
ant town : 42 miles N. W. from 
Boston, and 24 N. from Worcester. 
Incorpoiated, 1728. Population, 
1837, 1,250. 

liyman, Me. 

York CO, This is a pleasant 


town, watered by several pondj 
which empt}^ some into the Saco, 
and others into the Kenriebunk and 
Mousum. It lies 87 miles S. W. 
from Augusta, 5 E. from Alfred and 
6 N. N. W. from Kennebunk. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,528. 

liyman, N, H. 

Grafton co. On Connecticut riv- 
er. This town is 13 miles above 
Haverhill, 90 miles N. N. W. from 
Concord. There is one considera- 
ble elevation, called Lyman's moun- 
tain. The N. W. branch of Burn- 
ham's i-iver has its source from this 
mountain. There are several ponds 
in the E. part of Lyman, through 
the largest of which Burnham's 
river has its course. The lower bar 
of the Fifteen Mile falls is in this 
town. Carleton's falls are several 
miles below, and below these is 
Stevens' ferry, which communi- 
cates with Barnet. Lyman was 
granted in 1761. Population, in 
1830, 1,321. 

liyme, N, H. 

Grafton co. This town is 6 miles 
S. from Orford, and 54 N. W. from 
Concord. The soil here is similar 
to that of other towns on Connecti- 
cut river, with this difference, thdt 
there is a Less proportion of inter- 
vale, and a less difference between 
that directly adjoining the river and 
the other parts of the town. There 
are three small streams passing 
through Lyme and emptying into 
Connecticut river. There are two 
small ponds, the largest of which is 
called Ports pond. There is a moun- 
tain, called Smart's mountain, lying 
in the N. E. part of the town. — 
Lyme was granted 1761. The town 
was settled 1764. Population, in 
1830, 1,804. 

LiYsuCf Ct. 

New London co. Lyme is situ- 
ated at the mouth of Connecticut 
river, on the east side, opposite to 
Saybrook. It is a pleasant town, 

generally of good soil, but greatly 
diversilied in regard to surface : 
some parts are mountainous and 
rocky, while others are level, with 
large tracts of salt meadow. The 
town is watered by several streams 
and ponds, and the shores on the 
sound and river are indented by 
small bays and harbors, which af- 
ford the town some navigable privi- 
leges. There are several neat vil- 
lages in the town, a cotton mill, 
2 woolen factories, and about 6,000 
sheep. Lyme was first settled in 
1664. Incorporated, 1667. It lies 
40 miles S. E. from Hartford, and 40 
E. from New Haven. Population, 
1830, 4,084. Its Indian name was 

Among the first settlers was 
Matthew Griswold, the ances- 
tor of two governors, and of a nu- 
merous and highly respected family 
in the state. 

A tracf of land, once an Indian 
reservation, was for some time in 
dispute between the towns of Lyme 
and New London. It was finally 
agreed to settle their respective ti- 
tles to the land in controversy, by a 
combat between two champions, to 
be cho3en by each for that purpose. 
The combatants were chosen, and 
on a day mutually appointed, the 
champions appeared in the field, 
and fought with their fists till vic- 
tory declared in favor of each of the 
Lyme combatants. Lyme then qui- 
etly took possession of the contro- 
verted tract, and has held it un- 
disputed, to the present day. 

Deacon Marvin, a large land 
holder and an exemplary man, was 
exceedingly eccentric in some oi 
his notions. His courtship, it is 
said, was as follows : — Having one 
day mounted his horse, with only a 
sheep skin for a saddle, he rode in 
front of the house where Betty Lee 
lived, and without dismounting re- 
quested Betty to come to him ; on 
her coming, he told her that the 
Lord had sent him there to marry 
her. Betty, without much hesi- 


tation, replied, The Lord's will be 

The following is on the Deacon's 
monument in the grave yard, dated, 
October 18, 1737. 

This Deacon aged G8 : 
Is freed on earth from serving 
May for a crown no longer wait : 

Lyme's Captain Reynold Marvin. 

liyudeborougli, X. H. 

Hillsborough co. This town is 
10 miles W. N. W. from Amherst, 
and 35 S. S. W. from Concord. It 
is an elevated township, having a 
considerable mountain which di- 
vides it from E. to W. There is, in 
the N. E. part of the town, below 
the mountain, a plain, where there 
is a small village, pleasantly situat- 
ed near Piscataquog river. The 
soil of this town, though stony, is 
deep and strong. For grazing it is, 
perhaps, not exceeded by any town 
in the county. The streams are 
small, originating principally from 
sources in the town, and running 
N. and S. from the mountain. — 
Lyndeborough was originally grant- 
ed in 1690. In 1753, Benjamin 
Lynde, Esq. of Salem, purchased a 
considerable part of the township, 
and adjoining lands. From him, 
the place, when it was incorporated 
in 1764, took tiie name of Lyndebo- 
rough. It was settled as early as 
1750. On the 15th of Nov., 1S09, 
three children were burnt in a barn, 
while their parents were attending 
an installation at JNIont Vernon. — 
Population, in 1830, 1,147. 

liyudon, Vt. 

Caledonia co. First settled, 1788. 
It lies 34 miles N. E. from Mont- 
pelier, and 10 N. N. E. from Dan- 
ville. Population, 1830, 1,822. 
Lyndon is one of the best townships 
in the state : its surface is undulat- 
ing, with a soil of rich loam, free 
from stone, easy to cultivate, and 
very productive of wool, cattle, 
pork, butter and cheese. It is ad- 
mirably well watered by the Pas- , 

sumpsic and some of its tributaries. 
Two important falls of that river 
are in the town, one of 65 feet in 
the distance of 30 rods ; the other 
of 18 feet. These are called Great 
and Little Falls, and afford a water 
power of great extent. Agaric 
mineral, used for chalk, and a good 
substitute for Spanish white, is found 
here. The principal village is very 
pleasant and the seat of considera- 
ble business. The scenery about 
the town is picturesque and inter- 
esting. There is probably no inte- 
rior town in the state that contains 
more valuable water privileges than 

Liynu, Mass. 

Essex CO. Lynn is one of the 
most flourishing and beautiful towns 
in the state. It lies on a plain, sur- 
rounded by rising ground, except 
on the east, where it opens to Lynn 
bay, embracing the romantic pen- 
insula of JVahant, with its beauti- 
ful beach, and Phillips' Point, both 
highly esteemed resorts for all class- 
es of people ; — the sick, the serious, 
and the gay. The soil of the town 
is fertile and well cultivated. It is 
watered by the river Saugus, the 
Indian name of the place. The 
town is neatly built on wide and 
pleasant streets, and contains a pop- 
ulation of about 10,000. It lies 9 
miles N. E. from Boston, and 5 S. 
W. from Salem. 

Lynn has risen to wealth and 
importance by the enterprise and 
industry of its people, in the manu- 
facture of shoes, particularly for 
which, more than any other town 
in the country, it is justly celebra- 
ted. The manufacture of ladies' 
shoes was commenced here before 
the revolutionary war, and it is cu- 
rious to observe the great changes 
that have occurred in the fashion 
and manufacture of that article. 

" In olden times," says the New- 
buryport Herald, "ladies' shoes 
were made in Lynn of common 
woolen cloth, or coarse curried 


leather; afterwards of stuffs such 
as cassimere, everlasting, shalloon 
and russet; some of satin and da- 
maskjOthers of satin lasting and flor- 
entine. They were generally cut 
with straps, for large buckles, 
which were worn in those days by 
women as well as men. Ladies' 
shoes, 70 years ago, were made 
mostly with white and russet rands, 
and stitched very line on the rand 
with white-waxed thread. Some 
were made turn pumps and channel 
pumps, all having wooden heels, 
called cross-cut, co)n7non,and court 
heels. Then the cork, plug, and 
wedge or spring heels, came into 
use. The sole-leather was all 
worked with the flesh side out. 

" Previous to the war of the revo- 
lution, the market for Lynn shoes 
was principally confined to New 
England ; some few, however, 
were exported to Philadelphia. 
Many individuals v/ith small capi- 
tal carried on the business in tlieir 
own families. Fathers, sons, ap- 
prentices, and one or two journey- 
men, all in one small shop, with a 
chimney in one corner, formed the 
whole establishment. 

"After the revolution, the business 
assumed a different aspect. Enter- 
prising individuals embarked in the 
business in good earnest; hired 
a great number of journeymen ; 
built large shops, took apprentices, 
and drove the business. Master 
workmen shipped their shoes to 
the south, so that Lynn shoes took 
the place of English and other im- 
ported shoes. Morocco and kid 
leather, suitable for shoes, began 
to be imported fi-om England, which 
soon took the place of stuffs. Roan 
shoes were now little called for; 
and the improvement of working 
the sole-leather grain side out, was 
now generally adopted, making 
what is called duff bottoms. About 
the year 1794, wooden heels began 
to go out of use, by the introduc- 
tion of leather spring heels. This 
improvement progressed gradually. 

until the heel making, which was 
once a good business, was totally 

In the year ending April 1, 1837, 
there were manufactured in Lynn 
2,543,929 pairs of shoes, and 2,220 
pairs of boots, valued at $1,689,793. 
In this manufacture, 2,631 males 
and 2,554 females were employed ; 
total number, 5,185. During that 
time the manufacture of vessels, 
cordage, tin ware, oil casks, moroc- 
co leather and shoe boxes amounted 
to $188,409. During the same pe- 
riod there were 5 vessels employed 
in the whale and 14 in the cod and 
mackerel fishery. Besides this, 
4,608,000 pounds of cod, haddock, 
halibut and other fish were tak- 
en in boats and sold fresh. The to- 
tal value of the fisheries amounted 
to $170,320. Total value of the 
manufactures and fisheries of Lynn, 
in one year, $2,048,522. Lynn 
was first settled in 1629. Incorpo- 
rated, 1637. 

Ijyiiiifield, Mass. 

Essex CO. The surface of this 
town is uneven, and the soil rather 
hard and unproductive. It contains 
some good farms, a number of pleas- 
ant ponds, and is watered by Ips- 
wich river on the north. There is 
a woolen mill in the town, and man- 
ufactures of bar iron, ploughs, boots 
and shoes; annual value about 
$50,000. Incorporated, 1782. — 
Population, 1837, 674. Lynnfield 
is 12 miles N. from Boston, and 9 
W. by N. from Salem. 

rilacliias Kivers and. Bay, Me. 

The river in TVashington County 
is formed of two branches, which 
receive their head waters from sev- 
eral ponds, at the distance of about 
40 miles, in a N. W. direction. — 
The eastern branch passes through 
East Machias. These branches 
unite near the line of Machias and 
Machias Port, and in their course 
produce a great and valuable hy- 
draulic power. 


Machias and Little Machias riv- 
ers, in Penobscot county, are im- 
portant tributaries to the Aroostook. 
Their course is easterly, and their 
mouths meet near each other about 
30 miles W. N. W. from Mars Hill. 

J\[achias Bay sets up from the 
sea about 10 miles and meets Ma- 
chias Port. This bay is 4 or 5 miles 
in width at its mouth, and contains 
in its bosom several coves, harbors, 
and beautiful islands: Cross island 
lying at its mouth is the largest, 
being about 3 miles by 2. 

Macliias, Me. 

Washington co. County town. 
This was a famous lodgement of the 
Indians. First settled, 1762. It 
was incorporated in 1784, and was 
the first corporate town between 
Penobscot and St. Croix rivers. It 
formerly comprised East Machias 
and Machias Port. The village is 
situated on the east side of the 
west branch, and near the mouth 
of Middle river. It contains the 
county building, numerous saw 
mills, and has an extensive trade, 
particularly in lumber. Machias 
lies 143 miles E. N. E. from Augus- 
ta. Population, 1837, 1,239. this 
is a pleasant and interesting town. 

Macliias Port, Me. 

Washington co. Incorporated 
in 1826. It is the southern part of 
Old Machias, and extends north- 
ward to the union of the branches 
of Machias river. It has a great 
number of mills, and is very exten- 
sively engaged in the lumber trade. 
It is a port of entry : — it has an 
excellent harbor, and considerable 
navigation in the coasting and fish- 
ing business. The tonnage of the 
district in 1837, was 8,.360'^tons. In 
this part of Old Machias the Ply- 
mouth Colony established a trading 
house in 1630. It was subsequent- 
ly occupied by the French for sev- 
eral years. Machias Port lies 146 
miles E. N. E. from Augusta, pnd 

3 S. from Machias. Population, 
1837, 821. 

Madaniiscontis River, Me., 

Rises in a large pond, and emp- 
ties, from the N. W. into Penobscot 
river, about 45 miles above Ban- 

Madawaska River, Me. 

This river is in the county of Pe- 
nobscot, and is the outlet of Temis- 
couata lake, and other large bodies 
of water in the noithern part of the 
county bordering on the line of 
Lower Canada. This river and 
these lakes, with their numerous 
tributaries, water a country of great 
extent, and which is said to equal 
any country in the world in fertili- 
ty, even the luxuriant prairies of the 
" boundless west." The course of 
these waters is N. W. and traverse a 
distance of more than 100 miles. 
From the mouth of Madawaska in- 
to the St. John's to Augusta is about 
240 miles N. N. E. 

Mada^vaska, Me. 

Washington co. This town was 
incorporated in 1831, and comprises 
the territory marked F. and K. on 
Greenleaf's map. It is bounded E. 
by the British Province of New 
Brunswick, N. near the passage of 
St. John's, across the line of the 
state ; and W. and S. by a vast and 
fertile territory between the Aroos- 
took and St. John's rivers ; at pres- 
ent but thinly inhabited. This town 
was the place where the land agents 
of Maine were taken, by order of 
the British government, and impris- 
oned at Frederickton, N. B. In 
1837, Madawaska was supposed to 
contain a population of 2,487. It 
lies about 220 miles N. E. by N. 
from Augusta, and 130 N. W. from 
Frederickton, N. B. 

Madbury, N. H., 

Strafford co., is bounded N. E. 
by Dover, S. W. by Durham and 


Lee, N. W. by Barrington. The 
soil of this town is generally pro- 
ductive. In some parts of the town, 
bog iron ore has been dug up in 
considerable quantities, and in some 
instances red and yellow ochre. — 
Bellamay bank river is the only 
stream of any magnitude, and Bar- 
badoes pond the only considerable 
body of water. This pond lies be- 
tween Dover and Madbury, and is 
120 rods long, 50 wide. Madbury 
formerly constituted a part of the 
ancient town of Dover; but was set 
olf and incorporated May 31, 1755, 
by its pre:?ent name. Population, 
in 1830, 510. 

Madisosa, Me. 

Somerset co. This township lies 
on the E. side of Kennebec river, 
34 miles N. from Augusta and 
bounded S. by Norridgewock. It 
was incorporated in 1804. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,272 ; 1837, 1,608. It 
is watered by a beautiful pond, the 
outlet of which is at Skowhegan. 
There are three pleasant villages in 
he town : — the people are general- 
y husbandmen. The best compli- 
nentthat can be paid to the soil is, 
hat it produced, without any extra- 
)rdinary effort, 10,188 bushels of 
vvheat, in 1837. 

Madison, Ct. 

New Haven co. This town was 
taken from Guilford in 1826. It lies 
on Long Island Sound, and embra- 
ces what is called Hammonasset 
Point. This town lies 18 miles E. 
by S. from New Haven, and 33 S. 
from Hartford. Population, 1830, 
1,809. The soil of the town is 
stony, and naturally hard to culti- 
vate ; but it is made quite produc- 
tive of corn, rye and potatoes by the 
use of white fish, ploughed in. — 
These fish appear in the sound about 
the 1st of June, and continue 3 or 
4 months. They are taken in great 
quantities and are considered an ex- 
cellent manure. They were first 
thus used about the year 179S. — 

About 10,000 of these fish are con-. 
side red a good dressing for an acre 
of land. 

This place has a small harbor and 
some navigation. Ship building is 
the most important mechanical pur- 

The Hon. Thomas Chitten- 
den, for many years governor of 
Vermont, and his brother Ebene- 
ZER Chittenden, a gentleman 
of great mechanical genius, were 
natives of this town. The former 
was born in 1730, and died in 1797. 

The following is the inscription 
on a monument in the grave yard, 
in memory of an old sea captain. 

Though Boreas' blasts and Neptune's 

Have toss'd me to and fro, 
In spite of both by God's decree 

I harbor here below, 
Where I do at anchor ride 

With many of our fleet ; 
Yet once again I must set sail 

Our Admiral, Christ, to meet. 

Mad Rivers. 

Mad River in J^". H., rises 
among the mountains in the N. E. 
part of Grafton county ; it crosses 
tlie S. E. part of Thornton and falls 
into the Pemigewasset at Campton. 
Mad River, Vt. A rapid stream, 
rises in the high lands S. of War- 
ren, and after passing through 
Waitsfield, it falls into Onion riv- 
er at Moretown. 

JIadrid, Me. 

Franklin co. This township was 
incorporated in 1836. It is watered 
by some of the head branches of 
Sandy river and contains a part of 
Saddleback mountain. The soil is 
excellent and yielded, in 1837, 
3,387 bushels of wheat. Popula- 
tion same year, 351. It lies 25 
miles N. W. from Farraington and 
about 105 N. W. from Augusta. 

Madunlcceiiiili River, Me. 

Penobscot co. A tributary of 


the Penohscot on the W. side, about 
6 miles above the Madamiscontis. 

Maidstone, Vt. 

Essex CO. This mountainous 
township lies on the W. side of 
Connecticut river : it is watered by 

a pleasant pond and by Paul's 
stream. It has some good land, but 
most of it is poor. First settled, 
1770. Population, 1830, 236. It 
lies 54 miles N. E. from Montpelier, 
and 8 N. from Guildhall 


This State was originally granted by James I. to the Plymouth Compa- 
ny, in 1606, by whom it was transferred to Mason and Gorges in 1624. 
This grant comprised all the teiiiiory between Merrimack river and .Sa- 
gadahock. The territory was afterwards purchased by Massachusetts lor 
d£l,250, who obtained a coniirniotion of tl^e charter in 1691, with the ad- 
dition of the residue of Maine J«.nd Nova Scotia, including what is now 
called the Province of New Brunswick. 

This state, formerly the District of ]\Iaine, became independent of 
Massachusetts in 1820. By the Constitution, the legislative power is 
vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, elected annually by 
the people, on the second Monday in September. The number of Sen- 
ators cannot be less than 20, nor more than 31. The number of Repre- 
sentatives cannot be less than 100, nor more than 200. No town or city 
is entitled to more than seven Representatives. 

The executive pCrvver is vested in a Governor, who is chosen annually 


by the people, on the second Monday in September : — His official term 
commences on the first Wednesday in January. 

The Legislature meets at Augusta, on the first Wednesday in Janu- 
ary, annually, on which day seven Counsellors are elected, by joint bal- 
lot of both Houses, to advise the Governor in his executive duties. 

The judicial power of the state is vested in a Supreme Judicial Court, 
and such otlier courts as the Legislature may, from time to time, estab- 
lish. The Judges are appointed by the Governor and Council, and hold 
their offices during good behavior, but not beyond the age of 70 years. 

7'he state of Maine is bounded northwest and north by Lower Canada, 
east by New Brunswick, south by the Atlantic ocean, and west by New 
Hampshire. It is situated between 43° 5', and 48° 3' N. lat. and 70° 
65', and 66^ 47' W. Ion. It contains an area of about 33,000 square miles. 

The surface of the state is diversified by hills and valleys. A tract on 
the west side east of the white mountains, and a part of the north bound- 
ary is mountainous, though not of extraordinary elevations. The high- 
est mountains lie in detached groups, but they are not numerous. 

The range of high land which crosses Vermont and New Hampshire, 
enters the northwest corner of Maine, passing round Chaudiere river 
and the head waters of Megantic lake, in Canada, and running nearly 
parallel with the St. Lawrence river, at the distance of about twenty 
miles, terminates on the gulph of St. Lawrence, near Cape Rosier. — 
This is the " Height of Land" or the " North East Ridge," spoken of in 
the treaty of 1783, between Great Britain and the United States, and 
which was never called in question until 1814, when the British pleni- 
potentiaries at Ghent proposed to the American Commissioners todiscuss 
and revise the boundary, so as to prevent future uncertainty and dispute. 
They stated that they desired a direct communication between Quebec 
and Halifax, and left it to the Americans to demand an equivalent. This 
proposition was refused by the Americans, on the ground that there was 
no question in regard to the limits of their territory. The " disputed ter- 
ritory," so called, includes most of the country north of latitude 46°, in- 
cluding a part of New Hampshire, and most of that large and valuable 
portion of Maine watered by the Madawaska, St. John's, Walloostook, 
Aroostook, and other rivers. This question involves nearly a third part of 
the teriitory of the state. 

In the 2d article of that treaty are the following words : — " Jlnd that 
all disputes v;hich might arise in future, on the subject of boundaries 
of the United States, may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declar- 
ed that tlie following are, and shall be, their boundaries, viz : from the 
northwest angle of JVova Scotia, (New Brunswick) viz : that angle 
which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix 


river to the highlands ; along the said highlands which divide those riv- 
ers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those which 
fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the northwesternmosthead of the Connec- 
ticut river." 

" Our commissioners at Ghent, having successfully resisted every attempt 
for the dismemberment of Maine, agreed upon an article with the British 
commissioners, not to revise or to change the ancient treaty boundary, 
but to run and establish upon the ground that very boundary, without 
any alteration, and to ascertain "the northwest angle of Nova Scotia;" 
its place of beginning. This article is the fifth in the treaty. Under it, 
each party appointed a commissioner. These commissioners disagreed. 
According to the treaty, the question was then referred to the King of the 
Netherlands, as umpire, whose award was rejected by the United States, 
because it did not even profess to decide the controversy according to the 
terms of the submission, but proposed a compromise, by a division of the 
disputed territory between the parties. Great Britian has also since an- 
nounced her abandonment of this award; and now, at the end oi more 
than half a century after the conclusion of the treaty of 1783, the ques- 
tion not only remains unsettled, but threatens to involve the two nations in 
a dangerous di.-pute. 

" The northwest angle of Nova Scotia was a well known point, capa- 
ble of being easily ascertained, ever since the proclamation of 1763, by 
«imply running a due north line from the source of the St. Croix, to in- 
tersect the southern line of the Province of Quebec, which consists of 
the highlands running from the western extremity of the bay of Chaleur, 
to the head of Connecticut river, and dividing those rivers that empty 
themselves into tiie river St. Lawrence from those which fall into the 
Atlantic ocean. It is certain as the laws of nature, that these highlands, 
from which we know that streams do flow in opposite directions, can be 
found on the face of the cotmtry. 

" The whole argument of the British government rests upon the assump- 
tion that the St. John's is not a river falling into the Atlantic ocean, be- 
cause it has its mouth in the Bay of Fundy. What is the Bay of Fundy, 
if it be not a part of the Atlantic ocean ? A bay is a mere opening of 
the main ocean into the land — a mere interruption of the uniformity of 
the sea coast by an indentation of water. These portions of the ocean 
have received the name of bays, solely to distinguish them from the 
remainder of the vast deep to which they belong. Would it not be the 
merest special pleading to contend that the bay of Naples was not a por- 
tion of the Mediterranean, or that the Bay of Biscay was not a part of 
the Atlantic ocean ? 

" Again, the description of the treaty is, " rivers which fall into the 



Atlantic ocean." Can it be said, with any propriety, that a river does 
not fall into the Atlantic, because in reaching the main ocean it may 
pass through a bay ? And yet this is the Biitish argument. The Dela- 
ware does not fall into the Atlantic, because it flows into it through the 
bay of Delaware; and, for the same reason, the St. John's does not fall 
into the Atlantic, because it flows into it through tbe bay of Fundy." 

It is ardently wished that this perplexing controversy may soon be ami- 
cably settled between two friendly powers, whose interests are so closely 
united. This will probably be the event. Maine is determined to vin- 
dicate her rights, and the whole country stands ready to sustain them. 

Maine is divided into the twelve following counties : York, Cumber- 
land, Lincoln, Kennebec, Waldo, Hancock, Oxford, Somerset, Penobscot, 
Washington, Franklin, and Piscataquis. 

Succession of Governors. 

William King, 1820. Albion K. Parris, 1821—1825. E. Lincoln, 
1826—1829. Jonathan G. Hunton, 1830. Samuel E. Smith, 1831— 
1833. Robert P. Dunlap, 1834-1837. Edward Kent, 1S38. John 
Fairfield, 1839— 

Succession of Chief Justices. 

Prentiss Mellen, 1820—1834. Nathan Weston, 1834— 

The soil of Maine is various. For some miles from the sea coast it is 
rocky, sandy or clayey, with some fertile portions ; generally this is the 
least productive part of the state. Advancing into the interior, the soil 
increases in fertility. The average quality of the soil is considered to be 
equal if not superior to any other portion of New England. In some 
parts it is not exceeded in fertility by any section of the Union. Some 
of the most fertile parts of Maine are now almost a wilderness. 

The ability of the soil of Maine to furnish an ample supply of bread 
stuffs, was fully tested in 1837, by the production of more than a million 
bushels of wheat, besides vast quantities of rj^e and corn. 

The natural productions in the state, already known to exist in ex- 
haustless quantities, are pine and hemlock timber; granite, slate, lime, 
iron, and all the materials in the composition of glass. Of the first 
report of the learned and indefatigable Dr. Jackson, on the geology of 
Maine, the celebrated professor Silliman thus speaks : 

" Maine is a country chiefly of primary rocks, with a large division 
of those of transition, and towards New Brunswick it has an important 
region of the lower secondary. Every where it has alluvial and diluvial 
deposits, and vast igneous formations, not only in the interior, but form- 


ing a barrier against tha ocean surge along a considerable part of an im- 
mense sea coast, indented as it is by bays and estuaries almost beyond 
example. Among tlie mineral formations of Maine, are granite, gneiss, 
mica and talcose, and oth^er slates, including roofing slate and alum 
slate ; also, soapstone, limestone and marble, sandstones and brecciated 
rock'S of many vai-ieties ; jasper, including tbe beautiful greenstone, 
trap and its varieties, and porphyry. The trap dykes are numerous and 
exceedingly distinct: They c-ut through most of the other rocks, and pro- 
duce upon them, most distinctly, those peculiar effects, whicli to a de- 
iTionstralion prove their igneous origin. Scientific geology is greatly 
indebted to thi-j survey for some of the most lucid and convincing facts 
on this head ; while the diluvial deposits, the boulders and ruins, the dilu- 
vial furrows in the rocks, the sea shells now adhering to and inherent in 
rocks which once formed the sea coast, although elevated twenty-six 
feet above the sea board, a salt spring at Lubec, and many other topics 
equally illustrate other parts of scientific geology. 

Dr. Jackson is entirely master of his subject, as well as of the kindred 
sciences of mineralogy and chemistry, and his report is remarkable for 
its lucid clearness and its attractive style." 

The sea coast of Maine, extending more than 230 miles, indented by 
an almost countless number of bays, harbors and islands of romantic beau- 
ty, presents facilities for navigation unrivalled by any portion of the globe. 
The great rivers, St. Croix, Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, and 
Saco, with their numerous tributaries piercing the interior, give to the 
farmer and mechanic a cheap and easy mode of transportation. Thesu 
rivers, and thousands of ponds and other streams, dispersed throughout 
the state, afford a water power of vast extent and usefulness. 

The celebrated John Smith made an unsuccessful attempt to settle 
this part of the country as early as 1614. The first permanent lodgment 
of the whites in the state was made from the Plymouth colony, at York, 
in 1630. 

The first settlers of Maine were a race of men of good minds, stout 
hearts and strong arms. By them and their sons the stately forests were 
converted into an article of commerce, of immense value ; thus prepar- 
ing the soil for its ultimate staples, wheat, beef, and wool. See 


Maiden, Mass. 

Middlesex co. A bridg-e over 
Mystic river, 2,420 feet in length, 
connects this town with Charles- 
town. It lies 5 miles N. from Bos- 
ton, and 16 E. by S. fiom Concord. 
First settled, 164S. Incorporated, 
1649. Population, 1830, 2,0i0 ; 
1837, 2,303. It contains a large 
tract of salt meadow, and consider- 
able timber. The uplands are 
rough and uneven. The manufac- 
tures of Maiden consist of leather, 
boots, shoes, block tin, tin ware, 
twine, lasts, and manufactures of 
iron and dye-wood : total amount, 
the year ending April 1, 1837, 

Mancliester, N. 11., 

Hillsborough co., lies on the east 
side of Merrimack river, by which 
it is bounded on the W. for 8 miles ; 
on the N. and E. it is bounded by 
Chester, S. by Londonderry and 
Litchfield. There are several 
streams which have their origin in 
this town, and which discharge 
themselves into the Meri-imack. — 
Cohass brook, issuing from Massa- 
besick pond, is the largest. It re- 
ceives two other small st-eams from 
the S., and empties itself at the S. 
W. angle of the town. Massabe- 
sick is a large pond, at the E. side 
of the town, and partly within its 
limits. There are several smaller 

The soil of a considerable part of 
the town is light and sandy. The 
intervales on the river are easy of 
cultivation, and productive. 

The canal by Amoskeag falls is 
in this town, and was projected and 
constructed by the ingenuity and 
perseverance of the late Samuel 
Blodget, Esq. At these falls are the 
works of the Amoskeag Manufac- 
turing Company, where the founda- 
tions of another Lowell are being 
laid. The water power is im- 

This town was formec' of a part 

of Londonderry, a part of Chester, 
and a tract of land called Harry- 
town, and incorporated Sept. 3, 
1751, by the name of Derryfield. 
This name it retained until 1810, 
when it was changed to Manches- 
ter, by an act of the legislature. 

The venerable general Johx 
Stakk had his residence in this 
town, where he died May 8, 1822, 
at the great age of 93 years S months 
and 24 days. lie was born at 
Londonderry, August 28, 1728; 
was taken prisoner by the Indians, 
while hunting near Baker's river, 
in Rumney, April 23, 1752. In 
1775, he was appointed a colonel of 
one of the three regiments raised 
in New Hamp>ihire ; was engaged 
on the heights of Charlestown, June 
17, 1775 ; was at the battle of Tren- 
ton, in 177S ; captured Col. Baum 
and 1,000 of the British at Benning- 
ton, August 16, 1777. This event, 
in the language of president Jeffer- 
son, was " the lirst link in the chain 
of successes which issued in the 
surrender of Saratoga." He was 
soon after appointed a brigadier- 
general of the United States army, 
and, at the time of his death, was 
the only surviving American gen- 
eral officer of the revolution. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 887. 

Manchester, Vt. 

Bennington co. One of the 
county towns. Situated between 
the Green mountains on the E.,and 
Equinox mountain on th-e W. The 
latter is 3,706 feet above the sea. 
There are two neat villages in this 
valley; the county buildings are 
in the south village. The scene- 
ry here is very beautiful. The 
town is watered by the Battenkill 
and its branches, and affords good 
mill sites. The soil along the wa- 
ter courses is good, but the princi- 
pal part of the town is better for 
grazing than tillage. Here are 
large quarries of beautiful marble, 
some manufactures, a curious cav- 
ern, and about 6,000 sheep. Man- 


Chester lies 22 miles N. by E. from 
Bennington, and about 40 W. from 
Bellows Falls, across the moun- 
tains. First settled, 1764. Popu- 
lation, 1S30, 1,525. 

Maiicliestei*, Mass. 

Essex CO. This is a flourishing 
fishing town on INlassachusetts bay, 
26 miles N. E. from Boston, and 5 
S. W. from Gloucester. It was 
taken from Salem in 1645. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,346. There are a 
number of vessels belonging to the 
town employed in the fishing and 
coasting business. The value of 
the fishery, the year ending April 
1, 1837, amounted to $12,800. The 
value of the articles manufactur- 
ed was $96,473. Those articles 
consisted of vessels, boots, shoes, 
leather, chairs, cabinet ware, palm- 
leaf hats, and ships' wheels. The 
village is very pleasant, and com- 
mands fine prospects. Although 
Manchester is a rocky, rough 
township, it can boast a rare native 
production in this climate, — the 
magnolia, a beautiful flowering 

Mancliester, Ct. 

Hartford co. An important man- 
ufacturing town on the Hockanum, 
a valuable mill stream, 10 miles E. 
from Hartford, The first cotton 
mill in this state was built here in 
1794. There are three pleasant 
villages, six or seven paper mills, 
two powder mills, woolen and other 
manufactures. The face of the 
town is uneven, but the soil, a sandy 
and gravelly loam, is quite produc- 
tive. It was called Orford, a par- 
ish in East Hartford, until its incor- 
poration, in 1823. Population, 
1830, 1,576. 

Manliegiu Island, Me. 

This island lies off Muscongus 
bay, Lincoln county. There is a 
light-house on it, the tower of which 
is 30 feet high. It bears S. from 


the mouth of St. George's river, 
about 12 miles. 

Maiisiield, Vt. 

Lamoille co. There is some 
good land in this town, on Brown's 
river and the branches of Water- 
bury river, but in general it is too 
mountainous even for grazing. It 
lies 20 miles N. W. from Montpe- 
lier, 20 E. by N. from Burlington, 
and 13 S. W. from Hyde Park.— 
Population, 1830, 279. First set- 
tled, 1799. 

Mansfield Mountains extend 
through the town of Mansfield from 
N. to S. They belong to the Green 
mountain range, and the nose and 
chin, so called, from their resem- 
blance to the face of a man lying 
on his back, exhibits some of the 
loftiest summits in the state. The 
no-se is 3,933 feet above tide water ; 
the chin, 4,279. 

Mansfield, Mass. 

Bristol CO. This town lies 26 
miles S. S. W. from Boston, 18 N. 
E. from Providence, and UN. N. 
V/. from Taunton. It was taken 
from Norton in 1770, and is watered 
by several branches of Taunton riv- 
er. The soil is thin and the sur- 
face level. Population, 1837,1,444. 
There are 6 cotton and 1 woolen 
mills in the town, and 2 nail facto- 
ries. The manufactures consist of 
cotton and woolen goods, nails, 
straw bonnets, palm-leaf hats, and 
baskets : total annual amount, about 

A mine of anthracite coal was 
discovered in this town a few years 
since, near the Boston and Provi- 
dence rail road, which promises to 
be of inestimable value to the com- 
munity. It was discovered in dig- 
ging a well. An incorporated com- 
pany has purchased the right of 
mining on that and several adjoin- 
ing farms. They sunk a shaft which 
struck a vein five feet in thickness,, 
at the depth of 20 feet, running N. 


E. and S.W., and dipping to the N. 
W. 62°. The shaft was continued 
44 feet further, to another vein, 
which exceeded 5 feet in thickness, 
and which aftbrded coal of a better 
quality than that found above. — 
Subsequent operations have shown 
that the veins are numerous, and 
the quantity inexhaustible. The 
coal is of an excellent quality, Kore 
easily broken than the Pennsylvani- 
aii, and has less polish on its surface. 

Mausfield, Ct. 

Tolland co. Mansfield, the In- 
dian A'^awbesetuck, was taken from 
Windham in 1703. It lies 27 miles 
E. from Hartford, 12 S. E. from Tol- 
land, and 19 N. N. W. from Nor- 
wich. Population, 1S30, 2,661.— 
The face of the town is uneven, and 
seme of the hills have considerable 
elevation. The town is watered by 
Willimantic river, and the Nat- 
chaug and its tributaries — Mount 
Hope and Fenton. 

A larger quantity of silk is man- 
ufactured here than in any other 
place in the United States. This 
branch of industry was introduced 
into the country by Dr. Aspinwall, 
of this place, above seventy years 
since, who established the raising 
of silk worms in New Plaven, Long 
Island and Philadelphia. At this pe- 
riod half an ounce of mulberry seed 
was sent to every parish in Con- 
necticut, and the legislature for a 
lime affered a bounty on mulberry 
trees and raw silk : 265 lbs. were 
raised in 1793, and the quantity has 
been increasing ever since. In 
1830, 3,200 lbs. were raised. Two 
small silk factories have been es- 
tablished in this town by an English 
manufacturer, with swifts for wind- 
ing hard silk ; 32 spindles for doub- 
ling ; seven dozens of spindles for 
throwing; 32 spindles for soft silk 
winding ; and 2 broad and one fringe 
•ilk looms. There is machinery 
-fenough to keep 30 broad silk looms 
and fifty hands in operation. There 

are in the town two cotton factories. 
Screw augers and steelyards are 
manufactured here. 

Marbleliead, Mass. 

Essex CO. This is a noted fishing 
town, on a rocky point of land ex- 
tending into Massachusetts bay, 
with a hardy and intrepid crew of 
fishermen and sailors. The harbor 
is commodious and easy of access. 
The quantity of fish exported from 
this place in 1794 amounted to 
$184,532. Since that time the fish- 
ing business has greatly increased, 
and this place has nov/ become one 
of the largest fishing ports on the 
American coast. There belong to 
this place from 90 to 100 sail of 
fishing, coasting and merchant ves- 
sels. Tonnage of the district, in 
1837, 10,037. First settled, 1631. 
Incorporated, 1649. Population, 
1837, 5,.549. It lies 14 miles N. E. 
from Boston, and 4 S. E. from Sa- 
lem. The value of the cod and 
mackerel fishery the year ending 
April 1, 1837, was $153,487; em- 
ploying 500 hands. The manufac- 
tures of Marblehead, the same 
year, amounted to $398,565. The 
articles manufactured consisted of 
boots, shoes, bar iron, chairs, cabi- 
net and tin wares, vessels, soap, 
glue, cards and wheels. This is a 
romantic place ; nearly allied to its 
neighbor, Nahant ; — only 6 miles 
across the bay. 

Margalla-ivay River, I^". H., 

Has its source among the hig-h- 
lands which separate Maine from 
Lower Canada, in the N. E. ex- 
tremity of New Hampshire, about 
30 miles N. from Errol. After a S. 
course of nearly 20 miles on the 
western border of Maine, it enters 
New Hampshire at the S. E. part 
of the 2d grant to Dartmouth col- 
lege, where it forms a junction with 
the united streams of Dead and 
Diamond rivers. Thence, after a S. 
, course of about 6 miles to Errol, it 


receives the waters of Umbagog 
lake. After this junction the main 
stream is the Androscoggin river. 

Mariaville, Me. 

Hancock co. This is a townsnip 
of good land, finely located on the 
E. side of Union river, 8 miles N. by 
E. from Ellsworth, and 89 E. N. E. 
from Augusta. This town has an 
extensive w^ater power and many 
saw mills. It was incorporated in 
1836. Population, 1837, 257. 

Marion, Me. 

Washington co. This township 
is bounded E. by Edmonds, and S. 
by Whiting. Poffulation, 245. — 
Incorporated, 1S34. See " Down 

Marll>oroiig!i, N. If., 

Cheshire co., is bounded N. by 
Roxbury, E. by Dublin and Jaffrey, 
S. by Troy, W. by Swanzey and 
part of Keene. It is 6 miles S. E. 
from Keene, and 55 S. W. from 
Concord. There are several ponds 
which are the sources of some of 
the branches of Ashuelot river. — 
The soil is rocky, but good for graz- 
ing. Marlborough was granted, 
1751. The first settlement com- 
menced about 1760. Incorporated 
Dec. 13, 1776. Population, in 1830, 

Marlborowgli, Vt. 

Windham co. First settled, 1763. 
It lies 8 miles S. from Newfane, 
and 21 E. from Bennington. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,218. Mrs. Whitte- 
more, the wife of one of the first 
settlers, spent the winter of 1764-5 
in this then wilderness, alone, her 
husband being absent in the pursuit 
of his calling, as a tinker. During 
this winter she saw no human be- 
ing, except her little daughter and 
some hunters who happened acci- 
dentally to pass that way. She cut 
down timber and furnished browse 
for their cattle, and thus kept them 
alive through the winter. Mrs. W. 

was very useful to the settlers, both 
as a nurse and a midwife. She pos- 
sessed a vigorous constitution, and 
frequently travelled through the 
woods upon snow shoes from one 
part of the town to another, both by 
night and day, to relieve the dis- 
tressed. She lived to the age of 87 
years, officiated as midwife at more 
than 2,000 births, and never lost a 

The town is well watered by the 
W. branch of West river, Whet- 
stone brook, and Green river. It 
has a good soil, and is very produc- 
tive in wheat, rye, and other grain, 
fruit and potatoes. Here is a pleas- 
ant villa2;e, several fine trout ponds, 
various kinds of minerals and me- 
dicinal springs. Marlborough suf- 
fered some by the Indians, and did 
much for the cause of independ- 

Marlljorougli, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This is a large 
farming town, with a soil of great 
fertility and undulating surface. — 
The inhabitants are principally de- 
voted to agricultural pursuits, rind 
by their industry and skill, have ac- 
quired a great degree of independ- 
ence. Among the productions of 
the town, are fat cattle, pork, fruit, 
and all the varieties of the dairy ; a 
large amount of which is annually 
sent to Boston market. A branch 
of Concord river, and a number of 
beautiful ponds, water the town. — 
The manufactures consist of boots, 
shoes, straw bonnets, leather, chairs 
and cabinet ware : annual amount, 
about ,$75,000. Marlborough, the 
Indian Ohamakamesit, was first 
settled in 1654. It was taken from 
Sudbury in 1660 ; it suffered much 
during the Indian wars, and was 
for many years the residence of a 
number of Indians who had em- 
braced the christian religion. The 
villages are very pleasant : the 
richness of the soil, and surround- 
ing scenery ; its excellent roads and 
convenieot access to Boston by the 


rail road, renders Marlborough a 
desirable residence. It is 2S miles 
W. from Boston, 14 S. Vv'. from Con- 
cord, and 16 E. from Worcester. — 
Population, 1S37, 2,039. 

Marlboroiigb. Ct. 

Hartford co. Marlborough was 
taken from three towns which be- 
longed to three different counties, 
in 1S03. It lies 14 miles S. E. 
from Hartford. The surface of the 
town is hilly and stony, and the 
lands best adapted for grazing. It 
lias a cotton factory, a bed of black 
lead, and a good lish pond. Dark 
hollow, in the western part of the 
town, presents some wild scenery 
of more terror than beauty. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 704. 

MarloW) ]V. II. 

Cheshire co. It is 15 miles N. 
from Keene, and 45 W. by S. from 
Concord. Ashuelot river passe? 
through almost the whole length of 
the town. There are no ponds of 
note, nor any mountains. Marlow 
was chartered, 1761. Population, 
ISSO, 645. 

Marslifield, "Vt. 

Washington co. This town, con- 
taining 23,040 acres, was granted 
to the Stockbridge Indians in 1782, 
and sold by them to Isaac Marsh, 
in 1789, for £140. A part of the 
soil is good and a part wet and stony. 
The town produces considerable 
wool, and some cattle are reared 
for market. It has a pleasant pond, 
and Onion river passes through it. 
It lie^ 12 miles N. E. from Mont- 
pelier. First settled, 1790. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,271. 

Marshfield, Mass. 

Plymouth co. A pleasant town 
on Massachusetts bay, 25 miles S. 
E. from Boston, and 15 N. by W. 
from Plyn)outh. It is watered by 
North and South rivers, has a toler- 
able harbor, and some navigation. 
Ship building is an important branch j 

of business in the town. Here are 
two cotton mills, an air and cupola 
furnace, a nail factory, and manu- 
factures of cotton and satinet warp. 
Peregrine White, the first Eng- 
lish child born in New England, 
died here in 1704, aged 83. Incor- 
porated, 1640. Population, 1837, 

Mars KUl, Me. 

This celebrated mountain is situ- 
ated about a mile west from the east 
boundary of the United States ; — 
200 miles N. N. E. from Augusta, 
and SO N. W. from Frederickton, 
New Brunswick. 

The British Queen seems desir- 
ous of annexing this portion of the 
territory of the United States to 
her wide and fair possessions. This 
notion of the pretty maiden is alto- 
gether preposterous : when she has 
maturely considered the treaty made 
by her grandfather and the United 
States, at Paris, in 1783, we trust 
her good sense will deter her from 
urging the claim. 

The approach to this mountain is 
difficult: its sides are rugged, and 
its summit bold. It has two spurs ; 
one of which is 1,508, the other 
1,363 feet above the waters of 
Goosequill river, in New Bruns- 

Marslipee, Mass. 

Barnstable co. An ancient In- 
dian territory, and an incorporated 
district of 10,500 acres, or about 16 
square miles. It lies 12 miles S. 
E. from Barnstable, 8 S. S. E. from 
Sandwich, and 8 E. from Falmouth. 
It is bounded on the S. by the ocean. 
There are 350 colored inhabitants 
on this territorj^ and some whites. 
There now remain only seven in- 
habitants, of pure blood of the t<. til- 
ers of the forest. Their land is 
good for grain of all sorts, and is 
well wooded. The territory is pleas- 
ant, and some parts of it afford beau- 
tiful scenery. The Marshpee and 
Quashmet are considerable streams. 


which, with numerous ponds and 
the ocean, afford an abundant sup- 
ply of fish of various kinds. These 
people live by agricultural pursuits, 
the manufacture of various articles 
of Indian ware, by the sale of their 
wood, and by fishing, fowling, and 
taking deer. They are docile and 
hospitable ; they appear to relish 
moral and religious instruction ; and, 
under the superintendence of a hu- 
mane and intelligent commissioner, 
appointed by the state, they are 
prosperous and happy. This is the 
largest remnant of all the tribes of 
red men west of Penobscot river, 
who, 218 years ago, were fee sim- 
ple proprietors of the whole terri- 
tory of New England! 

Martlia's Vineyard, Mass. 

The principal of a cluster of isl- 
ands lying off and S. of Barnstable 
county and Buzzard's bay, compris- 
ing the towns of Edgarton, Tisbu- 
ry and Chilmark. See Dukes 

Mason, N. H, 

Hillsborough co. It is 15 miles 
S. W. from Amherst, 43 S. S. W. 

from Concord, and 50 N. W. from 
Boston. The surface is uneven; 
the hills are chiefly large swells, 
wi(h narrow valleys between them. 
The streams are rapid. There are 
no natural ponds. The principal 
mea<iows were formerly beaver 
ponds. Souhegan is the principal 
stream, affording many fine mill 
seats. The small streams run into 
Nashua river, and into Tanapus, or 
Potanipo pcnd, in Brookline. The 
soil in the E. part is rather light. 
The W. part is mostly a strong deep 
soil, red or dark loam, but stony. 
It is good for grass and grain. In 
Mason village, on the Souhegan, 
ai-e cotton and woolen manufacto- 
ries, and other machinery. Mason 
was granted by charter, Aug. 26, 
1788. It was formejly known by 
the name of J\"o. 1. The first ef- 
fort to settle this place was in 1751, 
and the next year a permanent set- 
tlement was made by Enoch Law- 
rence, from Pepperell, Mass. Pop- 
ulation, in 183U, 1,433. 

Massal)esick. Pond, N. H. 

See Chester. 



This ancient commonwealth, the mother of New England colonies, of 
free states, and of American liberty, was first permanently settled by 
Europeans, at Plymouth, on the 22d of December, 1620. 

The history of this state is deeplj'^ interesting ; it is interwoven with 
every political and moral event of important occurrence in the settle- 
ment and progress of the whole of North America, which preceded or 
was connected wath the revolution of 1775. 

The name of this state probably arose from the name of a tribe of In- 
dians formerly at Barnstable ; or from two Indian words — Mos and We- 
tuset ; the former signifying an Indian arrow^s head, the latter. Hill. 
It is stated that the Sachem who governed in this region about the time 
of the landing of our forefathers, lived on a hill in the form of an Indian 
arrow's head, a {e\v miles south of Boston, and was called by the Indians 
— Mosivetiiset. 

Massachusetts is bounded east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic 

ocean. It has, exclusive of the island counties of Dukes and Nantuck- 
et, a sea-coast of about 250 miles. It is bounded south and west by the 

state of Rhode Island, about 68 miles; south by the state of Connecticut, 

87 miles ; west by the state of New York, 50 miles ; north by the state of 

Vermont, 42 miles ; and north B^' the state of New Hampshire, 87 miles. 

It lies between 41° 31', and 42° 53' N. lat., and Gd° AS', and 73° 17' W. Ion. 

from Greenwich. Its area is about 7,S00 square miles, or 4,992,000 acres. 


The state comprises 14 counties, to wit: Barnstable, Berkshire, Bris- 
tol, Dukes, Essex, Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, Middlesex, Norfolk, 
Nantucket, Plymouth, Suffolk, and Worcester. 

The legislative power of this State is vested in a Senate and House of 
Representatives. The Senate consists of 40 members, and are chosen 
by districts. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
and a Council of 9 members. The Council is elected b y the joint ballot 
of the Senators and Representatives, from the Senators ; and in case the 
Council thus elected or an}- of them decline, the deficiency is supplied 
from among the people. 

By the Constitution as amended in 1837, each town or city, having 300 
ratable polls, at the last preceding decennial census of polls, may elect 
one representative ; and for every 450 ratable polls, in addition to the 
lirst 300, one representative more. 

Any town having less than 300 ratable polls, shall be represented 
thus: — The whole number of ratable polls, at the last preceding valua- 
tion census of poli?, shall be multiplied by 10, and the product divided by 
300, and such town may elect one representative, as man}- years within 
ten years, as 300 is contained in the product aforesaid. 

Any city or town, Isavin;;- ratable polls enough to elect one or more 
representatives, with any number of polls beyond the necessary number, 
may be represenced as to that surplus number, by multiplying such sur- 
plus number by 10, and dividing ihe product by 450 ; and such city or 
town may elect one additional representative, as many years within the 
ten years, as 450 is contained in the pioduct aforesaid. 


A'uinber of Representatives to which each town is entitled forlO years, 
from 1837, according to the Constitution, as amended in 1837. 

The column in the following- table marked tenths, shows how many years in IC 
the respective towns are entitled to an additional Representative. 


Barns TABLK. 






€-• 1 i 


,.-; I 


"*») 1 ' 


S !l 





7, i 













Trii ro 


Adams . 

«c 1 

-< 1 






















































— 1 






































M't. Washington, 






New Ashtbrd, 








Nert' Marlboro' 



























South wick, 








































W. Springfield, 
















W. Stockbridge, 



























West Newbur}', 
















1! 1 


































Fall River, 
























?Ne\v Bedford; 













Paw tucket, 



























S. Hadley, 



























New Salem, 



































































1! 2| 





1 4 















































































































































































South Reading, 


lE. Bridgewater, 



New Braintree, 

















[N. Brooktield, 





































N. Bridgewater, 




W. Cambridge, 






























- — 








W. Bridgewater, 


















































W. Boylsto'n, 






























Med way, 







The whole number of towns in the state may send 375 Representatives every 
year, without counting the fractions. The fractions give an annual increase, 
on an average of 10 years of 133 and 9-lOths ; making the average number of 
Kepresentatives for the next 10 years, 608 9-lOths. 



The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Senators, and Representatives, 
are chosen annually by the people, on the 2(1 Monday of November, and 
meet at Boston on the 1st Wednesday of January. 

The Judiciary power is vested in a Supreme Court, a Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and such other courts as the Legislature may, from time to 
time, establish. The Judges are appointed by the Governor and Coun- 
cil, and hold their offices during good behavior. 

Succession of Governors. 

John Hancock, 1780—1784. James Bowdoin, 1785, 1786. John 
Hancock, 1737 — 1793. Samuel Adams, 1794 — 1796. Increase Sumner, 
1797—1799. Caleb Strong, 1800, 1806. James Sullivan, 1807, 1808. 
Christopher Gore, 1809. Elbridge Gerry, 1810, 1811. Caleb Strong, 
1812—1815. John Brooks, 1816-1822. William Eustis, 1823, 1824. 
Levi Lincoln, 1825—1833. John Davis, 1834, 1835. Edward Everett, 

Succession of Chief Justices of the Supreme Judicial Court. 

WilHam Gushing, 1776—1789. Nathaniel Peaslee Sargent, 1789— 
1791, Francis Dana, 1791—1806. Theophilus Parsons, 1806—1814. 
Samuel Sewall, 1814. Isaac Parker, 1814—1830. Lemuel Shaw, 

The foundation of a school fund was laid by legislative enactment, in 
1834, by appropriating " all moneys remaining in the treasury on the 1st 
day of January, 1835, arising from the sale of public lands, and from pay- 
ments made to this commonwealth by the United States, on account of the 
claim for military services and disbursements during the late war, to- 
gether with one half of all future proceeds of the sales of public lands, 
as a permanent fund for the encouragement and support of common 
schools, which fund is never to exceed one million of dollars." 

A trigonometrical and astronomical survey of the state, by order of the 
general court, for the purpose of a new map, was commenced in 1830, 
and will soon be completed. Surveys of the mineralogy, botany, zoolo- 
gy, and agriculture of the state have been commenced ; some favorable 
reports have been made, and the researches of scientific men are con- 
tinued, and promise great public usefulness. 

The surface of the state is generally undulating. The most level 
parts are found in the counties of Plymouth, Barnstable, and Bristol. 
The Green and Taughkannic ranges of mountains pass through the west- 
ern counties, but in few places are they remarkable for their elevation. 
The soil of the state is well adapted to the growth of all the grasses, 
grains, fruits and vegetables common to a temperate climate. In no part 


of our country is agricultur.c more honored, or better understood and re- 

The resources of Massachusetts in its commerce, navigation, manufac- 
tures and fisheries are immense : they are stated under the counties and 
towns, and will be given summarily, with other statistics of New Eng- 
land, in the Register. 

Although ISiassachusetts cannot boast of her navigabfe rivers and ca- 
nals, to facilitate the commerce of her capital ; yet she can boast of the 
most beautiful bay on the map of the western world ; of her noble 
streams for water power; of her luxuriant vales, of her granite hills, of 
her ships, and the material for building them ; and of her gallant sailors 
who traverse every sea, and who well understand the uses of the hook, 
harpoon and cannon. z 

Massaclmsetts Bay. 

The whole of this bay is within 
the limits of Massachusetts, The 
exterior bounds of this celebrated 
bay are Capes Cod and Ann. The 
former is in N. lat. 42° 6', and W. 
long. 70° 7'. The latter in N. lat. 
42° 45', and V/. Ion. 70° 17'. Cape 
Ann bears from Cape Cod, N. N. 
W., about 40 miles. 

The length of this bay is about 
G2 miles, from N. W. to S, E. : its 
breadth is about 25 miles. Numer- 
ous bays and rivers of various sizes 
set in from this bay, and its whole 
coast is lined with commodious 
harbors, and pleasant commercial 

Thio bay is noted for its delight- 
ful scenery, and as containing the 
first settlements of the Pilgrim 
Fathers of New England. 

Mata-ivamkeag River, Me. 

This is one of the most important 
tributaries to the Penobscot. It 
unites with that river at the Indian 
township from the E., about 60 miles 
N. by E. above Bangor. 

Matawamkccig Plantation, on 
this river, lies 128 miles N. E. from 

Matiiiicus Islands, Me. 

A cluster of islands at the en- 

trance of Penobscot bay. The 
principal, or Marshall's island, is a 
plantation attached to the county of 
Hancock. The light on Matinicus 
bears about S. by E, from Thomas- 
ton, 15 miles, 

Maxiield, Me. 

Penobscot co. This town was 
incorporated in 1824. It is water- 
ed by Piscataquis river and Sebooig 
stream. It lies 111 miles N. N. W. 
from Augusta, and 25 E. by N. 
from Dover, Population, 1837, 215. 
Wheat crop, same year, 1,304 bush- 

Mayiield, Me. 

Somerset co. On the E. side of 
Kennebec river and about 10 miles 
from it. It is 58 miles N. from 
Augusta, and about 29 N. by E. 
from Norridgewock. Incorporated, 
1833. Population, 1837, 224. 

Medfield, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This town is water- 
ed by Charles and Stop rivers. It 
is 17 miles S. S. W. from Boston, 
and 8 S. by W. from Dedham. 

During the year ending April I, 
1837, there were manufcctured at 
Medticid, 124,000 straw bonnets, 
the value of which was $135,000. 
There are also manufactures of 


boots, shoes, leather, cutlery, and 
brushes. Medfield was taken from 
Dedham, in 1651. 

During king Philip's war, in 
1765, the town was burnt, and ma- 
ny of the inhabitants murdered by 
the Narragansets. Philip rode on 
an elegant horse, and directed the 
massacre. Population, 1837, 899. 

Medford, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This beautiful 
town is situated at the head of nav- 
igation on Mystic river, 5 miles N. 
W. from Boston, and 14 S. from 
Concord, The Boston and Lowell 
rail-road, and Middlesex canal pass 
through the town. The linest ships 
that float on the ocean, are built 
here : during the five years preced- 
ing April 1, 1837, sixty vessels 
were built, the tonnage of which 
was 24,195 tons: value^$l, 112,970. 
There are also manufactures of 
leather, spirits, linseed oil, bricks, 
boots, shoes, ploughs, hats and hat 
bodies. The soil of the town is 
very fertile, and in a high state of 
cultivation. The business of the 
town is much associated with ihe 
city, and many delightful country 
seats are scattered over and deco- 
rate the grounds improved as a farm 
by Governor Winthrop in 1633. 

Winter Hill, memorable as the 
place of encampment of General 
Burgoyne and his army, after their 
capture at Saratoga, is in this town. 
It is 125 feet above tide water, and 
presents a view of great extent and 
beauty. Medford was incorporated 
in 1630. Population, 1830, 1,755; 
1837, 2,072. 

In the old burying ground, a beau- 
tiful granite monument is erected, 
bearing the following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of 
JOHN brooks' 
Who was born in Medford, in the 
month of May, 1752, and educated at 
the Town School. He took up arms 
for his country on the 19th April, 
1775. He commanded the regiment 
which first entered the enemy's lines 

at Saratoga, and served with honor to 
the close of the war. He was ap- 
pointed Marshal of the District of 
Massachusetts by President Washing- 
ton, and after fillinfj several important 
civil and military offices, he was in the 
year 181G, chosen Governor of the 
Commonwealth ; and discharp:ed the 
duties of that station for seven suc- 
cessive years, to general acceptance. 
He w as a kind and skilful physician, a 
brave and prudent officer, a wise, firm, 
and impartial magistrate, a true patri- 
ot, a good citizen, and a faithful friend. 
In manners he was a gentleman, in 
morals pure, and in profession and 
practice a consistant Christian. He 
departed this life in peace on the first of 
March, 1825, aged 73. This monu- 
ment to his honored memory was 
erected by several of his fellew citi- 
zens and friends in the year 1838. 

Medway, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. Medway was taken 
from Medfield, in 1713. Charles 
river aflbrds this town an excellent 
water power. There are 6 cotton, 
and 2 woolen mills in the town, 2 
cotton wadding factories, and a bell 
foundry. The manufactures of cot- 
ton and woolen goods, boots, shoes, 
scythes, chairs, cabinet ware, 
plouglis, cotton wadding, and straw 
bonnets, the jear ending April 1, 
1837, amounted to .$330,630. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,050. Medway lies 
22 miles S. W. from Boston, and 12 
S. W. from Dedham. 

Meguiiticoolc River and Pond. 

This river rises in a pond of the 
same name, in Lincolnville, Waldo 
county. The pond is about 9 miles 
in length, ciookcd and very hand- 
some. It affords an excellent mill 
streau!, which falls into Penobscot 
bay at Camden. 

Mcniphrcmagog Lake, Vt. 

This lake is about 30 miles in 
length, and two or three miles in 
width. About seven miles of it lies 
in the county of Orleans, the resi- 
due in Canada. It receives the wa- 
ters of Barton, Black, Clyde and 
other smaller stream? in Vermont, 


and discharges into the St. Francis, 
in Canada. On an inland in this 
lake is a quarry of JVovaciilite, or 
the " Magog Oil Stone." This ma- 
terial is transported and manufac- 
tured. See Burke, Vt. 

Mesiau Islauds. 

Grand Jilenan belongs to the 
British, and lies off the mouth of 
St. Croix river, and Passamaquoildy 
bay. It is IG miles in lengtli, and 
its average breadth is about 5. On 
the south side are a number of isl- 
ands, and several small harbors. 
The inhabitants are principally fish- 

Little Menan, or "Petit Mcnan," 
in Washington county, Me. lies off 
the harbors of Goldsborough and 
Steuben. It has a light house, with 
a tower 25 feet in height. It lies 
about 3 miles S. S. E. from Golds- 
borough harbor. 

Mciidoji, Vt. 

Rutland CO. This was formerly 
called Parkcrstown,and lies 47 miles 
S. S. W. from rdontpelier, and S E. 
from Rutland. There is some good 
land in the town, but it is generally 
too high up the Green mountains for 
cultivation. Population, 1830,432. 

Meiidcii, Mass. 

Worcester co. The Indian name 
of this town was Quanshipauge. 
It was first settled by people from 
Roxbury, about the year 1647. In- 
corporated, 1G67. Pvlendon is a 
town-ihip of variegated surface, ex- 
cellent soil, and in a good state of 
cultivation. The products of the 
dairy are large and valuable. — 
Blackstone river and canal pass its 
southwestern border, and Mill river 
traverses its whole extent. These 
streams afford an excellent hydrau- 
lic power. There are 8 cotton and 
4 woolen mills in the town, and 
manufactures of boots, shoes, iron 
castings, scythes, ploughs, straw 
bonnets, palm-leaf hats, machinery, 
wagons and harnesses ; total value, 


the year ending April 1, 1837, — 
$629,232. This very pleasant and 
ilouri-iiiing town lie> 32 miles S. W, 
from Boston, 18 S. E. from Worces- 
ter, and 22 N. from Providence. 
Population, 1830, 3,153: 1837, 3,G57. 

Mercer, Me. 

Somerset co. Mercer has a fine 
soil, and is watered by a beautiful 
pond. It lies 32 miles N. N. W. 
from Augusta, and 6 S. W. from 
Norridgewock. Incoi-porated, 1804. 
The village near the pond is beau- 
tifully located. Wheat crop, 1837, 
6,8G8 bushels. Population, same 
year, 1,525. 

Mereditli, Iff. H., 

Strafford co., is bounded N. by 
Centre Harbor and Winnepisiogee 
lake, N. E. and E. by said lake and 
river, S. E. by Great bav, S. and S. 
W. by Sanbornton, W. and N. W. by 
New Hampton and Centre Harbor. 
This town was incorporated, in 
1767, and was first called JVeiu Sa- 
lem. It lies 29 miles N. from Con- 
cord, and 8 N. W. from Gilford. 
There is in this town a pond adjoin- 
ing Centre Harbor, about 2 miles 
long and one wide, emptying into 
the lake, near the village; be- 
sides this there are several smaller 
ponds. There is probably no town 
in the country more pleasantly and 
advantageously situated, or of a bet- 
ter soil, than Meredith. The wa- 
ters of the Winnepisiogee washing 
the boundaries of a great part of the 
town, convey many heavy mercan- 
tile articles to and from almost the 
doors of several of the inhabitants 
in the summer; and in the winter, 
the ice serves as a level and easy 
road. Near the upper or N. W. 
part of the town, the traveler pass- 
ing along the road, is presented 
with a very beautiful landscape. On 
the E. and S. E. the placid Winne- 
pisiogee, the largest lake in New 
Hampshire, with its numerous inl- 
ands, arrests the eye, and bounds 
the circle of vision in a S. E. di- 


rection. On the N. E., Ossipee 
mountain rises boldly to view. On 
the N., the prospect is intercepted 
by lied Hill, a pleasant and noted 
€unnence in Moultonborough, only 
a few miles distant. At Meredith 
Brid2:e is a handsome and flourish- 
ing village, and the seat of much 
business. Here are 2 cotton mills, 
an extensive tanneiy, oil mill, &c., 
in another village are also some im- 
poitant manufactures. The water 
power of Meredith is immense. 
It is connected with the principal 
village of Gilford by a bridge over 
the VVinnepisiogee. 

Hon. Ebejvezer Smith, moved 
into this town at an early period of 
its settlement, and was as a father to 
the new settlers for many years. 
He died Aug. 22, 1807, aged 73. 
Population, In 1830, 2,683. 

Meriden, Ct. 

New Haven co. This hilly and 
Somewhat mountainous township 
has, in general, a fertile soil, and is 
watered by Quinnepiac river. It 
lies 17 miles S. E. from Hartford, 
and 17 N. W. from New Haven. 
It was formerly a part of Walling- 
ford, and incoi-porated in 1806. — 
Population, 1830, 1,708. 

This is one of the most flourish- 
ing and enterprising manufacturing 
towns in the state. There is a con- 
siderable variety of n»anufactures 
here, forming the chief employment 
of the inhaldtants. The following 
is a list of the manufactories, viz : 
2 for patent augers and auger hits, 
S for ivory combs, G for tin ware, 4 
for Britaimia ware, 2 iron foundries, 
1 manufactory for coffee mills, 1 for 
clocks, 1 for Norfolk door latches, 3 
for block tin spoons, 1 for wood 
combs, 1 for skates and iron rakes, 
and 1 for gridirons. The value 
of articles manufactured yearly, has 
been estimated from 800,000 to 
1,000,000 of dollars. 

About thirty years since a road 
was constructed from the north- 
western part ol Meri'Jcn to Berlin, 

through a narrow and romantic 
glen, between two ridges of the 
Blue mountains; lliis pass, which 
is more than a mile in extent, is 
called the Cat Hole. In some parts 
of this glen there is V-.; barely room 
for a path : small aiiLjUiar fragments 
of rocks rise on each side, at about 
an angle of forty five degrees: 
these rocks have been beaten down 
and covered with earth, vvhich must 
have been brought here for the 
purpose. A few yards south of this 
place, elevated perpendiculai- rocks 
appear on the left, one of which has 
very much the appearance of a pro- 
file of the human face, and it is 
thought by some to resemble in a 
slight degree the profile of Wash- 
ington. Following the foot of the 
mountain on the right, for about a 
mile, you will find large pieces of 
rocks lying upon each other in great 
disorder, which have evidently fi\l- 
len from the precipitous heights 
above. Underneath these I'ocksice 
may be found in almost every month 
in the year. A spring issues from 
between them, called the Cold 
Spring, and is a place of resort for 
parties in summer. 

Merrimacli River, N. II., 

One of the principal rivers of 
New England, is formed of two 
branches. The N. branch called 
Pemigewasset, rises near the Notch 
of the White mountains, and passes 
southwardly through the corner of 
Franconia, Lincoln, Feeling, Thorn- 
ton and Campton, forming the bound- 
ary between Plymouth and Holder- 
ness, and also the boundary line be- 
tween the counties of Strafford and 
Grafton from the S. corner of Hol- 
derness to near its junction with the 
Winnepisiogee. It receives several 
considerable branches in its course; 
Mad river in Campton, Baker's in 
Plymouth ; and streams flowing 
from Sqin^m and Newfound lakes, 
with numerous small tributarie«i. — 
The E. branch is the ^^'innepisio- 
gee, through which paSvSthe waters 


of (he lake of that name. The de- 
scent of this branch from the hike to 
its junction with the Pcmigewasset, 
is 232 feet. The confluent stream 
bears tlie name of Menimack, and 
pursues a S. course, 78 miles, to 
Clichnsford, Ma^s. ; thence an E. 
course, 35 miles, to the sea at Nevv- 
buj-yport. On the N. line of Con- 
cord, the Contoocook discharges its 
waters into the Merrimack. The 
Soucook becomes a tributary in 
Pembroke, and the Suncook be- 
tween Pembroke and Allenstown. 
The Piscataquog unites in Bedford ; 
the Souhegan in Merrimack, and a 
beautiful river called Nashua in 
Nashua. The piincipal tributaries 
are on the W, side of the river, 
mostly rising in the highlands be- 
tween the Connecticut and Merri- 
mack. Thei-e are numerous falls 
in this river, the most noted of 
which aie Garven's, in Concord, 
the fails in Hooksett, and Amos- 
keag in GofTstown and Manchester. 
These falls are all rendered passa- 
ble by locks, and boat navigation 
has for several years been extended 
as far as Concord. There are sev- 
eral bridges over the Merrimack, 
and its principal branches, besides 
a number of ferries. The Merri- 
mack, whose fountains are nearly 
on a level with the Connecticut, 
being much shorter in its course, 
has- a far more rapid descent to the 
sea than the latter river. Hence the 
intervales on its borders are less ex- 
tensive, and the scenery less beau- 
tiful, than on the Connecticut. If 
is, however, a majestic river ; its 
waters are generally pure and heal- 
thy ; and on its borders are situated 
some of the most flourishing towns 
in the state. The name of this liv- 
er was originally written Afcrra- 
macke and Monnomake, which in 
the Indian language signified a 
sturgeon. Its width varies from 50 
to 120 rods; and at its mouth it pre- 
sents a beautiful sheet of half a 
mile in width. 

Merrimaclc County, IV. H. 

CoNCORn is the county town. 
The county of Meirimack is bound- 
ed N. E. by the county of Straf- 
ford, S. E. by the county of Rock- 
ingham, S. W. by the county of 
Hillsborough, and N. W. by the 
counties of Sullivan and Grafton. 

Its greatest length is 38 miles ; 
its breadth at the broadest part is 
26 miles. It contains an area of 
506,000 acres. The surface is un- 
even, and in some parts rugged 
and mountainous; but its general 
fertility, is perhaps equal to either 
of the other counties in the state. 
In the towns of Hopkinton, Henni- 
ker, Eoscawen, Salisbury, Canter- 
bury, Concord, &c., are seen many 
extensive and well cultivated farms. 
The northerly part of the county is 
j'ough and mountainous. Kearsarge 
is the highest mountain, its summit 
being 2,461 feet above the level of 
the sea. It is composed of a range 
of hills, running north and south 
about six miles ; its general aspect 
is rugged and craggy, excepting- 
when its roughness is shaded by 
the woody covering that darkens its 
sides. The Ragged mountains, so 
called, from their appearance, lie 
northeast of Kearsarge, and be- 
tween Andover and Hill. These 
are nearly 2,000 feet high at the 
north points of the range. Bear's 
Hill, in Northfield, Sunapee moun- 
tain, in Newbury, Catamount, in 
Pittsfield, and the peak in Hook- 
sett, are the other most considerable 
elevations. A part of lake Suna- 
pee lies in Newbury ; and there 
are numerous ponds interspersed 
throughout the whole territory. 

The Merrimack river meanders 
through nearly the centre of the 
county, and forms the boundary 
some distance at the northeastern 
part. It receives from the west the 
Blackwater and Contoocook rivers, 
an<I from the east, Soucook and Sun- 
cook, and other smaller streams. 


This county was constituted by 
an act of the les^islature, 1 July, 
1S23 — bein^ taken tVom the coun- 
ties of Rockingliam and Hillsbo- 
borough, ten towns being separated 
from the former, and thirteen from 
the latter. Population, 1820, 32,- 
843; 1S30, 34,619. Twenty four 
towns, 44 inhabitants to a square 
mile. In 1837, there were 66,152 
sheep in this county. 

Merrimack, W. II., 

Hillsborough co., is bounded N. 
b> Bedford, E. by Litchheld, S. by 
Nashua, and W. by Amherst. — 
It is 6 miles S. E. from Amherst, 
and 27 S. from Concord. Merri- 
mack river waters its E. border 
thj-ough its whole extent, opening 
a communication by water from 
this place to Boston. Souhegan en- 
ters this town from Amherst, pur- 
sues a winding course to the Mer- 
rimack, where it discharges itself 
one mile above Thointon's ferry. 
There are fine water privileges on 
this stream. Babboosuck brook, 
issuing from Babboosuck pond in 
Amherst, empties into Souhegan 
river, and Penichook brook from a 
pond in Hollis, forms the southern 
boundary. The soil in various pla- 
ces is very fertile, but a considera- 
ble portion of the land is plain. 
There are some line intervales on 
the Merrimack. Some of the best 
and most extensive water privileges 
the county affords, about 1 1-2 mile 
from the Merrimack, on Souhegan 
river, lie unimproved. 

This town claims the first discove- 
ry in this region of making what 
aiK) called leghorn bonnets. They 
were fir^t made several years since, 
by the Misses Burnaps. Some of 
their bonnets were sold at auction 
in Bo=!ton for $50. 

This town was formerly called 
Souhegan East. It was incorpo- 
rated, 1746, having been settled 
about 13 years. 

The first house in this town was 
erected on the margin of the river 

for a house of traffic willi the In- 
dians. For some time one Crom- 
well carried on a lucrative trade 
with the Indians, weighing their 
furs with his foot, till, enraged at 
his supposed or real deception, 
they formed the resolution to mur- 
der him. This intention was com- 
municated to Cromwell, who buried 
his wealth and made his escape. 
Within a few hours after his Oight, 
a party of the Penacook tribe arriv- 
ed, and not finding the object of 
their resentment, they burnt his 

Hon. Matthew Thokntoa'-, 
one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of American Independence, 
resided many years in this town. 
He died in 1803, at the age of 89. 
Population, 1330, 1,191. 

Merrymeetiiig Bays. 

Merrymeeting Bay, in Maine, is 
at the junction of the Androscoggin 
with the Kermebec, about 5 miles 
above Bath, it is a large expanse 
of water, and contains Swan and 
other islands. The passage through 
this bay, of 10 or 12 miles in length, 
is delightful. 

Merrymeeting Bay, in New 
Hauipshire, is an arm of Winne- 
pisiogee lake, extending about 1,800 
rods into the town of Alton, and is 
27 miles from the navigable waters 
of Piscataqua river. 

Metliueii, Mass. 

Essex CO. In this town is a beau- 
tiful water fall of 30 feet, on Spick- 
et river, which furnishes an excel- 
lent hydraulic power. Methuen 
lies on the N. bank of Meriimack 
river, and is 25 miles N. by W. from 
Boston, and 20 N. W. by N. from 
Salem. It was taken from Haver- 
hill in 1725. Population, 1830, 
2,011; 1837, 2,463. There are 2 
cotton, and 2 paper mills in the 
town, and manufactures of leather, 
shoes, hats, ploughs, segars, essen- 
ces, chaises, harnesses, chairs, tin 
and cabinet wares, and piano-forte 


frames : value, for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, $462,52r>. An ex- 
cellent bed of peat has recently 
been discovered. It is 14 feet in 
depth, and very extensive. The 
soil of Methuen is very good, the 
village is pleasant, and the scenery 
around it, romantic and beautiful. 

Mexico, Me. 

Oxford CO. This town lies on the 
north side of Andi-oscoggin river, 
and is watered by two of its tribu- 
taries. It has a good soil and a good 
water power. It lies 47 miles W. 
N. W. from Augusta, and 20 N. 
from Paris. Incorporated, 18 IS. 
Population, 13-37,447. Wheat crop, 
same year, 1,552 bushels. 

Middleborougli, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This is the Indian 
JVamasket ; formerly thickly popu- 
lated by the people of that tribe, 
and governed by the noted sachem 
Tispacan. On the rocks, in this 
town, are the prints of naked hands 
and feet, supposed to be the work 
of the Indians. Here are numer- 
ous ponds, several kinds of fish, and 
large quantities of iron ore is found 
in the ponds. These ponds, of which 
the Jlssawamset and Long pondaie 
the largest, empty into Taunton 
river, and produce an extensive wa- 
ter power 

This town lies 34 miles S. by E. 
from Boston, 14 S. S. W. from Ply- 
mouth, and 10 S. E. from Tauntoa 
Incorporated, 1660. Population, 
1837, 5,005. This is probably the 
largest town in the state : it is 15 
miles in length, and about 9 aver- 
age breadth : it has several pleasant 
villages. There are 2 cotton mills, 
2 forges, an air and cupola furnace, 
a nail factory, and manufactures of 
leather, shovels, spades, forks, 
ploughs, wrought nails, chairs, cab- 
inet ware, tacks, straw bonnets, and 
various other articles : total value, 
in one year, $200,000. 

In 1763, Shubael Thompson found 
a land turtle, marked on the shell 

J. W., 1747. Thompson marked it 
and let it go. Eiijaii CUipp found 
it in 1773 ; William Shaw Ibund it 
in 1775; Jonathan Soule found it in 
1781; Joseph Soule found it in 1790, 
and Zenas Smith, in 1791 : each 
marked it with his initials. Wheth- 
er the critter is dead or gone to the 
west, we have no account. 

Middlebury, Vt. 

Addison co. Chief town. This is 
a large and flourishing town on both 
sides of Otter creek, 31 miles S. W. 
from Montpelier, and 33 S. S. E. 
fiom Burlington. The fathers of 
this town were Col. John Chipman 
and the Hon. Gamaliel Painler, who 
came here and settled in 1773. The 
settlement advanced but slowly un- 
til after the revolutionary war; it 
then began to increase and is now 
one of the most important towns in 
the state. In 1791 it became the 
shire town of the county, and in 
1800 Middlebury college was found- 
ed. The surface of the town ia 
generally level. Chipman's hill, 
439 feet above Otter creek, is the 
highest elevation. The soil is fer- 
tile and productive, and furnishes 
large quantities of wool, beef, pork, 
butter and cheese. The town is 
admirably watered by Otter creek 
and Middlebury river. At the falls 
on Otter creek, the site of the flour- 
ishing village, are extensive manu- 
facturing establi-hments ; and large 
quantities of white and variega- 
ted marble, with which the town 
abounds, are sawed and polished 
for various uses and transported to 
market. Middlebury is a very 
beautiful town, and the mart of a 
large inland trade. Population, in 
1830, 3,463. See Register. 

Middlebury River rises in Han- 
cock, and passing through Ripton 
falls into Otter creek at Middlebury. 
This mountain stream is about 14 
miles in length, affords a fine wa- 
ter power, and is very romantic in 
its course. It passes some distance 


along the road from Windsor to 
Vergennes, and presents some de- 
lightful scenery. 

Middletoiiry, Ct. 

New Haven CO. The surface of 
this town is hilly and rocky; the 
soil a coarse, gravelly loam, tit for 
grazing and the growth of rye. It 
lies 36 miles W. S. W. from Hart- 
ford, and 22 N. W. from New Ha- 
ven. Incorporated, 1807. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 816. The town is 
watered by Quusepaugpond, which 
empties into the Housatonick, and 
furnishes a water power for a satin- 
et factory, and other machinery. 

Middlefield, Mass. 

Hampshire co. This is an eleva- 
ted agricultural township, watered 
by a branch of Westfield river. It 
lies 110 miles W. from Boston, 24 
AV. from Northampton, and 17 S. E. 
from Pittsfield. Incorporated, 1783. 
Population, 1837, 710. There are 
2 woolen mills in the town, and 2 
tanneries. Annual value of goods 
manufactured, about j|;75,000. — 
Among the productions of the soil, 
there were, in 1837, 9,724 fleeces 
of saxony wool, which weighed 
26,741 pounds, value, $17,382. 

Middlesex, Vt. 

Washington co. Onion river and 
other streams give this town a good 
water power. It has numerous 
manufacturing concerns, and a very 
pleasant village. The soil along 
the streams is good, and that of the 
uplands, generally, is adapted for 
grazing. It lies 30 miles E. S. E. 
from Burlington, and is bounded by 
Montpelier on the S. E. First set- 
tled, in 1781. Population, 1830, 

There is a curious chasm in Mid- 
dlesex, on Onion river, near More- 
town. The river has worn a pas- 
sage through rocks 30 feet in depth, 
60 feet in width, and al)out 80 rods 
in length. The walls on each side 
are very smooth,over which a bridge 

is thrown. This place is worthy of 
a visit. 

Middlesex County, Mass. 

Concord, Camhridge, and Low- 
ell, are the shire towns. The sur- 
face of this county is uneven and 
the soil various. It presents a great 
variety for the admiration of the 
patriot, scholar, farmer, mechanic, 
and the painter. It is bounded N. 
by New Hampshire; N. E. by the 
county of Essex ; S. E. by Charles 
river, Boston harbor, and Norfolk 
county ; and W. by the county of 
Worcester. Area, 800 square miles: 
population, in 1820,61,476; 1830, 
77,968; 1837,98,56.5. Population 
to a square mile, 123. The princi- 
pal rivers in this county, are the 
Merrimack, Charles, Mystic, Sud- 
bury, Concord, and Nashua. The 
Middlesex Canal passes through 
its northeastern section. In 1837 
there were 5,166 sheep in the coun- 
ty. The value of manufactures for 
the year ending Apiil 1, 1837, 
amounted to $15,008,028. Fishery, 
same year, $33,000. 

Middlesex County, Ct. 

Shire towns — Middletoivn and 
Haddam. This county is bounded 
N. by Hartford county, E. by Hart- 
ford and New London counties, S. 
by Long Island Sound, and W. by 
New Haven county. The general 
surface of the countj'^ is uneven. 
The soil is generally good, particu- 
larly adjacent to Connecticut river. 
There are many small streams 
which afford mill piivileges, fertil- 
izing the soil and i;iving beauty to 
the county. The waters of the 
Connecticut aflbrd it an important 
business in navigation, especially 
in the coasting trade. The tonnage 
of the district of Middletown, in 
1837, was 13,133 tons. There are 
numerous manufacturing establish- 
ments in the county; large quanti- 
tiesof freestone arc quarried and car- 
ried to market, and the shad fishery 


gives employment to many of its 

Middlesex county contains an 
area of 342 square miles. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 22,405; 1830, 24,845, 
containing a population of 73 in- 
habitants to a square mile. Con- 
siderable amounts of the productions 
of the soil are exported, and in 
1837, there were in the county 
12,401 sheep. 

Middleton, N. H. 

Strafford co. This is a very lev- 
el township, having no high ground 
except a part of Moose mountain, 
which separates it from Brookiield. 
There are no rivers nor ponds, and 
the soil is rocky. It lies 25 miles 
N. W, from Dover. Middleton was 
incorporated in 1778. Population, 
1830, 5{j2. 

Middleton, Mass. 

Essex CO. A pleasant town on 
both sides of Ipswich river, 19 miles 
N. from Boston, and 7 N. W. from 
Salem. This place contains a large 
and expensive paper mill. This is 
the principal manufacturing con- 
cern in the town. Incorporated, 
172S. Population, 1837, 671. 

MiddletOAvn, Vt. 

Rutland co. This town lies be- 
tween two mountains, is watered 
by Poultney river, and has a good 
soil for grazing. It keeps, among 
other cattle, about 4,000 sheep. It 
lies 14 miles S. W. from Rutland. 
It has a neat and flourishing vil^ 
lage, a woolen factory, marble fac- 
tory, and other manufactures. — 
Population, 1830, 919. 

Middletoivii, Ct, 

Chief town of Middlesex co. — 
MiDDLETOww City, and port of 
entry, lies on the W. bank of Con- 
necticut river, 30 miles from its 
mouth, 15 S. from Hartford, 24 N. 
E. from New Haven, 35 N. W. 
from New London. Lat. 41° 34' 
N., long. 72° 39' W. The city is 

very pleasantly situated on ground 
rising gradually from the river. 
The principal street, called Main 
street, runs parallel with the river. 
This and other streets, are inter- 
sected by cross streets, leading to 
the river. 

The wharves are commodious for 
shipping, there being ten feet of 
water for all vessels that can cross 
the bar at the mouth of the river. 

Two high wharves are appropria- 
ted for tv/o lines of steam-boats, of a 
large class, which afford adaily com- 
munication with the cities of New 
York and Hartford. 

The streets and side-walks are 
pleasantly shaded with trees, and 
the side- walks are remarkably well 

The population of the city, is 
about 3,500 ; of the town, above 

The public edifices are a court- 
house in the Grecian style of arch- 
itecture, built in 1832; a custom- 
house handsomely built of Chatham 
freestone ; 2 banks, and a savings 
bank, &c. The places of public 
worship in the city, and the princi- 
pal houses and stores are of brick, 
many of which are built with great 

The Wesleyan^ Uiviversity, 
under the patronage of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, was founded 
in 1831, and is very rapidly acquir- 
ing a high standing. It has now 
160 students. Its officers are a 
president and 5 professors. 

The college buildings command 
an extensive view of the surround- 
ing country, as well as of the val- 
ley of the Connecticut, so justly 
famed for its beauty. 

The college library, with those 
belonging to the societies, comprises 
about 10,000 volumes. It has ma- 
ny rare and choice works, an entire 
set of the Latin Classics, and most of 
the Greek, a set of the Philosophical 
Transactions, and all of the most 
important later scientific works of 


France. There is also a collection 
of bibles and testaments in 81 lan- 
guages and dialects, oriental, &.c., 
into which the bible has been trans- 

The philosophical and astronomi- 
cal apparatus, has been lately in- 
creased at great expense. There 
is a telescope, with a six inch object 
glass, a splendid altitude and Azi- 
muth instrument, so constructed as 
to be used for meridian transits. 
Russell's mai^nificent: Orrery, an 
unrivalled in-itrunient, and the only 
one of the kind. There is a noble 
Plate Electrical machine, with two 
plates 36 inches in diameter, &c. 

The chemical department has a 
good laboratory and appai-atus. — 
The cabinet of minerals is becom- 
ing extensive. In geology, besides 
specimens, there are several valu- 
able charts to illustrate the different 
states, and many districts of Eng- 

In botany, there are several of the 
best standard works, and for the 
preservation of the science, the 
richness in species of the native 
plants about Middlctown, is not 
surpassed by any location in New 
England. The place is also remark- 
able for the variety and abundance 
of its rare minerals. 

The rising reputation of its uni- 
versity, the great salubrity of its 
atmosphere, and the activity of its 
manufacturing capital, render Mid- 
dletown equally attractive to the 
traveler, the man of science, or of 
business. There are besides in this 
city, several fine cabinets of shells, 
insects, minerals, &c., and an Her- 
barium of considerable extent, of 
North American as well as of Eu- 
ropean plants, also several choice 
private libraries. 

The library of the Rev. Dr. Jar- 
vis, contains 13,000 volumes of ex- 
ceeding choice books, collected by 
him, during a residence of sev- 
eral years in Europe, and his 
lery of about 120 paintings, is re- 
garded as being very valuable. — 

About 70 of there pictures formed 
the galleiy of the Archbishop of 
Tarento at Naples, and are of the 
old masters — Titian, Rubens, Tin- 
toretto, Salvator Rosa, Carlo Dolce, 
Lueca, Giordano, Jordens, Spaguo- 
Ictto, &c. There is also in another 
collection some very fine paintings 
of the old masters, and an exqui- 
site piece of statuary by the Cheva- 
lier P. Marchesi of Milan, repre- 
senting Christ when 12 years of 
age ! This is the only work of the 
distinguished sculptor, that has yet 
arrived in this country. 

The township from N. to S. is 
about 9 miles long, its breadth va- 
rying from 4 to 10 miles at its great- 
est area, or about 43,520 acres. — 
The Indian name of the town was 
Mattabesett. The town is divided 
into 4 societies or parishes. 

There is in the city a prepara- 
tory school connected with the uni- 
versity, as well as several flourish- 
ing private schools. 

The public records of this town 
commenced in 1654. The city was 
incorporated in 1784. 

The burial grounds contain many 
curious, as well as antique monu- 
ments of its earliest settlers. 

The burial ground at the N. part 
of the city, and by the river, was 
laid out in 1650. 

Middletown meadows, north of the 
city, contain about 640 acres. The 
height of the base of the village is 
160 feet above the river, and is 
from it, eighths of a mile. Main 
street is from 40 to 50 feet above the 

The Connecticut river is here 
generallj' closed with ice about the 
middle of December, and opens 
about the end of the third week in 

The manufactures in this city, 
are 3 establishments on a large 
scale for the manufacture of arras, 
for the United States service ; 
broadcloths and cotton goods, brit- 
annia and tin wares, stoves, combs, 
tubs, machinery, steam engines. 


cotton machinery, paper, powder, 
jewelry, brass ware, steel pens, 
buttons, looking-glasses, carriages, 
carpenter's tools and locks, besides 
many manufactures of miiK)r im- 

Geology. Middletown rests on 
secondary red sandstone : within 2 
miles of the city, south, there is a 
granite ridge, here known by the 
name of the White rocks. It runs 
N. N. E., and forms the straits of 
the Connecticut river. This granite 
ridge is from 400 to 600 feet above 
the tide water. Here occurs an in- 
exhaustible quantity of the finest 
feldspar, the material used for the 
glaze of porcelain. This was first 
brought into notice in 1833, at the 
recommendation of Dr. Barrett. A 
large quantity of it has been sent to 
Europe, as well as being used in 
this country, and it has been proved 
to be of the best quality. 

The feldspar is often so pure at 
the quarry opened on the Haddam 
road, that masses of several hun- 
dred weight occur without any ad- 
mixture of quartz and mica. 

Middletown, R. I. 

Newport co. This is the middle 
township on the island of Rhode 
Island. It lies 2 miles N. E. from 
Newport, and 28 S. by E. from 
Providence. The surface of the 
town is undulating, and affords ma- 
ny interesting and beautiful land- 
scapes. The soil is a rich loam, 
very productive and under a high 
state of cultivation ; the lands are 
highly valued and command a great 
price. The inhabitants of the town 
are principally farmers ; they are 
distinguished for their habits of in- 
dustry and economy, and for the 
uniformity, plainness, and simplici- 
ty of their manner of living. The 
products of the town consist of 
corn, barley, hay, and great varie- 
ties of fruits and vegetables for 
Newport market. Incorporated, 
1743. Population, 1830, 915. 


Milan; N. H., 

Coos CO., is 139 miles N. by E. 
from Concord, and about 22 N. E. 
from Lancaster. This tract was 
granted in 1771, and was called 
Patdsburgli,\ini\\ 1824. The Up- 
per Amonoosuck and Androscoggin 
rivers pass through this town. — 
There are several ponds, and some 
considerable mountains. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 57. 

Milford, Me. 

Penobscot county. See " Down 

Milford, N. H., 

Hillsborough co., is bounded E. 
by Amherst, and is 31 miles S. by 
W. from Concord. Milford lies on 
both sides of Souhegan river, which 
runs through the town from W. to 
E., forming a rich meadow or inter- 
vale, from 1-4 to 1-2 a mile wide. 
The banks of this river are annual- 
ly overflowed, by which means, 
the soil, which is black and deep, is 
much enriched. This town has ex- 
cellent water privileges, and there 
is a valuable factory in the village. 
Population, 1830, 1,303. 

Milford, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town, the 
Indian JVopoiuage, is well watered 
by Charles and Mill rivers. It lies 
28 miles S.W. by W. from Boston,and 
18 S. E. from Worcester. Incorpora- 
ted, 1780. Population, 1S37, 1,637. 
The soil is generally fertile, and 
the surface pleasantly diversified. 
The manufactures of the town, for 
the year ending April 1, 1837, 
am.ounted to .<|257,671. They con- 
sisted of cotton goods, leather, boots, 
shoes, chairs, tin and cabinet wares, 
straw bonnets, varnish, clothing, 
shoe pegs, wagon irons, and whips. 

Milford, Ct. 

New Haven co. This is one of 
the towns which composed the 
" Old Jurisdiction of New Haven." 


The settlement commenced in 1639. 
The first purchase of land was made 
of the Indians, for the considera- 
tion of " 6 coats, 10 blankets, 1 
kettle, besides a number of hoes, 
knives, hatchets, and glasses." The 
Indians made a reservation of 20 
acres in the town, which was sold 
by them, in 1681, for 6 coats, 2 
blankets, and a pair of breeches. 

Milford is bounded W. by Housa- 
tonick river, and S. E. by Long 
Island Sound, The Indian name 
of the place was Wepawaiig. The 
town is generally level, and the 
soil productive. There is a quarry 
of beautiful serpentine marble in 
the town, and a harbor for small 

Poconock or Milford point is a 
noted place, where are a number of 
huts on the beach, occupied by 
persons engaged in the oyster and 
clam business. 

Milford village is very pleasant, 
and the scenery variegated and in- 
teresting. Population, 1837, about 

Millljiiry, Mass. 

Worcester co. Millbury was 
taken from Sutton, in 1813, It lies 
42 miles W. S. W, from Boston, 
and 6 S.E. from Worcester. Branch- 
es of the Blackstone river rise in 
the town, and the Blackstone canal 
passes through it. It is a very 
pleasant manufacturing place, with 
a valuable water power. There 
are 1 paper, 6 woolen, and 1 cotton 
mills ; and manufactures of boots, 
shoes, leather, hats, scythes, spades, 
forks, hoes, ploughs, muskets, trying 
squares, levels, trowels, machinery, 
black lead, tin ware, sashes and 
blinds : total value, the year ending 
April 1, 1837, $566,150. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 2,153, 

Miller's Rivers. 

Miller^s iJiuer, in Vermont, rises 
in Sheffield, Caledonia county, and 
passing through a part of Wheelock 

falls into the Passumpsick at Lyn- 

Jailer's River, in Massachusetts, 
rises in ponds in Ashburnham, 
and Winchendon ; it has many trib- 
utaries, and passes through Athol, 
Orange, and Wendell, and falls into 
the Connecticut at Erving. This 
is a noble mill stream. 

Miilinolcet LAke, Me. 

This is a large body of water ia 
the county of Penobscot, the re- 
cipient of many rivers. It is an 
important source of the west branch 
of Penobscot river. Its outlet is a 
river of the same name, and unites 
with the waters of Pemadumcook 
lake, near the Great falls at the out- 
let of the Pemadumcook. 

Mill River, Mass. 

See Springfield. 

Millsfield, X. H., 

Coos CO., is 7 miles W. from Um- 
bagog lake, and about 35 N.from the 
White mountains. Clear stream 
waters its N. extremity, and Phil- 
lip's river with several small 
streams the other parts. Here are 
several ponds, the largest is about 
300 rods long, 140 wide. Millsfield 
was granted in 1774, and was nam- 
ed after Sir Thomas Mills, a gran- 
tee. It had but 33 inhabitants in 

Milo, Me. 

Piscataquis co. This is a beau- 
tiful township on the fertile banks 
of Sebec and Pleasant rivers, at 
their union with the Piscataquis. 
It lies 103 miles N. E, from Augus- 
ta, and 15 N. E. from Dover. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 381 ; 1837, 640.— 
Wheat crop, 1837, 4,514 bushels. 
Incoi-porated, 1823, 

Milton, Me. 

Piscataquis co. Population, 1837, 
352. Wheat crop, same year, 1,323 


bushels. 94 miles from Augusta, 
See " Down East." 

Milton, N. II. 

StrafTorcl co. The Salmon Fall 
river washes its whole E. bounda- 
ry, a distance of 13 miles ; and a 
branch of the same river crosses 
from the S. part of Wakefield, and 
unites near the centre of the E. 
boundary. Teneriffe, a bold and 
rocky mountain, extends alonr; the 
E. part of Milton, near which lies 
Milton pond, of considerable size, 
connecting with t!ie Salmon Fall 
river. This town was formerly a 
part of Rochester, fiom which it 
was detached in 1S02. It lies 40 
miles N. E. from Concord, and 20 
N. \V. by N. fiom Dovei-. Popu- 
lation, 1S30, 1,273. 

Milton, Vt. 

Chittenden co. Milton is bound- 
ed on the W. by lake Champlain, 
and is (inely watered by the i-iver 
Lamoille. It lies 12 miles N. from 
B.irlin'Jlon, and 40 N. W. from 
Montpelicr. Population, 1S30, 2,- 
100. The soil of the town is gen- 
erally good, and about 9,000 sheep 
graze in its pastures. There are 
some places in Milion worthy of the 
traveller's notice. A little distance 
from the neat and nourishing vil- 
lage are the Great falls, on the La- 
moille. In the course of 50 rods 
the whole river falls 150 feet. — 
About the middle of the rapid is a 
small island, by which the water 
passes on each side, with great vi- 
olence and loud roaring. The scen- 
ery on the banks of the river is 
wild and beautiful. There are 
some mills on the river, and consid- 
erable trade on the lake. 

Miltoii, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This interesting and 
pleasant town, the Uncataqnifisit 
of the Indians, lies 7 miles 8. fiom 
Boston, and Q E. from Dedham. 
Nepon-sct river washes its northern 
border and affords numerous valua- 

ble mill sites. This town was taken 
fiom Dorchester, in 16(j2. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,772. A large part of 
the land is a gravelly loam, strong 
and very productive. The manu- 
factures consist of paper, granite, 
leather, liafs, chairs, cabinet ware, 
playing cards, &c. : total annual 
amount, about $100,000. The man- 
ufacture of paper from beach grass 
has recently been commenced, and 
promises (o be a good substitute for 
rags, for the more common kinds. 

The village called the " Mills," 
comprising a part of Dorchester, at 
the head of navigation, on the Ne- 
ponset, is a wild, romantic place, 
and ever since the first settlement 
of the country, has been the seat of 
considerable trade and manufacture. 

Tlie village at the rail-road, near 
the granite quai-ry, in Quincy, 
about a mile S. E. of the " Mills," 
is very pleasant and flourishing. — 
By a new and beautiful bridge, 
called the " Granite bridge," across 
the Neponset, the distance to the 
city is reduced to 6 miles. 

Milton contains some elegant 
counti'y seats, and much delightful 
scenery. The views from " Milton 
Hill," near the head of the Ne- 
ponset ; and "Blue Hill," a cele- 
!)rated land mark for sailors, 710 
feet above the sea, in the south part 
of the town, 12 miles from Boston, 
are among the moit admired in our 

Minot, Me. 

Cumberland co. Minotis a large 
and excellent township of land with 
(hi-ee very pleasant villages. The 
Androscoggin passes its eastern bor- 
der and Little A idro-;coggin sepa- 
rates it from Poliind, on tlie S. This 
is one of ihe mo-t llouridiing towns 
in the state. Although agriculture 
i- llic chief bu-iness of the people of 
Miiiot, yet its wa'er power is so val- 
ua!)le, that manufactures of various 
kinds are springing up with promis- 
ing success. Minot is connected 
with Lewiston, across the Andros- 


coggin, by a bridge. It lies 33 
miles S. W. from Augusta, and 35 
N. from Portland. Population, in 
1830, 2,908 ; 1837, 3,326. Incor- 
porated, 1802. Wheat crop, 1837, 
7,266 bushels. 

Missisquc River, Vt. 

This crooked river is about 75 
miles in length. It rises in Orleans 
county, and passes N. into Canada, 
about 5 miles ; it then returns to 
the state at the N. E. corner of 
Franklin county, and after mean- 
dering through the north part of 
that county, it falls into Missisque 
bay at Highgate. There are sev- 
eral falls on this river, which afford 
numerous mill sites ; but it is gen- 
erally sluggish in its course, and 
being wide, is rather shallow. Its 
waters fertilize a large portion of 
country, and it is navigable for small 
vessels, six miles from its mouth. 

Molecliunkamuiik Lake, Me« 

This is one of a number of large 
lakes extending northwest from 
Umbagog lake, and which empty 
through the Umbagog into the An- 
droscoggin. These lakes lie in the 
counties of Oxford and Franklin : 
their borders are but little settled, 
but those who have visited them 
report that the soil is exceedingly 
fertile, and that the beauties ol 
these little inland seas, equal that 
of the celebj-ated Winnepisiogee. 
The Molechunkamunk lies about 80 
miles N. by W. from Portland. 

niolumkus River, 

A large tributary to the Mata- 
wamkeag from the north. It unites 
with that river about 8 miles above 
its mouth. 

Monadiiock Mountain, N. H., 

Usually called the Grand Mo- 
nadnock, is situated in the towns of 
Jaffrey and Dublin, in Cheshire 
county, about 22 miles E, from Con- 
necticut river, and 10 N. of the 
southern boundary of this state. — 

The direction of the ridge is N. E. 
and S. VV. The mountain is about 
5 miles long from N. to S., and 3 
miles from E. to W. Its summit is 
3,718 feet a«bove the level of the sea. 
Thirty years since, Monadnock was 
nearly covered with evergreen 
wood of considerable growth. By 
the repeated ravages of tire, it now 
presents to the distant beholder, 
nothing but a barren and bald rock. 
But on ascending, we find plats of 
earth sufficient to give growth to 
the blueberry, cranberiy, mountain 
ash, and a variety of shrubs. Some 
caves are discovered, which excite 
curiosity. They appear to have 
been formed by large fissures, and 
by extensive strata being thrown 
from their primitive state, and form- 
ing different angles with each other 
and with perpendicular precipices. 
The mountain is composed of talc, 
mica, slate, distinctly stratified.— 
Garnet, schorl, feldspar and quartz 
occur in various parts. On the E. 
side, plumbago is found in large 
quantities. Crucibles and pencils 
have been manufactured from it, 
but for the latter, it proves not very 
good. The summit, when seen at 
a distance of 4 or 5 miles, appears 
rounded and destitute of those high 
cliffs and mural precipices belong- 
ing to granitic mountains. The 
prospect from the pinnacle is very 
extensive ; thirty ponds of fresh 
water, some of which are so large 
as to contain islands of 8 or 10 
acres, may be seen from it, in the 
immediate vicinity. Near the base 
of the mountain, in Jaffrey, is the 
" Monadnock Mineral Spring." 

Monkton, Vt. 

Addison co. This town lies 27 
miles W. from Montpelier, 16 N. 
from Middlebury, and 18 S. by E. 
from Burlington. This is a good 
farming town, and the products of 
wool, cattle, and of the dairy are 
considerable. lion ore is found in 
abundance, and a bed of porcelain 
earth. By mixing this earth with 



common clay, in difTerent propor- 
tion-., various kinds of pottery are 
produced. Thi-5 earth is very pure, 
and it is said might be manufactur- 
ed into the best china ware. The 
bed is inexhaU'Siibis. The black 
oxide ol" mang-ancse is also found 
here. There i3 also a curious cav- 
ern in this town : after descending 
about 16 feet, you arrive at a room 
30 feet long, and 16 wide. Fiom 
this is a pas^jge leading to a second 
apartment, which is not quite so 
large, but more pleasant. .Monk- 
ton is a pleasant town, 3 miles E. 
from Ferrisburgh, and is frequent- 
ly visited bv the curious. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,381. 

Moniuoutli, Me. 

Kennebec co. This is a fine 
township, and beautifully watered 
by some of the sources of the Cob- 
bessecontee. It lies 15 miles S. 
W. fjorn Augusta. The village is 
very pleasant, and is the seat of a 
flourishing academy. Wheat crop, 
1837, 5,256 bushels. Population, 
same year, 1,847. Incorporated, 

Monroe, Me. 

Waldo CO. This town is watered 
by Marsh river, a branch of the Pe- 
no!)scot. It lies 59 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 14 N. from Belfast. 
Population, 1837, 1,365. Wheat 
crop, same year, 5,897. 

Monroe, Mass. 

Franklin co. This is an elevated 
township, bounded E. by Deerheld 
river. It lies 105 miles W. N. W. 
from Boston, and 23 W. by N. from 
Greenfield. Incorporated, 1822. — 
Population, 1837, 232. 

Monroe, Ct. 

Fairfield co. This town was 
taken from Huntington in 1823. 
The soil is good, and well adapted 
for grazing, but the surface is rough 
and stony. Agriculture is the prin- 
cipal business of the inhabitants. 


There are excellent orchards of va- 
rious kinds of fruit in the town, a 
pleasant village on elevated groiind, 
and a classical school. It lies 15 
miles W. by N. from New Haven, 
and 12 E. by S. from Danbury. 
Popu!a!ion, 1830, 1,522. 

A rich variety of mineral sub- 
stances have been discovered here. 
Among them, arc tungsten, telluii- 
um, native bismouth, native silver, 
magnetical and common, iron py- 
rites, copper pyrites, galena, blen- 
de, tourmaline, &c. 

Mouson, Me. 

Piscataquis co. This town is 
watered by Piscataquis river and 
Wilson's stream. Monson compris- 
es a tine tract of land, and is settled 
by a worthy class of people. In- 
corporated, 1822. Population, in 
1837, 565. Wheat crop, same year, 
2,267 bushels. It lies 83 miles N. 
by E. from Augusta, and 20 N. W. 
from Dover. A stage runs between 
this town and Bangor, three times 
a Vv^eek. Distance from Monson to 
Bangor, 60 miles ; to Moosehead 
lake, 15. 

Moiisosi, Mass. 

Hampden co. Monson was tak- 
en from Brimfield in 1760. It lies 
73 miles S. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 13 E. from Springfield. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 2,179. this is a pleas- 
ant town of variegated surface, 
good soil and well watered by Chick- 
opce river. It contains a flouri-;h- 
ing academy. There are 3 cotton 
mills in Monson, and other manu- 
factures. The value of cotton goods 
manufactured in the year ending 
April 1, 1837, was $67,500. 

Montague, Mass. 

Franklin co. This town is on 
the E. bank of Connecticut river, 
opposite to Deerfield, and united to 
that town by a bridge. Turner''s 
Falls, at the noi-therly part of the 
town, are more interesting than 
any in the state, and probably as 


much so as any in New Enaland. I 
The canal tor passing these falls, 3 
miles in length and 75 feet lockage, 
with an immense dam across the 
river, greatly facilitates the naviga- 
tion on Connecticut river. This 
place has a great water power, and 
promises peculiar advantages to the 
manufacturing interest. Tlie scene- 
ry around this place is romantic and 
beautiful, and to the lovers of anti- 
quarian lore, full of interesting as- 

It lies 80 miles W. by N. from 
Boston, and 7 S. E. from Greenfield. 
Incorporated, 1753. Population, in 
1837, 1,260. 

Montgomery, Vt. 

Franklin co. This town lies in a 
mountainous country, but it has a 
valuable tract of land on Trout riv- 
er, a good mill stream, a branch of 
the Missisque. It lies 42 miles N. 
from Montpelier, and 27 E. N. E. 
from St. Albans. First settled, in 
1793. Population, 1S30, 460. 

The Rev. Joel Clapp was the first 
child born in this town, September 
14, 1793. He preached the first 
fast-day sermon, the first thanks- 
giving sermon, and the first moth- 
er's funeral sermon, which were 
preaclied in the town. 

Montgomery, Mass. 

Hampden co. This is a moun- 
tainous township on the N. side of 
Westfield river, and has a good wa- 
ter power. It lies 100 miles W. by 
8. from Boston, and 12 N. W. from 
Springfield. Incorporated, 1780. 
Population, 1837, 497. This is a 
good town for grazing, and it pro- 
duces considerable wool and some 
beef cattle. 

Montpelier, Vt. 

The capital of the state and shire 
town of the county of Washington. 
It lies in N. lat. 44° 17', and W. 
Ion. 72° 36'. It is 182 miles W. 
from Augusta, Me. ; 97 N. N. W, 
from Concord, N. H. ; 160 N. W. 

by N. from Boston, Mass. ; 200 N. 
by W. tVoin Piovidence, R. I.; 
2U5 N. from Hartford, Ct. ; 148 N. 
E. from Albany N. Y. ; and 524 
miles from Washington. First set- 
tled, in 1786. Population, 1830, 
2,985. ]\Iontpelier became the seat 
of government in 1805, and the 
shire town of the county, in 1811. 
It is finely watered by Onion river 
and by several branches of that 
stream. These streams afford a 
good water power, on which are 
manufacturing establishments of va- 
rious kinds. The surface of the 
town is very uneven and hilly, but 
not mountainous. The soil is very 
good along the streams, and the 
highlands produce excellent pas- 
turage. The agricultural products 
are various and valuable. In 1837 
there were between 8,000 and 9,000 
sheep in the town. 

This township was granted Octo- 
ber 21, 1780, and chartered to Tim- 
othy Bigelow and others, August 
14, 1781, containing 23,040 acres. 
It was rechartered February 6, 
1S04. In the spring of 1786, Joel 
Frizzle erected a log house on the 
bank of Onion river, in the south- 
west corner of this township, and 
moved his family into it from Cana- 
da. This was the first family in 
town. Early in the month of May, 
1787, Col. Jacob and Gen. Parley 
Davis, from Worcester county, Mass. 
began improvements near the place 
where the village now stands, and 
erected a log house, into which 
Col. Davis removed his family the 
winter following. 

The village of Montpelier is sur- 
rounded by hills of considerable el- 
evation ; and although it is too low 
to command an extensive prospect, 
is very pleasant, and quite roman- 
tic in its appearance. It is located 
very near the centre of the state : 
it is a great thoroughfare from all 
directions, and commands a large 
and valuable interior trade. The 
buildings are in good style ; some 
of which are very handsome. 


We take pleasure in presenting; to the public a well executed en- 
graving of the Vermont State House, at Montpelier ; designed by A. B. 
YouKG, Esq., a native of New England, and executed und«r his imme- 
diate superintendence. 

The engraving represents a southeast front view of the building, which 
stands on an elevated site, about 325 feet from State street, on which it 
fronts, and is alike beautiful in design and execution. The yard and 
grounds pertaining to it are large and spacious, and, in the manner they 
are laid out, give great importance to the building. Through the whole 
design, a chaste architectural character is preserved, which, combined 
with the convenient arrangement of the interior and the stability of its 
construction, renders this edifice equal in every respect to any in New 
England, and probably to any in the United States. The building is in 
the form of a cross, showing in front a centre, 72 feet wide, and two 
wings, each 39 feet, making the whole length 150 feet. The centre, in- 
cluding the portico, is 100 feet deep ; the wings are 50 feet deep. The 
six columns of the portico are 6 feet diameter at their base, and 36 feet 
high, supporting an entablature of classic proportions. The dome rises 
36 feet above the ridge, making the whole height from the ground 100 
feet. The order of architecture used is the Grecian Doric, and is made 
to conform to the peculiar arrangement necessary in this building. The 
walls, columns, cornices, &c., are of dark Barre granite, wrought in a 
superior manner : the dome and roofs are covered with copper. 

In the interior, the lower story contains an Entrance Hall, rooms for 
the Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, and numerous Committee 
rooms. The second or principal story, contains a Vestibule, and stair- 
ways, a Representatives Hall, 57 by 67 feet, with a Lobby, and Galleries 
for spectators ; a Senate Chamber, 30 by 44 feet, with Lobby and Gallery ; 
a Governor's room, 24 by 20 feet, with an ante-room, and a room for his 
Secretary adjoining; a Library room, 18 by 36 feet; rooms for the several 
officers of the Senate and House of Representatives, and several com- 
mittee rooms. The cost of this building, including all expenses, was 
about $132,100; of which the inhabitants of Montpelier paid $15,000. 

At the first session of the Legislature of Vermont, within this building, 
in October, 1838, the following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont, that 
the thanks of this Legislature be presented to Ammi B. Young, Esq., 
as a testimonial of their approbation of the taste, ability, fidelity and 
perseverance which he has manifested in the design and execution of the 
new capitol of this state ; which will abide as a lasting monument of the 
talent? and taste of Mr. Young as an Architect." 


MontvUle, Me. 

Waldo CO. This is a beautiful 
and flourishing town, watered by 
some of the head branches of Sheep- 
scot river, 26 miles E. N. E. from 
Augusta, and 15 W. from Belfast. 
Incorporated, 1807. Population, in 
1830,1,243; 1837,1,937. Wheat 
crop, 1837, 8,088 bushels. 

Montville, Ct. 

New London co. Montville was 
taken from New London in 1786. 
The surface is hilly and stony; the 
soil a dry, gravelly loam, strong and 
fertile. It lies on the W. side of 
the river Thames, 35 miles S. E. 
from Hartford, 8 N. from New 
London, and 7 S. from Norwich. 
The town has a good water power 
and contains 3 cotton and 2 woolen 
factories, and an oil mill. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,964. 

This, and a large tiactof country 
lying north and cast of it, formerly 
belonged to the Mohegans, a tribe 
of Indians once celebrated for their 
warlike prowess and friendship to 
the English. In Montville is a 
tract reserved by the state, for the 
maintenance of a remnant of that 
tribe, "on the land of their fathers." 

The Mohegan reservation consists 
of about 2,700 acres. It was hold- 
en by them in common till the 
year 1790, when it was divided to 
each family by the legislature of 
Connecticut. The Mohegans are 
under the care of guardians, or over- 
seers, appointed by the legislature. 
A part ot the lands are occupied by 
the Indians themselves, and a part 
by white tenants, of which there 
are as many as Mohegans living on 
the reservation. The rents go into 
a common fund, from which the 
Mohegans deiive, individually, a 
small sum annually. 

In 1774, when a census of the in- 
habitants of Connecticut was taken, 
there were in the colony 1,363 In- 
dians. The number in the township 
of New London was stated to be 

206, Mohegan was then included 
in the limits of that town. At the 
same time there were in Stonington 
237; in Groton 186; in Lyme 104; 
in Norwich 61, and in Preston 30: 
in all, 824. Most of these may be 
consiilercd as descended fiom those 
who once owed some kind of alle- 
giance to Uncas. Dr. Holmes, who 
visited Mohegan in 1803, says that 
" there were not more than 80 per- 
sons of this tribe remaining, and 
that John Cooper, the richest man 
in the tribe, possessing a yoke of 
oxen and two cows, was then their 
religious teacher." Four years af- 
ter, (hey were reduced in number 
to sixty nine, these being lor the 
most part aged persons, widows, and 
fatherless children. 

Within the course ol a few years 
past, an eflTort has been made lo el- 
evate and rescue the remnant of 
this ti-ibe fi-om extinction. A small 
house for divine worship has been 
erected , and also a house for a teach- 
er ; towards erecting this last build- 
ing the United States government 
appropriated 500 dollars; they have 
also allowed, recently, 400 dollars 
annually for the support of a teach- 
er. The school, consisting of up- 
wards of 20 scholars, at (his time is 
under the care of Mr. Anson Glea- 
son, who also officiates as a religious 
teacher at the Mohegan Chapel. 
Mr. Gleason commenced his labors 
among this people in 1832, and it is 
firmly believed that his efforts to 
promote the welfare of this people 
will be attended with lasting and, 
beneficial effects. Mr. Gleason 
says, " that he can say for a certain- 
ty, that the native children are as 
apt (o learn as any children he ever 
taught, and bid fair for intelligent 
men and women." He also says, 
" This tribe had well nigh run out 
by indulging in the use of ardent 
spirits ; but of late there is a change 
for the better, a number of refor- 
mations having taken place. Most 
of the youth are opposed to strong 
drink, and are members of the tern- 


perance reform. The greater part 
of the working- men follow the whale 
trade, and come home only now and 
then. . . . We are on the increase, 
and hope in the course of a few years, 
through the mercy of God, to rise 
in point of virtue and respectabili- 

The Mohegan church is between 
three and four miles from Norwich 
city, a few rods east of the public 
road from Norwich to New London. 
It is beautifully situated on an em- 
inence commanding a fair view of 
Norwich at the north, and New 
London at the south. It was built 
in 1S31, at an expense of between 
six and seven hundred dollars, con- 
tributed for the purpose mostly by 
benevolent ladies in the cities of 
Norwich, Hartford and New Lon- 
don. This house is designed for the 
use of the Mohegans, and the white 
inhabitants who reside on the re- 
servation. The Mohegan school- 
house is 40 or 50 rods south of the 
chapel, at the foot of tlie hill, near 
by which is the house for the teach- 
er. About 100 rods west of the 
chapel, on the summit of a com- 
manding eminence, was situated a 
Mohegan fort, some traces of which 
remain ; they also had another fort 
near the river. 

" Ln ! where a sava.'je fiivtrcss frown'd 
Amiil yoii bluod-cemeineif c;r<uiii(l, 
A hallowed dome, witli peaceful claim, 
Shall bear the meek Redeemer's name; 
And forms like those that lingering stayed 
Latest 'r:eath Calvary's awful shade, 
And e<nl!(ist pierc'd the s^ther'd gloom 
To watch the Savior's lowly tomb — 
Such gentle forms the Indian's ire 
Have sooth'd and bade that dome aspire. 
Anil now, where rose the murderous yell, 
The tunel'ul iiymu to God shall swell- 
Where vengeance fijiread a frital snare. 
Shall breathe the red man's contrite prayer."' 

Moose Rivers. 

Moose river, m Maine, is a large 
tributary to Moosehead lake. It 
rises in the western part of Somer- 
set county, and after receiving the 
waters of several large ponds in 
that quarter, it passes through Bras- 

sua lake, 4 or 5 miles W. of the 

Moose river, in New Hampshire, 
has its source on the N. side of the 
White Mountains, and unites with 
the Androscoggin in Shelburne. — 
Its source is very near that of Is- 
rael's river, M^hich passes W. into 
the Connecticut. 

Moose river, in Vermont, is a 
branch of the Passumpsic ; it rises 
in Granby and East Haven, and 
falls into that river at St. Johnsbury. 
This, in many places, is a rapid 
stream, about 25 miles in length. 

Moose Head liakc, Me. 

This lake, the outlet of which is 
the source of Kennebec river, lies 
in the county of Piscataquis. Its 
form is very irregular. Its length 
is between 40 and 50 miles, and its 
breadth, in the widest part, about 
12 miles. The tributaries are nu- 
merous, and flow from almost every 
direction. It contains a number of 
islands, the largest of which is Su- 
gar island, containing 5,440 acres, 
and Deer island, containing 2,000 
acres. These islands are fertile, as 
is the whole country surrounding 
the lake, except in some places 
where the banks are high and pre- 
cipitous. The waters are deep and 
abound in trout of an extraordinary 

It is remarkable that the territory 
surrounding this inland sea, possess- 
ing in rich abundance all the ne- 
cessary requirements for the uses 
and comforts of man, and within 
three hundred miles of the capital 
of New England, should be left a 
wilderness garden, uninhabited and 
almost unexplored ; while thous- 
ands of New England men are press- 
ing to distant regions, less health- 
ful, and less productive, when mar- 
kets for surplus produce are consid- 

The only settlement, of any con- 
sequence, on the borders of this 
beautiful lake, is Haskell's Planta- 
tion, at the southern boundary. — 


This place 'lies 15 miles N. from 
Monson, from which town stages 
pass to Bangor, 60 miles. A steam- 
boat plies up and down the lake, 
for the purpose of tran-^porting pas- 
sengers, more particularly those 
who are engaged in felling timber; 
and for the purpose of towing the 
timber down to the Kennebec out- 

The lumber business on this lake 
is very extensive, and doubtless lu- 
crative ; but the time is not very 
distant when this and other sections 
of Maine, will be as much valued 
for the fruits of the soil ; and, under 
the wise system of geological ex- 
ploration, adopted by the legisla- 
ture, for the quarries of slate, lime, 
granite, marble, and even coal, as 
they are now for their forests of 

This lake may be divided into 
two bays. A little above the cen- 
tre of it, is a narrow pass of rath- 
er less than a mile across. At 
this place, on the western side, is 
Mount Keneo,an elevation of five or 
six hundred feet projecting over the 
v/ater. From this height a pictur- 
esque view of the lake, its islands, 
and a boundless wilderness, is pre- 
sented. When the wind blows fresh 
from the north, the waters of the 
north bay press through this strait 
with considerable force, and cause 
the south bay to rise two or three 

A dam has been erected at the 
outlet, for the purpose of raising 
the lake 3 or 4 feet, so as to let the 
the water off as occasion may re- 
quire, to facilitate the passage of 
lumber on the river. We hope, 
lor the benefit of our friends down 
stream, that the dam is of solid ma- 
terials and well constructed. 

Blooseliillock Mountain, N. H., 

Is a noble and lofty eminence 
in the S. E. part of Coventry, and 
ranks among the highest mountains 
in New England. The altitude of 

the north paak above tide water, is 
4,636 feet — that of the south peak, 
is 4,536 feet. Baker's river has its 
source on its eastern side. 

Mooseluckmaguntic liake, Me* 

A large sheet of water which 
empties into the Molechunkamunk, 
about 2 miles south. 

Moreto-ivn, Vt. 

Washington co. Mad river, a 
branch of the Onion, waters this 
town and gives it good mill seats. 
The surface is mountainous, and a 
great part of the soil unfit for culti- 
vation. First settled, 1790. Pop- 
ulation, 1S30, 816. It lies 8 miles 
S. W. from Montpelier. 

Morgan, Vt. 

Orleans co. First settled, 1800. 
It lies 50 miles N. E. from Montpe- 
lier, and 15 N. N.E. from Irasburgh. 
Population, 1830, 331. Knowlton's 
lake, a handsome sheet of water, 
containing a variety of fish, lies in 
this town. It is 4 miles in length, 
and 2 in breadth, and empties into 
Clyde river. 

MorristOTvn, Vt. 

Lamoille co. This town lies 20 
miles N. by W. from Montpelier, 
and 6 S. from Hyde Park. First 
settled, 1790. Population, 1830, 
1,315. The surface of the town is 
diversified by hills and valleys; 
the soil is good, particularly on the 
banks of Lamoille river, which af- 
fords some water power. Here is 
a neat village, and considerable 
business. The people are general- 
ly farmers, and produce cattle, but- 
ter, cheese, and a large quantity of 
wool for market. 

Moscoiv, Me. 

Somerset co. Moscow is water- 
ed by a pond, and by a beautiful 
stream, a branch of the Kennebec, 
and lies on the east side of that 
river. It is 30 miles N. from Nor- 


ridgewock, and 58 N. from Augusta. 
This town has a good soil and a 
pleasant village. It was incorpo- 
rated in 1816. Population, 1837, 
477. Wheat crop, same year, 4,273 

Moultoiil>oi*ougli, N. If., 

Strafford co., is situated on the N. 
W. shore of VVinnepisiogee lake. 
This interesting town lies 45 miles 
N. from Concord,and 20 E. from Ply- 
mouth. This town is broken by 
mountains and ponds. Red Hill, ly- 
ing wholly within this town, corn- 
mands notice from the east, south, 
and west ; and extends about 3 
miles from E. to W., between Red 
Hill river on the N., Great Squam 
on the W., Great Squam and Long 
pond on the S., terminating S. E. 
by a neck of fine land extending 
into the Winnepisiogee. Its sum- 
mit is covered vrith the uvcb ursi 
and low blueberry bush, which in 
autumn give the hill a reddish hue, 
from which circumstance its name 
was probably derived. A number 
of oval blulTs rise on its summit, 
from each of which the prospect 
on either hand is extensive and de- 
lightful. The north bluif is sup- 
posed to consist of a body of iron 
ore. Bog ore is found in a brook 
descending from this bluff. Ossi- 
pee mountain extends its base into 
this town, and is a commanding 
elevation. On the south part of 
this mountain, in Moultonborough, 
is a mineral chalybeate spring, the 
waters strongly impregnated with 
iron and sulphur, and efficacious 
in cutaneous eruptions. About a 
mile north is a spring of pure cold 
water, 16 feet in diameter, through 
the centre of which the water, con- 
taining a small portion of fine white 
sand, is constantly thrown up to the 
height of two feet — the spring fur- 
nishing water sufficient for mills. 
On the stream nearly a mile below, 
is a "beautiful waterfall of 70 feet 
perpendicular. Descending on the 
left of this fall, a cave is found, con- 

taining charcoal and other eviden- 
ces of its having been a hiding 
place for the Indians. Red Hill 
river originates in Sandwich, and 
passes through this town into the 
Winnepisiogee. Long pond is a 
beautiful sheet of water, and con- 
nects with the lake by a channel 
sixty rods in length. Squam and 
Winnepisiogee lakes lie partly in 
Moultonborough. The soil of this 
town is fruitful, though in some 
parts rocky. Moultonborough was 
granted in 1763, to Col. Jonathan 
Moulton and others. Settlements 
commenced in 1764. 

Many Indian iniplements and rel- 
ics have been found indicating this 
to have been once their favorite 
residence. In 1820, on a small isl- 
and in the Winnepisiogee,was found 
a curious gun barrel, much worn by 
age and rust, divested of its stock, 
enclosed in the body of a pitch pine 
tree 16 inches in diameter. Its butt 
rested on a flat rock, its muzzle el- 
evated about 30°. In 1819, a small 
dirk, 11-2 feet in length from the 
point to the end of the hilt, round 
blade, was found in a new field, one 
foot under ground, bearing strong 
marks of antiquity. 

Cn the line of Tuftonborough, on 
the shore of the lake, at the mouth 
of Melvin river, a gigantic skeleton 
was found about 30 years since, bu- 
ried in a sandy soil, apparently that 
of a man more than seven feet high 
— the jaw bones easily passing over 
the face of a large man. A tumu- 
lus has been discovered on a piece 
of newly cleared land, of the length 
and appearance of a human grave, 
and handsomely rounded with 
small stones, not found in this part 
of the country ; which stones are 
too closely placed to be separated 
by striking an ordinary blow with 
a crow-bar, and bear marks of being 
a composition. The Ossipee tribe 
of Indians once resided in this vi- 
cinity, and some years since a tree 
was standing in Moultonborough^ 
on which was carved in hieroglyphs 


!c8 the history of their expeditions. 
Population, 1830, 1,422. 

Mount Desert, Me* 

Hancock co. This town com- 
prised the whole island of the same 
name, lying between Frenchman's 
bay and the waters of Blue Hill 
bay, and Union river, until 1795, 
when the north part was set off and 
called Eden. It lies 110 miles E. 
from Augusta. Incorporated, 17S9. 
Population, 1837, 1,783. 

This town has an extensive coast, 
and a number of excellent harbors. 
The people of Mount Desert own 
considerable navigation employed 
in the coasting trade ; and the shore 
fishery, is a lucrative branch of 
business. The soil of the town is 
good, and abundantly able to supply 
the inhabitants with bi-ead stuffs. 
In 1837, the ocean towns of Mount 
Desert and Eden, produced 674 
bushels of good wheat. We men- 
tion this fact, to show that there 
must be something, other than sea 
air, which causes that valuable 
grain to blight on the coast of Mas- 

Mount Holly, Vt. 

Rutland co. A pleasant town 
lying 60 miles S. from Montpelier, 
and 17 S. E. from Rutland. First 
settled, 1781. Population, 1830, 
1,318. The surface of the town is 
elevated, and in some parts niouji- 
tainous, but the soil is well adapted 
for grazing, and produces consider- 
able quantities of wool, beef, but- 
ter, and cheese. 

Mounts Ilolyolte &■ Tom, Mass. 

See JVorthampton. 

Mount Hope, 

And MouivT Hope Bay. See 
Bristol, R. I. 

Mount Tabor, "Vt. 

Rutland CO. Otter Creek rises in 
this town, by a branch on each side 
of a mountain. Most of the land 

is unfit for cultivation, it being so 
high on the Green mountain range. 
It lies 66 miles S. by W. from Mont- 
pelier, and 19 S. by E. from Rut- 
land. Population, 1830, 210. 

Mount Vernon, Me. 

Kennebec co. This town lies 
W. of Belgrade, E. of Vienna, and 
15 miles N. W. from Augusta. In- 
corporated, 1792. Population, 1837, 
1,503. There are three pleasant 
villages in the town : the soil is re- 
markably good, and is watered by 
a number of beautiful ponds and 
small streams. Wheat crop, 1837, 
5,888 bushels. 

Mount Vernon, N. H., 

Hillsborough co., is 3 miles N. 
W. from Amherst, and 28 S. W. 
from Concord. There is but one 
stream of any note, and this was 
called by the Indians Quohquina- 
passakessananagnog. The situa- 
tion is elevated, and towards the E. 
and S E. there is a considerable 
prospect. There is a flourishing 
village situated near the highest 
point of elevation. This town was 
originally a part of Amherst, from 
vv'hich it was detached in 1803. 

Dr. Daniel Adams, who com- 
menced and conducted the Medical 
and Agricultural Register, and is 
author of a popular system of arith- 
metic, school geography, and a 
number of useful school books, has 
his residence in this place. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 763. 

Mount VFasliington, Mass. 

Berkshire co. This town lies in 
the S. W. corner of the state, bor- 
dering on Ct. and N. Y. It is 135 
miles W. by S. from Boston, 22 S. 
S. W. from Lenox, and 26 S. E. 
from Hudson, N. Y. Incorporated, 
1779. Population, 1837, .337. 

These people seem to enjoy a 
more elevated situation than any of 
their neighbors : one of their hills 
is 3,150 feet above the sea. They 
keep 600 sheep, and manufacture 


atout 100,000 bushels of charcoal, 
annually. A mountain stream af- 
fords them a water power for an axe 
factory and forge. These people, 
likewise, appeal- to be more inde- 
pendent of the common wants of 
mankind than other folks; for they 
have no minister, physician, law- 
yer, post office, or tavern, yet they 
are remarkably healthy ; and as far 
as we can judge, intelligent and 

Muscongus River and Eay, Me. 

Lincoln co. Mvscongus river, 
rises in large ponds in the interior 
of the county, and on the border of 
Waldo county : it passes through 
Waldoborough, and separating Bre- 
men and Friendship, it forms the 
head waters of Muscongus hay. — 
This bay has a number of islands 
and lies between St. George's isl- 
ands off the town of St. George, 
on the E., and Pemmaquid point, 
in Bremen, on the W. 

IValiant, Mass. 

This celebrated watering place, 
is a part of the beauiiful town of 
Lynn. It is a peninsula, jutting 
out about 5 miles into Massachu- 
setts bay, and forms Lynn bay on 
the south. From Boston to Nahant 
hotel, on the eastern point of the 
peninsula, by land, is 14 miles ; 
from the centre of Lynn, 5 ; and 
from Salem 9 miles. On the N. E. 
side of this peninsula is a beach of 
great length and smoothness. It is 
so hard that a horse's foot-steps are 
scarcely visible ; and, from half-tide 
to low water, it affords a lide of su- 
perior excellence. Much may be 
said in praise of Nahant without 
exaggeration. Its formation, situa- 
tion, and rugged shore, excites the 
curiosity of all, and many thou- 
sands annually visit it for health, or 

It is only 10 miles N. E. from 
Boston, by the steam-boats, continu- 
ally plying in sum.mer months : at 
this place are good fishing and fowl- 

ing, excellent accommodations: the 
ocean scenery is exceedingly beau- 
tiful in fair weather, and truly sub- 
lime in a storm. 

Nantaslcet, Mass. 

See Hull. 
Naiituclset Co. Mass. and To-ivn. 

An island in the Atlantic ocean — 
town and county. It lies E. of 
Dukes county, and about 30 miles 
S. of Cape Cod, or Barnstable coun- 
ty. This island is about 15 miles in 
length, from east to west, and about 
4 m.ilcs average breadth. It con- 
tains 50 squai-e miles. The town, 
tbrmerly called Shelhurne, is in 
about the centre of the island, on 
the north side, in lat. 41° 16' 42", 
W. Ion., 70° 7' 42". It is 100 miles 
S. E. by S. from Boston, 55 S. E. 
from New Bedford, 30 S. E. from 
Falmouth, and 500 from Washing 
ton. Population, 1S37, 9,048. 

Nantucket has a good harbor, 
with 7 1-2 feet of water, at low tide, 
on the bar at its mouth. This island 
was formerly well wooded, but for 
many years it has not had a single 
tree of natural growth. The soil is 
light and sandy; it however affords 
pasturage for about 7,000 sheep, 500 
cows, and other cattle. In 1059, 
when this county was incorporated, 
the island contained 3,000 Indians, 
but now, not one. 

The whale fishery commenced 
here in 1690 ; and this place is, 
perhaps, more celebrated than 
any other, for the enterprize and 
success of its people, in that spe- 
cies of nautical adventure. Indeed 
Nantucket is the mother of that 
great branch of wealth in America, 
if not in the world. In the year 
ending April 1, 1837, Nantucket 
emplo3"ed74 vessels in that fishery, 
the tonnage of which was 25,875 
tons l,277,0u9 gallons of sperm 
and whale oil was imported, the 
value of which was 1^1, 114, 012. 
The number of hands employed, 
was i,89T. The capital invested, 


was $2,520,000 ; this includes the 
ships and outfits only ; yet many of 
the manufactories of the place, are 
appendages of the whale fishery ; 
altogether, employing a capital of 
over five millions of dollars. There 
are manufactures on the island, of 
vessels, whale boats, bar iron, tin 
ware, boots, shoes, oil casks, and 
candle boxes. The w^hole amount 
of the manufactures, for that year, 
including oil and candles, was ^2,- 
524,907, Total tonnage of the dis- 
trict of Nantucket, in 1S37, 29,960 

Great attention is paid to educa- 
tion on this island. The men are 
noted for their sedateness and daring 
spirit, and the women for their in- 
telligence and beauty. 

JVantucket Shoals is a danger- 
ous place, where many a sailor has 
found a watery grave. They lie 
S. E. from the island, and cover an 
area of about 50 by 45 miles. 

Naples, Me. 

Cumberland co. This town was 
formed from Otisfield and Raymond, 
and incorporated in 1834. It is wa- 
tered by Sebago and Songo ponds, 
and Crooked and Muddy rivers. It 
has good mill privileges, and a pro- 
ductive soil. Population, 1837, 722. 
Naples lies 63 miles W. S. W. from 
Augusta, and 27 N. N. W. from 

Warragauset Bay, R. I. 

This delightful bay lies wholly 
within the limits of Rhode Island : 
its entrance extends from Point Ju- 
dith on the west, to Seaconnet 
Rocks on the east, and terminates 
at Bullock's point, about 6 miles 
below the city of Providence. The 
length of this bay is about 28 miles : 
its breadth varies from 3 to 12 miles. 
It receives the waters of the Taun- 
ton, Providence, Pawtuxet, and 
other rivers, and on its borders are 
Newport, Bristol, Warren, and oth- 
er large and flourishing tov/ns. It 
is decked with many islands of great 

fertility and beauty ; the principal 
of which are Connanicut, Prudence, 
Patience, Block and Hope. This 
bay is near the ocean ; is accessible 
at all seasons ; is well protected by 
powerful forts, and affords some of 
the best harbors in the world. The 
board of naval commissioners have 
recently reported to Congress that 
the waters of Narraganset Bay af- 
ford greater advantages for a naval 
depot, than any other unoccupied 
position on the coast of the United 

Narraguagus River &. Bay, Me. 

Washington co. The river rises 
in several ponds in Beddington, and 
passing in a southeastern direction, 
falls into a bay of the same name, 
between Harrington and Steuben. 
The bay contains a number of isl- 
ands, between which is a good pas- 
sage into Pleasant bay, on the east 

Nas]ia\^ii Island, Mass., 

And Nashawekka. See Eliz- 
abeth Islands. 

Nasliua River, 

A beautiful stream on the S.partol 
Hillsborough co. N.H. has its source 
in Worcester county, Massachu- 
setts. It is formed of two branches 
called the north and south branches. 
The north branch is formed of two 
streams, one from Ashburnham, the 
other from Wachuset ponds. The 
south branch is composed of Still 
river, issuing from the E. side of 
Wachuset mountain, and a small 
stream from Quinepoxet pond in 
Holden. These branches are uni- 
ted in Lancaster, from which the 
main river proceeds in a N. E. 
course to Harvard, Shirley, Groton, 
and Pepperell in Massachusetts ; 
and from thence into New Hamp- 
shire through Hollis, and nearly 
the centre of the town of Nashua, 
where it falls into the Merrimack 


Hillsborough co. This town 
originixlly embraced a laroe extent 
of territory, and was called Dun- 
stable until 1S3G. It lies 34 miles 
S. by E. from Concord, 12 S. E. 
from Amherst, and 12 N. W. from 
Lowell. The population of Dunsta- 
ble, in 1830, was 2,414. Population 
of Nashua, in 1836, 5,0G5 ; 1837, 
5,613; 1833, 5,691. 

In the N. E. part of the town, 
on Nashua river, is the flourishing 
Village of jYashua, the centre of 
a considerable trade, and the seat 
of important manufactures. This 
village contains 8 beautiful church- 
es, a large number of elegant dwell- 
ing-houses, 50 store,?, and 10 tav- 

The JVashua Manufacturmg 
Company was incorporated in 1823. 
It has three cotton mills, 155 feet in 
length, 45 in breadth and six stories 
in height. They contain 22,000 spin- 
dles, 710 looms, and manufacture 
9,390,000 yarda of cloiii per annum. 
Their canal is 3 miles long, GO feet 
wide, and 8 feet deep. Head and 
fall, 33 feet. Capital, $750,000. 

The Jackson Manufacturing 
Ccmjjanywus incorporated in i^^24. 
Capital, .$600,000. They have two 
cotton mills, 155 feet long, 47 wide, 
and 4 stories high. These mil 16 
contain 11,500 spindles, and 38S 
looms. They nianufacture 5,631,- 
000, yards of cloth annually. Their 
canal is half a mile in length, and 
serves for transportation on the 
river. Head and fail, 20 feet. 

The volum.e of water afforded by 
the Nashua river, at the dryest sea- 
son of the year, is ISO cubic feet 
per second. 

The number of operatives in all 
the mills at Nashua is 1,448 : — fe- 
males, 1,288; males, 160. The 
number of pounds of cotton i.scd is 
14,500 per day, or 4,538,500 lbs. per 

There are other valuable manu- 

factures on Nashua river and the 
waters of Salmon brook. 

The Nashua and Lowell rail- 
road was opened for travel on the 
Sth of October, 18S3. 

The soil of Nashua has consider- 
able variety. It is easy of culti- 
vation, and is generally productive. 
The east part of the town, lying en 
the river, presents a very level sur- 
face. The west parts are divided 
into hills and valleys,- but the whole 
township may be considered far 
from being hilly or mountainous. 
It is watered by the Nashua river, 
a fertilizing stream, which rises in 
the state of Massachusetts, and 
Salmon brook, a sm.all stream which 
originates from several ponds ia 
Groton. Both of these empty into 
Merrimack river, the former at 
Nashua village, the latter about one 
and a half mile below. 

This was for a long time a fron- 
tier town, and the first settlers were 
many times annoyed by the Indians, 
in the successive wars in which 
this country was engaged with 
them. In the war with the famous 
Narraganset sachem, this town 
was much exposed, and some of 
the inhabitants fled to the older set- 
tlements. In Lovewell's war, the 
company in this town under the 
l)rave Capt. John Lovewell, acquir- 
ed an imperishable name. Their 
successes at first, and misfortunes 
afteru-ards, have been often repeat- 
ed and are generally known. 

Dunstable belonged to Massa- 
chusetts till the divisional line be- 
tvvcen the iwo provinces of Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire w^as 
settled, in 1741, It v/as incorpora- 
ted by Now Hampshire, April 1, 
1746, and the name was altered to 
Nashua in December, 1836. 

Natcliaug River, Ct. 

This is the larc;est branch of the 
Shetucket, It rises in Union and 
V«'oodstock, and joins the Shetucket 
near the line of Chaplin and Mans- 


Natick, Mass. 

Middlesex CO. Natick is a pleas- 
ant town, of good soil : it is watered 
by Charles river, and contains sev- 
eral delightful ponds, well stored 
with fish. This was a favorite re- 
sort O'f the Indians. There are 
some moderate elevations in the 
town : the Indians used to call it 
"the place of hills." 

Under the advice and direction 
of the apostle Elliot, the first In- 
dian church in New England was 
formed here in lfi60, and comprised 
40 communicants. 

The manufactures of the town 
consist principally of shoes. Dur- 
ing the year ending April 1, 1837, 
250,650 pairs were made, valued at 
$213,053 : employing 452 hands. 
This town was incorporated in 1781. 
Population, 1830,890; 1837,1,221. 
It lies It) miles W. S. W. fi-om Bos- 
ton, and 12 S. from Concord. 

STaugatuck River, Ct. 

This important mill stream is 
ahout 50 miles in length. It rises 
in the north part of Litchfield coun- 
ty, and after traversing a S. course 
nearly the whole length of that 
county, it crosses the west part of 
New Haven county, and falls into 
the Housatonick at Derby. 

IVeal's Bi'ook and Pond, Vt. 

Neal's brook, or branch, rises in 
Lunenburgh and the border of 
Guildhall, and running south falls 
into a pond of the same name. It 
continues its course south and meets 
the Connecticut. This is a short 
stream, but valuable on account of 
its water power. 

JVeaVs pond, a mile in length, 
and a half mile in width, is a 
handsome sheet of water, and con- 
tains a variety of fish. 

Needliam, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This town is nearly 
surrounded by the waters of Charles 

river. It contains numerous valua- 
ble mill seats. There are in the 
town 6 paper mills, a cotton facto- 
ry, and manufactures of shoes, 
hats, and window blind hinges: — 
annual value, about Jtt;150,00d. In- 
corporated, 1711. Population, 1837, 
1,492. Needham lies 4 miles N. 
W. from Dedham, and 12 W. S. W. 
from Boston, by the Boston and Wor- 
cester rail-road. 

Neddock, Cape, Me. 

A rocky, barren blufif, inhabited 
by a few fishermen, about 3 miles 
N. from York harbor. 

K^elson, N. II., 

Cheshire co., is situated on the 
height of land between Connecti- 
cut and Menimack rivers. The 
surface is hilly, but good for graz- 
ing. In the S. part, a branch of 
the Ashuelot river rises ; and from 
Long pond in this (own, and Han- 
cock, issues a branch of Contoocook 
liver. The best mill privileges are 
furnished by streams issuing from 
ponds in this town, of which there 
are four, containing a surface of 
1,800 acres. There is a cotton and 
other manufactories. The inhabit- 
ants are pi-incipally farmers of in- 
dusti'ious habits. It was chartered 
Feb. 22, 1774, by the name of 
Packersjield. In June, 1814, the 
name was altered to Nelson. The 
first settlements commenced inl767. 
Nelson lies 40 miles S. W. from 
Concord, and 8 N. E. from Keene. 
Population, 1830, 875. 

IVep onset River, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. The sources of this 
river are in Canton, Stoughton, and 
Sharon. It j-eceives a tributary 
from Charles river. Mother brook, 
so called, and meets the tide of Bos- 
ton harbor at Milton Mills, 4 miles 
from Dorchester bay. This is a 
noble mill stream : on its navigable 
waters is the depository of the Quin- 
cy granite rail-road company, and 


at its mouth is Commercial Point, in 
Dorchester, a beautiful place, with 
an excellent harbor. 

Neivaggen, Cape, Me. 

This cape is a part of the town of 
Boothbay. It extends about 5 miles 
into the sea, and forms the eastern 
boundary of Sheepscot's bay. 

Ne^varlt, Vt. 

Caledonia co. The Passumpsic 
river is formed in this town by a 
collection of streams issuing prin- 
cipally from ponds. The town is 
not mountainous, but the soil is cold 
and generally unproductive. It 
lies 44 miles N. E. from Montpc- 
lier,and 19 N. W. from Guildhall. 
First settled, 1800. Population, in 
1830, 257. 

New Asliford, Mass. 

Berkshire co. This is a moun- 
tainous township, but the soil is 
good for grazing. In 1837, the val- 
ue of 2,708 fleeces of wool, pro- 
duced in this town, weighing 7,785 
pounds, was worth ^3,893. New 
Ashford produces fine white and 
variegated marble, and is the source 
of Green river. It lies 130 miles 
VV. by N. from Boston, and 18 N. 
from Lenox. Incorporated, 1801. 
Population, 1837, 253. 

Ne-iv Bedford, Mass. 

This is a half shire town of Bristol 
county, and port of entry, pleas- 
antly situated on the W. side of the 
Acushnet, a river, or more proper- 
ly an estuary, connected with Buz- 
zard's bay. The ground on which 
the town stands rises rapidly from 
the river, and affords an interesting 
view from the opposite side. 

The upper part of the town is 
laid out into beautiful streets, v.'hich 
contain many costly and superb 

This harbor, though not easy of 
access, is capacious and well secur- 
ed from winds. A wooden bridge, 
near the centre of the town, con- 

nects it with the village of Fair- 
haven. A ferry has also been es- 
tablished, on which it is proposed to 
run a steam boat. 

New Bedford was incorporated 
in 1787, previous to v/hich it con- 
stituted a part of the town of Dart- 
mouth. In 1812, the eastern part 
was set off as a separate township 
by the name of Fairhaven. 

The almost exclusive business of 
the place is the whale fishery, 
which commenced before the war 
of the revolution, and has gradual- 
ly grown to its present importance. 
The increase, however, within the 
last 12 years has been m.ore rapid 
than during any former period. — 
The number of ships and brigs now 
employed is 169. Tonnage of the 
district, in 1837, 85,130 tons. 

There are 16 oil manufactories, at 
which a large amount of oil and can- 
dles is made. A considerable quan- 
tity of the oil imported is, however, 
sold in the crude state to other pla- 

The manufactures of the town 
consist of leather, boots, shoes, hats, 
iron castings, axes, chairs, tin and 
cabinet wares, vessels, salt, cord- 
age, soap, Prussian blue, paper 
hangings, carriages, looking-glass 
fiames, and carpenter's tools: the 
total value, for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, including oil and can- 
dles, amounted to $690,800. There 
were imported, during that year, 
2,472,735 gallons of oil, and 305,170 
pounds of whale bone, the value 
of M'hich was $1,750,832. The 
capital invested in the whale fish- 
ery was $4,210,000. The num- 
ber of hands employed was 4,000. 

1 ew places in Massachusetts have 
increased in population more j-apidly 
than this. By the census of 1790, 
the population of the village was 
about 700. In 1830, the township 
contained 7,592 ; in 1833, 9,200, 
and in 18.37, 14,304. 

V ithin a few years, the inhabitants 
of this (own have manifested a com- 
mendable liberality in providirg the 


means of education. There is a 
flourishing academy in theluvvn,and 
large sums are annually appropria- 
ted tor the maintenance of public 
and private schools. 

A rail-road will soon be con=;truct- 
ed fi'om this place, to meet the Bos- 
ton and Providence, at Seekouk, 
by the way of Fall River; or to 
meet the Taunton rail-road at Taun- 
ton. By either of those routes, a 
trip to Boston or New York, would 
be very pleasant. A large and 
wealthy town, highly flourishing 
in its commerce and manufactures 
like this, with the neighboring isl- 
ands of Nantucket and Martha's 
Vineyard, seem to require it. 

New Bedford lies -52 miles S. 
from Boston, 52 N. W. from Nan- 
tucket, 14 E. by S. from Fall River, 
20 S. S. E. from Ta inton, and 214 
N. E. by E. from New York. 

Ne^v Boston, N. IS., 

Hillsborough co., is 9 miles N. 
N. TV. from Amherst, and 22 S. 
by W. from Concord. It is water- 
ed by several streams, the largest 
of which is the S. branch of Piscat- 
aquog river, having its source in 
Pleasant pond, in Francestown. — 
This town consists of fertile hills, 
productive vales, and .lome valuable 
meadows. The soil is favorable for 
all the various productions common 
to this section of the state, and there 
are many excellent fiarins, under 
good cultivation. In the S. part of 
New Bijston, there is a considerable 
elevation, called Jo English hill, on 
one side of which it is nearly per- 
pendicular. Its height is 572 feet. 
Beard's pond, and Jo English pond, 
are the only ponds of note. New 
Boston wa^ granted, 1736, to inhab- 
itants of Bojton. It was incorpora- 
ted, 176.?. The first settlement 
commenced about the year 1733. 
The fir;t minister was Rev. Solo- 
mon Moor, from Ireland, who re- 
ceived his education at Glasgow. 
In Feb. 1767, he arrived at New 
Boston, and was ordaineu Sept. 6, 

1763 ; died May 28, 1803, aged 6T. 
Population, 1830, 1,680. 

Ne'w Braiiitree, Mass. 

Worcester co. Ware river and 
other streams water this to'.vn, and 
afTord it good mill privileges. The 
soil of the town is good, particular- 
ly for grazing : it has become cele- 
brated for its good farmers, and for 
its excellent beef cattle, butter and 
cheese. There is a cotton mill in 
the town, and manufactures of 
leather, palm-leaf hats, &c. It lies 
80 miles W. from Boston, and 18 W. 
N. W. from Worcester. Incorpo- 
rated, 1751. Population, 1837, 780. 

Newburgli, Me. 

Penobscot co. This is a good 
township of land, 54 miles N. E. 
from Augusta, and 14 S. W. from 
Bangor. Incorporated, 1819. Pop- 
ulation, 1330, 626; 1837,867. Wa- 
tered by a branch of the Sowadabs- 
cook. AVheat crop, 1837, 5,041 

]Ve%vl>ury, TS. H. 

Merrimack co. This town was 
originally called Dantzick ; it was 
incorporated by the name of Fish- 
ersficld, in 1773, and took its pres- 
ent name, in 1337. It lies 40 miles 
N. W. by W. from Amherst, and 
30 W. by N. from Concord. The 
S. part of Sunapee lake lies in the 
N. W. part. Todd pond, 500 rods 
in length, and 60 in width, aflbrds a 
small branch to Warner river. — 
From Chalk pond issues a small 
stream communicating with Suna- 
pee lake. The land is generally 
mountainous, and the soil hard and 
rocky. The first settlement in this 
town was made in the year 1762, 
by Zephaniah Clark, Esq. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 798. 

Ne%vbury, Vt. 

Orange co. This is a beautiful 
town on the W. side of Connecti- 
cut river, and supplied with iwill 
privileges by Wells river, and 


Hariman'sand Hill's brooks. These 
brooks have their sources in ponds 
of considerable size. Newbury 
comprises the tract commonly call- 
ed the Great Oxbow, on a bend in 
Connecticut river. This tract is of 
great extent, and celebrated for its 
luxuriance and beauty. The agri- 
cultural productions of the town are 
very valuable, consisting of beef 
cattle, wool, and all the varieties of 
the dairy. The town contains a 
number of mineral springs, of some 
celebrity in scrofulous and cutane- 
ous complaints. 

The villages of JVeivhiiry and 
JVells River are very pleasant : 
they command a flourishing trade, 
and contain manufacturing estab- 
lishments of various kinds. Some 
of the buildings are very handsome. 
The scenery of the windings of the 
river through this fine tract of al- 
luvial meadow, contrasted with the 
abrupt acclivities in the north part 
of the town, is very striking and 

The town is connected with Ha- 
verhill, N. H., by two bridges. It 
lies 27 miles S. E. from Montpelier, 
and 20 N. E. from Chelsea. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 2,252. First settled, 
1764. The first settlers endured 
many hardships. For some years 
they had to go to Charlestown to 
mill, 60 miles distant, carrying their 
grain in canoes down the river, or 
drawing it on the ice. 

General Bailey, a patriot of the 
revolution, distinguished himself in 
the settlement of the town. 

The state legislature held their 
sessions in Newbury, in the years 
1787, and 1801. 

Newbriry, Mass. 

Essex CO. This ancient and re- 
spectable town, lies on Merrimack 
river, opposite to Salisbury. It for- 
merly comprised the territory of 
Newburyport and West Newbury. 
The soil is of an excellent quality, 
and in a high state of cultivation. 
Parker and Artichoke rivers are 

pleasant streams ; the former falls 
nearly 50 feet in the town, and af- 
fords it good mill seats. A part of 
Plum ishxnd, is attached to this town. 
This island, about nine miles in 
length and one in breadth, extend- 
ing from Ipswich river to the mouth 
of the Merrimack, is comprised of 
sandy beach and salt meadow ; and 
is noted for the beach plum, which 
ripens in September. 

A curious cavern, called the 
" Devil's Den," contains specimens 
of asbestos, limestone, marble, ser- 
pentine and amianthos. The scene- 
ry on the high grounds is rich, va- 
riegated and beautiful. 

Dummer academy, founded in 
1756, is a flourishing institution: it 
is situated in the parish of " By- 

The manufactures of Newbury 
consist of cotton • goods, leather, 
boots, shoes, carriages, cordage, 
fishing nets, bed cords and cotton 
lines: annual value about ^75,000, 
A large number of vessels are built 
in the town, and some navigation 
is owned and emploj^ed in the coast- 
ing trade and fishery. 

This town is celebrated as the 
birth place of many distinguished 
men. Theophilxjs Parsojvs, 
LL. D., an eminent jurist, was born 
in Newbury. February 24, 1750. 
He died in Boston, October 6, 1813. 

New^bury was first settled, in 
1635. Its Indian name was Quaf- 
cacunquen. It lies 31 miles N. by 
E. from Boston, 17 N. from Salem, 
and 3 S. from Newburyport. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 3,771. 

Ne^vlbiiryport, Mass. 

One of the shire towns of Essex 
county. This is considered one of the 
most beautiful towns in New Eng- 
land. It lies on a gentle acclivity, 
on the south bank of the Merri- 
mack, at the union of that river 
with the ocean. In point of terri- 
tory, it is the smallest town in the 
commonwealth, being only one mile 
square. It was taken from New- 


bury in 1764. Population, in 1837, 
6,741. This place has been and 
now is considerably noted for its 
commerce and slTip building. Some 
of the old continental frigates were 
built here ; and in 1790, the ton- 
nage of the port was 11,870 tons. 
Of late years the foreign commerce 
of the place has diminished, in con- 
sequence of a sandbar at the mouth 
of the harbor. This place has con- 
siderable inland and foreign com- 
merce. It has four whale ships, 
and a large amount of tonnage en- 
gaged in the freighting business 
and the cod and mackerel fisheries. 
Tonnage of the district, in 1837, 
22,078 tons. 

The manufactures of Newbury- 
port consist of cotton goods, boots, 
shoes, hats, bar iron, iron castings, 
chairs, cabinet and tin wares, combs, 
spirits, vessels, 'snufF, segars, or- 
gans, soap and candles: annual 
amount about $350,000. The pro- 
duct of the whale fishery, the year 
ending April 1, 1837, was $142,982. 
During the same period, this town 
and Newbury had 128 vessels em- 
ployed in the cod and mackerel 
fishery, employing 1,000 hands: 
product that year, $177,700. 

Newburyport lies 34 miles N. by 
E. from Boston, 20 N. from Salem, 
24 S. by VV. from Portsmouth, N. 
H., and 2 miles S. E. from Essex 
bridge. Lat. 42° 47' N. ; Ion. 70° 
47' W. From the mouth of this 
harbor. Plum Island, extends to the 
mouth of Ipswich river. 

The Hon. William Bartlett 
and INIosEs Browjv, Esq., distin- 
guished for their enterprise and in- 
tegrity as merchants, were natives 
of this town. 

The celebrated George White- 
field, one of the founders of the 
sect of the Methodists, and one of 
its most eloquent preachers, died in 
this town, Sept. 21, 1770. 

A handsome monument has been 
erected to his memory, by the Hon. 
William Bartlett, the fol- 
lowing is a part of the inscription : 

This Cenotaph 

Is erected, with affectionate 

veneration, to 

The meniory of the 


Born at Gloucester, England, 

December 1(1, 1714. 

Educated at Oxford University ; 

Ordained 1736. 

In a ministry of thirty-four years, 

He crossed the Atlantic thirteen times, 

And preached more 

Than eighteen thousand sermons. 

As a Soldier of the 

Cross, humble, devout, ardent, 

He put on the 

Whole armor of God ; Preferring 

The honour of Christ 

To his own interest, repose, 

Reputation, and life. 

New Cauaan, Ct. 

Fairfield CO. This town was tak- 
en fi-om Norwalk and Stamford in 
1801. It lies 5 miles N. W^ from 
Norwalk, 37 W. S. W. from New 
Haven, and 50 N. E. from New 
York. Population, 1830, 1,826.— 
The surface of the town is rough 
and mountainous; the soil is a hard, 
gravelly loam, hut generally pro- 
ductive. The manufacture of shoes 
is carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent : the annual value is about 

An academy was established here 
in 1815, and has acquired a high 
reputation. It stands on an eleva- 
ted and commanding situation, hav- 
ing a fine prospect of Long Island 
Sound and the intervening country. 
Pestles and other Indian implements 
have been found at the north part of 
the town, which probably was the 
resort of the natives. Excavations 
in solid rock, one large enough to 
contain eight gallons, are found: 
these were doubtless Indian mor- 

New Castle, Me. 

Lincoln co. New Castle lies on the 
W. side of Damariscotta river, about 
15 miles from its mouth. It is 
36 n)iles S. E. from Augusta, and 
8 N. E. from Wiscasset. Incorpo- 


rated, 1733. Population, in 18.37, 
1,54.5. This is a pleasant town, and 
flourishing in its trade and naviga- 

New Castle, N. H., 

Rockingham co., is a rough and 
rocky island, situated in Portsmouth 
harhor, and formerly called Great 
Island. A handsome bridge, built 
in 1821, connects this town with 
Portsmouth. Here is an ancient 
church. Rev. Samuel Moody 
preached here previous to the com- 
mencement of the ISth century. 
New Castle was incorporated in 
1693, and contains 458 acres. This 
island was the seat of business, 
when ancient Strawberry Bank 
was the mere germ of the town of 
Portsmouth. Fishing is here pur- 
sued with success; and the soil 
amona: the rocks, being of good 
quality, is made to produce abund- 
antly. Fort Constitution and the 
light-house stand on this island. — 
Population, 1830, 850. 

Xew Fairfield, Ct. 

Fairfield co. This is a small town- 
ship, rough and hilly, with a hard 
and gravelly soil. It lies 64 miles 
S. W. from Hartford, and 7 N. fiom 
Danbury. Incorporated, in 1740. 
Population, 1830, 940. 

Nov Durliam, N. 11. 

Strafford co. The surface of this 
town is very uneven, a portion so 
rocky as to be unfit for cultivation. 
The soil is generally moist, and 
well adapted to grazing. There 
are 5 ponds in New Durham, the 
largest of which is Merry meeting 
pond, about 10 miles in circumfer- 
ence, from which a copious and 
perpetual stream runs into Merry- 
meeting bay, in Alton. Ela's river 
flows from Coldrain pond into Fa rm- 
ington, on which is a fine waterfall. 
The Cocheco also has its source 
here. Mount Betty, Cropple-crown 
and Straw's mountains are the prin- 
cipal eminences. On the N. E. side 

of the latter is a remarkable cave, 
the entrance of which is about 3 
feet wide and 10 feet high. The 
outer room is 20 feet square ; the 
inner apartments become smaller, 
until at the distance of 50 feet they 
are too small to be investigated. — 
The sides, both of the galleries and 
the rooms are solid granite. They 
bear marks of having been once 
united, and were probably separat- 
ed by some great convulsion of 

There is a fountain, aver which a 
part of Ela's river passes, which is 
regarded as a cu riosity. By sinking 
a small mouthed vessel into this 
fountain, water may be procured 
extremely cold and pure. Its depth 
has not been ascertained. Near the 
centre of the town is Rattlesnake 
hill, the S. side of which is almost 
100 feet high, and nearly perpen- 
dicular. Several other hills in this 
town contain precipices and cavi- 
ties, some of considerable extent. 
New Durham was granted in 1749. 
It was incorporated Dec. 7, 1762. 
Elder Bexjamiiv Randall,, the 
founder of the sect of Freewill 
Baptists, commenced his labors here 
in 1780, and organized a church. 
He died in 1808raged 60. 

New Durham lies 30 miles N. E. 
from Concord, and 32 N. W. by N. 
from Dover. Population, in 1830, 

NeM'fane, Vt. 

Windham co. County town. — 
Newfane lies about 100 miles S. 
from Montpelier, and 12 N. W. 
from Brattleborough. First settled, 
1768. The town is watered by a 
branch of West river, and several 
other streams. The surface of the 
town is diversified by hills and val- 
leys; the soil is good, and produces 
white oak and walnut in abundance. 
There is but little waste land in the 
town: the uplands are inferior to 
none for grazing, and the intervales 
afford excellent tillage. Newfane 
exhibits a great variety of minerals, 


among which are some of value. 
Perhaps no town in the state pre- 
sents a more inviting field for the 
mineralogist than this. 

There are tv/o pleasant villages 
in the town. The centre village 
contains the county buildings : it is 
on elevated land, and commands a 
very extensive and delightful pros- 
pect. Population, 1830, 1,441. 

Netvi'oawid Poiidaud 2tiver,W.H. 

See Bristol. 

STcvlield, Me. 

York CO. This town is watered 
by Little Ossipee river, and lies 99 
miles S. W. by W. from Augusta, 
and 15 N. W. from Alfred. It is 
a good farming town and produces 
considerable wheat and vvool. It 
was incorporated in 1791. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 1,322. 

NcAV Gloucester, IHe. 

Cumberland co. This is a pleasant 
and flourishing farming town, 23 
miles N. from Portland, and 38 S. 
W. from Augusta. Incorporated, 
1774. Population, 1837, 1, 861. It 
is well watered by Royal's river, 
on Vv'hich are mills of various kinds. 
The soil of the town is very fertile, 
containing large tracts of intervale. 
The first settlers were compelled 
to build a block house for their pro- 
tection against the Indians. In this 
building the people attended pub- 
lic worship for a number of years. 
This town has an abundant water 
power, a school fund of ^4,000, and 
a society of about 300 of those neat 
and industrious people, " whose 
faith is one and whose practice is 
one." See Canterbury, A''. H. 



This state is bounded north by Lower Canada, east by Maine, south- 
east by the Atlantic and the State of Massachusetts, south by Massa- 
chusetts, and west and north-west by Vermont. Situated between 42° 
40' and 45° 16' N. lat., and 72° 27' and 70° 35' W. Ion. Its length is 
168, and its greatest breadth about 90 miles, and it comprises an area of 
about 9,2S0 square miles. 

The first discovery of New Hampshire was in 1614, and the first set- 
tlements made by Europeans were at Dover and Portsmouth, in 1623; 
only three years after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. The 
next settlements were at Exeter and Hampton, in 1633. The inhabit- 
ants of these and all the early settlements, until after the cession of Can- 
ada to England by France, were greatly annoyed by the Indians, who 
existed in large and powerful bodies in this tlien wilderness. In the re- 
peated and general wars with the Indians, New Hampshire sufTcrcd more 
than any other of the colonies. This colony was tv»ice united with that 
of Massachusetts, and the final separation did not take place until 1741, 
when the boundaries of the two colonies were settled. In the revolu- 
tionary contest. New Hampshire bore a distinguished and honorable part. 
The blood of her sons was freely shed on most of the battle fields of the 
revolution. As early as June 15, 1776, New Hampshire made a public 
Declaration of Ijvdepejntdence, and in December of that year, the 
delegates of the people adopted a temporary form of Government, which 
was continued until 1784, when the first constitution was adopted. This 


being found deficient in some of its provisions, a new constitution was 
adopted in 1792, which is now in force. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor and five Counsellors, chos- 
en annually by the people. The legislature consists of the Senate, com- 
prising twelve members, chosen in twelve districts, and the House of 
Representatives, chosen annually in the month of March, every town 
having 150 rateable polls being entitled to send one, and an additional 
representative for every 300 additional polls. The legislature assembles 
annually at Concord, on the first Wednesday of June. 

All male citizens, of 21 years and upwards, except paupers and per- 
sons excused from taxes, have a right to vote for state officers — a resi- 
dence of at least three months within the town being required to entitle 
the person to vote. 

The judiciary power is vested in a Superior Court of Judicature, and 
Courts of Common Pleas. The four Judges of the Superior Court, hold 
law terms once a year in each of the counties; and Judges of the Supe- 
rior Court are ex officio Presiding Judges in the courts of Common Pleas, 
holden semi-annually in each county, by one of the Superior Judges 
with the two Associate Justices of the Common Pleas for each county. 
The Judges hold their offices during good behavior, until 70 years of age ; 
but are subject to removal by impeachment, or by address of the two 
houses of the legislature. 

Succession of Governors. 

Meshech Weare,*1776 — 1784. John Langdon, 1785. John Sullivan, 
17S6, 1787. John Langdon, 1783. John Sullivan, 1789. Josiah Bart- 
lett, 1790—1793. John Taylor Oilman, 1794—1804. John Langdon, 
1805—1308. Jeremiah Smith, 1809. John Langdon, 1810, 1811. Wil- 
liam Plumer, 1812. JohnTaylor Oilman, 1813— 1815. William Plumer, 
1816—1818. Samuel Bell, 1819—1822. Levi Woodbury, 1823.— 
David Lawrence Morril, 1824 — 1826. Benjamin Pierce, 1827. John 
Boll, 1828. Benjamin Pierce, 1829. Matthew Harvey, 1830. Samuel 
Dinsmoor, 1831-1833. William Badger, 1834, 1835. Isaac Hill, 1836 
— 183S. John Page, 1839— 

Succession of Chief Justices of the Superior Court. 

Meshech Weare, 1776— 17S1. Samuel Livermore, 1782-1789. Jo- 
siah Bartlett, 1790. John Pickering, 1791—1794. Simeon Olcott, 1795 
—1801. Jeremiah Smith, 1802— 1808. Arthur Livermore, 1809— 1812. 

* The Chief Macristrates were styled PreMdent, nntW the adoption of the 
Constitution of 171)2, when the title of Governor was substituted. 


Jeremiah Smith, 1813—1815. William Merchant Richardson, 1816 — 
1837. Joel Parker, 1838— 
New Hampshire is divided into eight counties, as follows : — 


No. of Population 
toions. in 1830. 

Shire Ibwns. 




Portsmouth, Exeter. 




Dover, Gilford, Rochester. 




















Haverhill, Plymouth. 






New Hampshire is more mountainous than any of her sister states, yet 
she hoasts of large quantities of luxuriant intervale. Her high lands 
produce food for cattle of peculiar sweetness ; and no where can be found 
the necessaries, conveniences, and luxuries of life, united, in greater 
abundance : cattle and wool are its principal staples. This state may be 
said to be the mother of New England rivers. The Connecticut, Mer- 
rimack, Saco, Androscoggin and Piscataqua, receive most of their waters 
from the high lands of New Hampshire: while the former washes the 
western boundary of the state 168 miles, the Merrimack pierces its cen- 
tre, and the Piscataqua forms the beautiful harbor of Portsmouth, a depot 
of the American navy. 

These majestic rivers, with their tributary streams afford this state an 
immense water power, of which manufacturers, with large capitals, avail 

The largest collection of water in the state is Lake Winnepisiogee, 
(pronounced Win-ne-pe-sok'-c.) It is one of the most varied and beau- 
tiful sheets of water on the American continent. Lakes Connecticut, 
Ossipee, Umbagog, Squam, Sunapee, and Massabesick, are large collec- 
tions of water, and abound with fish and fowl. 

New Hampshire is frequently called the Granite State, from the vast 
quantities of that rock found within its territory. The granite is of a su- 
perior quality, and much of it is quarried and transported to other states. 
The geological structure of the state is highly interesting. Iron and cop- 
per ore and plumbago, of excellent qualities, are found; and coal and 
other valuable minerals are supposed to exist. 

This state is also called the Switzerland of America, on account of 
the salubrity of its climate; its wild and picturesque landscapes; its 
lakes and rapid streams. The celebrated White Mountains, in the north- 


ern part of the state, are of great elevation, and afford the grandest dis- 
play of mountain scenery in our country. See IVinnepisiogee Lake, and 
WJiite Mountains — also Register. 

New Hampton, Bf. II., 

Strafford co., lies 30 miles N. 
by W. from Concord, and about 20 
N. W. from Gilmanton. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,904. Pemigevv-asset 
river, which washes the "V\ . bound- 
ary, is the only stream of magni- 
tude; and over it is thrown the 
bridge which unites the town with 

There is a remarkable spring on 
the W. side of Kelly's hill in this 
town, from which issues a stream 
sufficient to supply several mills. 
This stream is never affected by 
rains or droughts, and falls into the 
river after running about a mile. 
Pemigewasset pond lies on the bor- 
der of Meredith, There are 4 other 
ponds in this town. The soil of 
New Hampton, though the surface 
is broken and uneven, is remarka- 
bly fertile, producing in abundance 
most kinds of grain and grass. The 
industry of the inhabitants has en- 
abled them in years of scarcity to 
supply the wants of other towns. 
In the S. part of the town there is 
a high hill of a conical form which 
may be seen in almost any direc- 
tion from 10 to 50 miles; the pros- 
pect from the summit of which is 
very pleasant. 

In 176.S, Gen, Jonathan Moulton, 
of Hampton, having an ox weigh- 
ing 1,400 pounds, fattened for the 
purpose, hoisted a flag upon his 
horns and drove him to Portsmouth 
as a present to Gov. Wentworth. 
He refused to receive any compen- 
sation for the ox, but mcrclj'^ as a 
token of the governoi-'s friendship 
and esteem, he won id like to have 
a charter of a small gore of land he 
had discovered adjoining the town 

of Moultonborough, of which he 
was one of the principal proprie- 
tors. It was granted, and he called 
it J\''e'W Hampton, in honor of his 
native town. This small gore of 
land contained 19,422 acres, a part 
of which now constitutes the town 
of Centre Harbor. It was incorpo- 
rated Nov. 27, 1777. 

New Hartford, Ct. 

Litchfield co. This town was first 
settled in 1733. It lies 20 miles N. 
W. from Hartford, and 11 N. E. 
from Litchfield. Population, 1830, 
1,766. The surface of the town is 
hilly and mountainous. The lands 
are best adapted for grazing. It is 
watered by Farmington river and 
other streams, on which are several 

" In the eastern part of this town 
there is a rough and mountainous 
district, formerly designated Sa- 
tan's Kingdom ; and the few in- 
habitants who lived here were in a 
measure shutout from the rest of 
mankind. An inhabitant of the 
town invited one of his neighbors, 
who lived within the limits of this 
district, to go and hear Mr. Marsh, 
the first minister who was settled in 
the town. He was prevailed upon 
to go to church in the forenoon. In 
the course of his prayer, Mr. Marsh, 
among other things, prayed that Sa- 
tan^ s kingdom might he destroyed. 
It appears that the inhabitant of 
this district took the expression in 
a literal and tangible sense, having 
probably never heard the expres- 
sion used but in reference to the 
district wherein he resided. Being 
asked to go to meeting in the after- 
noon, he refused, stating that Mr. 

Marsh had insulted him ; ' for blast 


him,' said he, "when he prayed 
for the destruction of Satan's king- 
dom, he very well knew all my in- 
terests lay there." 

THew Haven, Vt. 

Addison CO. The soil of this town 
is various, consistinsj of marl, ciay 
and loam, and is generally produc- 
tive. The waters of Otter creek, 
Middlebury river, and Little Otter 
creek give the town a i^ood waier 
power. There are some manufac- 
tures in the (own, but agriculture 
is the chief pursuit of the inhaln- 
tants. New Haven lies 30 miles 
W. S. W. from Montpelier, and 7 
N. W. from Middlebury. First set- 
tled, 1769. Population, 1330,1,834. 

Ne-^v Haven County, Ct. 

Chief town, JVeio Haven. New 
Haven county is hounded N. by 
Litchfield and Hartford counties, 
E. by Middlesex county, S. by 
Long Island Sound, and West by 
Litehlield county and the. Housa- 
tonic river, which separates it from 
Fairtield county. Its average length 
from east to west is about 26 miles, 
and its width from north to south 21 
miles; containing 540 square miles, 
or 345,600 acres. This county, ly- 
ing on Long Island Sound, has a ve- 
ry extensive m.arilime border, but 
its foreign trade is chiefly confined 
to New Haven harhor. Its fishe- 
ries of oysters and clams, and other 
fish, are valuable. It is intersect- 
ed by several streams, none of them 
of very large size, but of some val- 
ue for their water power and fish. 
Of these the principal are the Pom- 
peraug and Naugatuc, on the west ; 
Quinnipiac, Menunkatuc, West and 
Mill rivers, on the east. The Quin- 
nipiac is the largest, and passes 
through extensive meadows. The 
county is intersected centrally by 
the New Haven and Northampton 
canal, which passes through this 
county from north to south. There 
is a great variety of soil in this 
county, as well as of native vege- 


table and mineral productions. The 
range of secondary country wliich 
extends along Connecticut i-iver as 
far as IMiddletown, there leaves 
that stream, crosses into this county, 
and terminates at New Haven. 
This intersection of the primitive 
formation, by a secondary ridge, af- 
fords a great variety of minerals, 
and materials for different soils. 

The papulation of this county in 
1820, was 39,016; 1830,43,847:— 
81 inhabitants to a square mile. 
The manufacturing business is quite 
extensive in the county, and in 
1337 it contained 23,895 sheep. 

Ke-*v Ilaveu, Ct. 

New Haven, city and town, the 
chief town of New Haven county, 
and the serai-capital of the state of 
Connecticut, is 76 miles N. E. from 
New York, and 300 from Washing- 
ton city, in latitude (Yale College 
Observatory) 41° 18' 30" N., and 
W. longitude 72° 55'. It is situa- 
ted on a large and pleasant plain, 
around the head of a bay which 
sets up four miles from Long Isl- 
and Sound. This plain is nearly 
level, and is partially enclosed by aa 
amphitheatre of loi'ty hills, and by 
two bold eminences called East and 
West rocks, Avhich vary in height 
from 330 to 370 feet. These rocks, 
which consist of trap, terminate in 
naked precipitous fronts, and are 
conspicuous and beautiful objects 
in the landscape. On the west, the 
plain is limited by a small stream 
called West river, and on the east 
by the Quinnipiack, which is navi- 
gable for several miles. Another 
stream, called Mill river, passes 
through the eastern part of the city 
and enters the harbor in union with 
the Quinnipiack. 

New Haven was planted in April, 
1633, by a company from London, 
under the direction of Theophilus 
Eaton and John Davenport. These 
two men, in the language of Ma- 
ther, were " the Moses and Aaron" 
of this new settlement; and what- 


ever there was of good or evil, of f 
wisdom or folly, ia layinsj the foun- 
dations of civilized society in thi-? 
part of New England, must be as- 
cribed in a great measure to thera. 
Though the government which 
wasestabli-shed was extremely pop- 
ular in its form, these men with- 
out doubt were looked up to for 
devising and executing the most 
important measures. Their " com- 
pany," as it was called, appear to 
have had entire confidence in their 
sound judgment, ability and integ- 
rity ; and they did nothing to for- 
feit the good opinion of their fol- 
lowers. Their influence in all the 
concerns of the colony, especially 
in what respected the form of gov- 
ernment, the means of education, 
and the institutions of religion, 
must have been constant and com- 

In 1734, New Haven was incor- 
porated as a city, the limits of which 
on the northwest fall within those 
of the town, so th;it Westville, a 
settlement on the foot of West Rock.. 
is excluded from the former. About 
one half of the village of Fair Ha- 
ven, in the eastern portion of the 
town, lies within the bounds of the 
city. The area of the town is about 
eight, and that of the city about six 
square miles. The harbor is well 
protected and spacious, but the wa- 
ter is shallow. A wharf extends 
into the harbor about three quar- 
ters of a mile. 

The original town is a square, 
half a mile on each side, and subdi- 
vided by streets four rods in width, 
into nine squares, the central one 
of which is reserved for public uses. 
JSIost of the squares are further di- 
vided by intermediate streets. At 
the present day, this original plot 
comprises less than half of the in- 
habited part of the city. Streets 
and avenues have been opened on 
every side, and many of them have 
become thickly settled. The streets 
are in general, spacious and regu- 

lar; very many of them adorned 
with lofty elms, which in the sum- 
mer season contribute much to the 
beaut}' and comfort of the place. 
The number of shade trees through- 
out the city is uncommonly large, 
and they constitute one of its most 
attractive features. Most of the 
dwelling houses are distinguished 
for simplicity and neatness. With- 
in a few years the style of build- 
ing has greatly improved, and many 
private houses have been erected 
and are now going up, which dis- 
play much elegance and architectu- 
ral taste. The houses are com- 
monly detached, and supplied with 
court yards and gardens ornament- 
ed with trees and shrubbery, and 
the eye is thus gratified with a de- 
lightful union of the country and 
the city. 

There are two principal public 
squares. The first, commonly call- 
ed the Green, is in the centre of 
the original town, and comprises 
in all a little more than sixteen 
acres. It is divided into two sec- 
lions by Temple street, which is 
lined with ranges of stately and 
over-arching elms, and is considered 
one of the finest streets in the city. 
The eastern section of the Green is 
entirely free fi-om buildings. On 
the western section, facing the S.E., 
stand 3 churches, two Congregation- 
al, built of brick, and one Episco- 
pal, of stone: all of these build- 
ings are of excellent appearance. 
In the rear of the centre church 
stands the state house. These four 
buildings, taken in connexion with 
the line of college edifices on the 
next square beyond, and with the 
surrounding scenery, constitute a 
group not often equalled in this 
country. The state house is a 
■structure of great size and admira- 
ble proportions. The porticos are 
modelled froiu those of the temple 
of Theseus, at Athens, and the 
building, viewed at a short distance, 
has an air of uncommon beauty 


and majesty. On the northern 
corner of this section stands the 
raethodist church. 

Wooster Square, which lies in 
the eastern part of the city, com- 
prises five acres, and has recent- 
ly been planted with a large nurn- 
her of native ornamental trees of 
various kinds. 

The Public Cemetery is situated 
opposite the northern angle of the 
original town plot, and encloses 
seventeen acres and two thirds. It 
is divided by avenues and alleys 
into family lots, 32 feet in length 
and 18 in breadth. There is a grave 
and silent grandeur in this place ; 
hut it would appear more beautiful 
were it shaded by native trees in- 
stead of Lomhardy poplars. 

The State Hospital is located at 
New Haven. It is a large and 
commodious building of stone, very 
favorably situated on elevated 
ground, in the western part of the 

One daily and four weekly news- 
papers, and one religious weekly 
sheet, are published here. The 
Daily Herald was the earliest daily 
paper issued in this state, it having 
been commenced here November 
26, 1832. The other periodical 
publications of the place, are the 
Vale Literary Magazine, edited 
hy the students of Yale College ; 
the Quarterly Christian Spectator, 
a work of established reputation, 
which began as a monthly in 13ly, 
and after ten volumes of that series 
had been completed, adopted its 
present form, in which it has reach- 
ed its tenth volume ; and the 
American Journal of Science and 
Arts, edited by Professor Silliman. 
This important periodical was com- 
menced in 1819, and has arrived at 
the 35th volume, having outlived 
many of its early European con- 
temporaries. It is a work which has 
done much for the advancement of 
science, and reflects great honor on 
the nation and city of its birth, as 
well as on its distinguished editor. 

The population of the town, in- 
cludin£ the city, was in 1S20, 
8,326 ; in 1830, 10,678 ; in Decem- 
ber, 1833, 12,199, of whom 11,067 
were within the city. The num- 
ber of inhabitants in 1837, was esti- 
mated at 14,000. 

As a seat of education, New 
Haven is justly celebrated. At a 
moderate estimate, one thousand 
persons from abroad are constantly 
here for the purposes of receiving 

Yale College is one of the most 
ancient and celebrated institutions 
of learning in the country, and num- 
bers among her academical gradu- 
ates, 4,824 persons. 

The Mineral Collection, well 
known as the most extensive in the 
country, occupies a spacious and 
well lighted apartment. 

The Telescope belonging to the 
college was made by Dolland, and 
presented by Mr. Sheldon Clark, 
of Oxford. It is an achromatic of 
five inches aperture and ten feet 
focal length, and is considered an 
instrument of great excellence. 
See Register. 

Besides the College libraries, there 
are in the city several libraries of 
considerable extent and importance. 
Among them, that belonging to Mr. 
Ithiel Town deserves to be particu- 
larized. This is a large and precious 
collection of books, principally on 
architecture and the other fine arts, 
together with many volumes of 
great antiquity and rarity. It is 
the most complete architectural li- 
brary in the United States. It is 
placed beyond the reach of fire, in 
an elegant building on Hillhouse 
avenue. In 1837, there were in 
New Haven 43 well conducted 
academies and private schools, 
some of which were of an elevated 
character for females. The public 
schools are well sustained. The 
annual expenditure for schools is 
about $30,000. The whole number 
of pupils- is about 2,500. 

There are in New Haven several 


institutions for the promotion of the 
science, industry and comfort of its 
The Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences was incorporated in 
1799. It has published one volume 
of Memoirs, (3 vo. 1810—1813, pp. 
412 ;) but since the establishment of 
Prof. Silliman's Journal of Science, 
their Memoirs have appeared in that 

The Americaji Geological So- 
ciety was incoi-porated in 1819. — 
Its collection of specimens is con- 
nected with the mineral cabinet of 
Yale College. 

The Vale JVatural History So- 
ciety has existed four years, and 
has a considerable collection of 
birds, shells, minerals, plants, &.c. 
Its transactions have hitherto been 
made public through Prof. Silli- 
man's Journal of Science. The 
Mutual Aid Association is an insti- 
tution of great utility. The JVew 
Haven Horticultural Society and 
the Orphan Asylum are well sup- 
ported and highly beneficial. 

The mechanics of New Haven 
have long been distinguished for 
their industry, intelligence and love 
of knowledge. As early as 1807 
they established the Mechanics' So- 
ciety, for the promotion of the use- 
ful arts, and the encouragement of 
industry and merit. The society 
is in a prosperous condition. The 
young mechanics have, moreover, 
established for their mutual im- 
provement, the Younsr Mechanics'' 
Institute. The plan has been pro- 
secuted with zeal and success. 
The Institute has a cabinet of min- 
erals ; a collection of philosophical 
apparatus, and several hundred vol- 
umes of books. The manufactures 
of New Haven are numerous; 
among which are boots, shoes, car- 
pets, and rugs of a supei-ior quality, 
stoves, locks, paper, books, hats, 
tin and cabinet wares, muskets, 
iron castings, machinery, sashes, 
window blinds, &.c. 

The manufacturing interest of 

New Haven employs an extensive 
capital, and a large number of per- 

The foreign commerce of New 
Haven is principally coniined to 
the We>t India Islands, with which 
a considerable trade is carried on. 
Tonnage of the district, in 1837, 
9,559 tons. ^ 

A line of packets plies between 
this and New York city, and an ex- 
cellent line of steam-boats furnish- 
es daily communication with that 

The New Haven and Northamp- 
ton Canal connects the waters of 
Connecticut river at the latterplace, 
with the harbor of this city. This 
great v/oi-k, having surmounted 
many difficulties and embarrass- 
ments, i3 now in a fair way to give 
a new impulse to the business of 
the city. A line of packet boats 
runs daily between Northampton 
and New Haven, and promises to 
be well sustained. 

The New Haven and Hartford 
Rail- Road is now in the course of 
construction, and will probably be 
completed during the present year. 
When finished it must prove of 
great importance to the interests of 
the place. 

The village of Fair Haven is 
built on both sides the Quinnipiack, 
and about one half of it lies within 
the limits of the city of New Ha- 
ven. This village has grown to its 
present importance with great rapid- 
ity, and now corries on an exten- 
sive and thriving business. It has 
two churches, and a large and pros- 
perous high school, known as the 
Fair Haven Institute. 

The village of Westville contains 
about 700 inhabitants. Manufac- 
tures and agriculture constitute the 
chief business of the place. 

New Haven may justly boast of 
many distinguished men who made 
that city their favorite residence. 
The names of David Wooster, 
of Nathan Whiting, of Rog- 
er Shermajv, of James Hill- 


HOUSE, and many others, will nev- 
er be forgotten. 

How large a part of the United 
States is indebted for its prosperity 
to the inventive genius of Eli 
Whitj^ey, late a citizen of New 
Haven ? " The commerce, the 
business of the world, has been es- 
sentially modified and increased 
through the operation of his princi- 
pal invention, the cotton gin; and 
the substantial convenience and en- 
joyment of mankind have, by the 
same means, been extended and are 
extending, to a degree which no 
man can calculate." 

This City of Groves is a very 
delightful place : it probably con- 
centrates more charms than any 
city of its age and population in the 

Netvingtoii, IV. H. 

Rockingham co. The soil is gen- 
erally sandy and unproductive ; ex- 
cepting near the waters, where it 
yields good crops of grain and grass. 
At Fox point, in the N. W. part of 
the town, Piscataqua bridge is 
thrown over the river to Goat isl- 
and, and thence to Durham shore. 
The bridge was erected in 1793, is 
2,600 feet long, and 40 wide ; cost 
$65,401. Nevvington was origin- 
ally a part of Portsmouth and Dover, 
and was early settled. It was dis- 
annexed, and incorporated in July, 

Nevvington was among the set- 
tlements early exposed to the rava- 
ges of the Indians. In May, 1690, 
a party of Indians, under a saga- 
more of the name of Hoophood, at- 
tacked Fox point, destroyed sever- 
al houses, killed 14 persons, and 
took 6 prisoners. They were im- 
mediately pursued by the inhabit- 
ants, who recovered some of the 
captives and a part of the plunder, 
after a severe action, in which 
Hoophood was wounded. 

Nevvington is 42 miles E. S. E. 
from Concord, and 5W. from Ports- 
mouth. Population, 1830, 549. 

Ne^v Ipswicli, N. II. 

Hillsborough co. This town is 
50 miles S. S. W. from Concord, 70 
W. S. W. from Portsjnouth, and 50 
N. W. by W. from Boston. The 
town is watered by many rivulets, 
but principally by the Souhegan 
river, which is formed by the junc- 
tion of two streams; the W. issu- 
ing from a small pond on the Pas- 
ture mountain, so called ; the S. 
from two ponds in Ashburnham, 
Mass., near the base of Watatick 
hill. Over this river is a stone 
bridge, built in 1817. It is 156 feet 
lonsc, 22 feet wide and 42 feet high, 
lesling on a single arch of split 
stone ; cost $3,500. The first cot- 
ton factory in the state was built in 
this town, in 1S03. There are now 
4 cotton factories, and in other re- 
spects New Ipswich has become an 
important manufacturing town. — 
Pratt's and Hoar's ponds contain 
about 50 acres each. Here is fine 
pasture land, and under cultivation, 
Indian corn, rye, oats, barley, pota- 
toes, beans, turnips, &-c., are pro- 
duced in abundance. 

The New Ipswich academy was 
incorporated June 18, 1789. Its 
funds are large. 

The principal village is in the 
centre of the town, in a pleasant 
and fertile valley. Many of the 
dwelling-houses are of brick, and 
are elegant in appearance. 

New Ipswich was first settled 
prior to 1749, and was incorporated 
by charter, Sept. 9, 1762. 

The first minister was the Rev. 
Stephen Farrar, a native of Lin- 
coln, Mass., where he was born 
Oct. 22, 17.38. He was ordained 
Oct. 22, 1760; died June 23, 1809, 
aged 71. 

New Ipswich has produced ma- 
ny who have become eminent as 
patriots, merchants, and men of 
science. Population, 1830, 1,673. 

Ne'vv liimerick; Mc. 

Washington co. In 1837, this 


town was incorporated ; it then bad 
124 inhabitants and produced 1,780 
bushels of wheat. See " Down 

KTew liondoii, N. H. 

Merrimack co. It is 30 miles W. 
N. W. from Concord, and 12 E. 
from Newport. Population, 1830, 
913. Lake Sunapee separates this 
town from Wendell, and is the 
principal source of Sugar river. -^ 
There are three considerable ponds. 
Little Sunapee pond, 11-2 miles in 
]ens,th and 3-4 of a mile in width, 
lies in the W. part, and empties its 
waters into lake Sunapee. Har- 
vey's and Messer's ponds, near the 
centre of the town, are the princi- 
pal sources of Warner river. They 
are about a mile in length and 3-4 
of a mile in breadth, and are sepa- 
rated by a bog, many parts of which 
rise and fall with the water. Pleas- 
ant pond, in the N. part of New 
London, is nearly 2 miles long and 
1 wide. The settlements of New 
London are formed principally on 
three large swells of land. The 
.soil is deep and generally good. — 
In the N. part are several eleva- 
tions. In some parts the land is 
rocky, but there is little not capable 
of cultivation. New London was 
incorporated in 1779. Its first name 
was Bantzick. 

The damage sustained by the in- 
habitants of this town, by the vio- 
lent whirlwind of Sept. 9, 1821, was 
estimated at ^9,000. A large rock 
lying out of the ground, 100 feet 
long, 50 wide and 20 high, was 
rent into two pieces, and thrown 
about 20 feet asunder. 

New Lioiidon County, Ct. 

JVew London and JS'^orwich are 
the county towns. New London 
county is bounded N. by Windham, 
Tolland and Hartford counties, E. 
by Windham county and the state of 
Rhode Island, S. by Long Island 
Sound, and the county of Mid- 
dlesex, Its average length from E. 

toW. averages about 26 miles, and 
it has a medium breadth of about 20 
miles. This county possesses supe- 
rior maritime advantages, having an 
extensive border on Long Island 
SoundjWhich affords numerous bays, 
inlets and harbors. Excepting a small 
section, principally in the town of 
Lyme, no portion of the county can 
be considered as mountainous, but it 
is generally hilly and elevated, and 
comprises a small proportion of allu- 
vial. The hills and elevated tracts 
ai-e considerably rough and stony. 
The lands in general are not adapted 
to grain culture, although upon the 
intervales and other tracts Indian 
corn is raised to advantage, and to a 
considerable extent. The princi- 
pal agricultural interests depend 
very much upon grazing. The wa- 
ters of the county are abundant and 
valuable. On the south it is washed 
more than thirty miles by Long Isl- 
and Sound, part of its western bor- 
der by Connecticut river, and the 
interior of the county is watered and 
fertilized by the Thames and its 
branches. The fishing business is 
more extensively carried on in this 
county than in any other section of 
the state, and is an important branch 
of industry. The manufacturing 
business is carried on to consider- 
able extent in the northern part of 
the county, and is increasing. 

In 1837, this county contained 
41,387 sheep. Population, in 1820, 
35,943 ; 1830, 42,201 : 81 inhabit- 
ants to a square mile. The tonnage 
of the district of New London, in 
1837, was 41,626 tons. 

NeAv Loudon, Ct. 

One of the shire towns of New 
London county. The first English 
settlement in New London com- 
menced in 1646. It is situated on 
the west bank of the river Thames. 
In its territorial lin)its it is much 
the smallest of any town in the 
state, being about 4 miles in length 
from north to south, and averages 
about 3-4 of a mile in breadth. — 


The city of New London is situated 
3 miles from Long Island S<.iund, 
and is a port of entry. It is 42 
miles southeast from Hartford, 13 
south from Norwich, and 53 east 
from New Haven. Population, in 
1830, 4,356. Lon. 72° 9' W., lat. 
41° 0' 25" N. The city is princi- 
pally huilt on a declivity, which 
descends to the east and south. On 
the summit of the high ground, 
back of the most populous part of 
the city, the observer has a tine 
prospect of the surrounding coun- 
try. The city is irregularly laid out, 
owing to the nature of the ground 
on w'liich it is built, being much 
incumbered with granite rocks. — 
The houses are not so handsome in 
their outward appearance, as might 
be reasonably expected, considering 
the wealth of tlie inhabitants. In 
the course of a few years past, how- 
ever, a spirit of improvement in this 
respect has taken place, and many 
buildings have been erected which 
are elegant in their appearance. 
Some of the streets have been strait- 
ened and leveled, by blasting the 
granite rocks with which they were 
disfigured. These rocks afford an 
excellent material for the construc- 
tion of buildings, and it is believed 
that no city in this country has the 
advantages of New London, in this 
particular, where the materials for 
erecting houses can be found in 
their streets. The harbor is one of 
the best in the United States, being 
large, safe, and commodious, hav- 
ing five fathoms of water. It is 3 
miles long, and rarely obstructed 
with ice. During the extreme cold 
in January, 1835, while the navi- 
gation of the harbor of New York 
was closed by the ice, the liarbor of 
New London remained open and 

From the excellent maritime lo- 
cation of New London, the naviga- 
tion, commercial and fishing busi- 
ness, has ever been the principal 
pursuit of the inhabitants. Their 
fine harbor has served in a great 

degree as the port of Connecticut 
river, the impediments in which 
frequently prevent its being naviga- 
ble for large vessels fully laden. The 
whale fishery and sealing business is 
an important branch of commerce. 
Aboat a million of dollars is devot- 
ed to its prosecution. In 1834, up- 
wards of thirty ships and 900 men 
and boys were employed in this 

The city is defended by two forts, 
Fort Trumbull and Fort Griswold. 
Fort Trumbull stands on the New 
London side of the Thames^ about 
a mile below the city. It is situa- 
ted on the rocky extremity of a pen- 
insula extending eastward into the 
river. This fort is a station for 
United States soldiers. Fort Gris- 
wold is on the E. side of the Thames, 
on a commanding eminence oppo- 
site the city, in the town of Gro- 

New London has been rendered 
conspicuous for its sufferings during 
the revolutionary war, and the the- 
atre of hostile operations. On the 
6lh of September, 1781, a large 
proportion of this town was laid in 
ashes by Benedict Arnold. The 
following account of this transaction 
is taken from the Connecticut Ga- 
zette, printed at Nev/ London, Sept. 
7, 1781. 

" About daybreak on Thursday 
morning last, 24 sail of the enemy's 
shipping appeared to the westwai'd 
of this harbor, which by many were 
supposed to be a plundering party 
after stock 5 alarm guns were imme- 
diately fired, but the discharge of 
cannon in the liarbor has becoine so 
frequent of late, that they answer- 
ed little or no purpose. The defence- 
less state of the fortifications and 
(he town are obvious to our readers; 
a few of the inhabitants, who were 
equipped, advanced towards the 
place where the enemy were 
thought likely to make their land- 
ing, and manoeuvred on the heights 
adjacent, until the enemy about 9 
o'clock landed in two divisions, and 


about 800 men each, one of tliem 
at Brown's farm, near the light- 
house, tlie other at Groton Point : 
the division that landed near the 
light-house marched up the road, 
keeping up large flanking parties, 
who were attacked in difrerent pla- 
ces on their marcli by the inhabit- 
ants, who had spirit and resolution 
to oppose their progress. The 
main body of the enemy proceeded 
to the town, and set lire to the 
stores on the beach, and immediate- 
ly after to the dwelling-houses lying 
on the Mill Cove. The scattered 
fire of our little parties, unsupported 
by our neighbors more distant, gall- 
ed them so that they soon began to 
retire, setting fire promiscuously on 
their way. The lire from the stores 
communicated to the shipping that 
lay at the wharves, and a number 
were burnt ; others swung to sin- 
gle fast, and remained unhurt. 

" At 4 oclock, they began to quit 
the town with great precipitation, 
and were pursued by our brave cit- 
zcns with the spirit and ardor of vet- 
erans, and driven on board their 
boats. Five of the enemy wei-e 
killed, and about twenty wounded ; 
among the latter is a Hessian cap- 
tain, who is a prisoner, as are seven 
others. We lost four killed and ten 
or twelve wounded, some mortally. 

" The most valuable part of the 
town is reduced to ashes, and all 
the stores. Fort Trumbull, not be- 
ing tenable on the land side, was 
evacuated as the enemy advanced, 
and the few men in it crossed the 
river to Fort Griswold, on Groton 
Hill, which was soon after invested 
by the division that landed at the 
point. The fort having in it only 
about 120 men, chiefly militia hast- 
ily collected, they defended it with 
the greatest resolution and bravery, 
and once repulsed the eneuiy: l)ut 
the fort being out of repair, could 
not be defended by such a handful 
of men, though brave and deter- 
mined, against so superior a num- 
ber; and after having a number of 

their party killed and wounded, 
tliey found that further resistance 
would be in vain, and resigned the 
fort." See Groton, Ct. 

The following is the inscription 
on Bishop Seabury's monument : 

Here lyeth the body of Samuel 
Seabuky, D. D. Bishop of Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island, who departed 
i'rom this transitory scene, February 
25th, Anno Domini, 179(3, in the 68th 
year of Iiis age, and the 12th of his 
Episcopal consecration. 

Ingenious without pride, learned 
without pedantry, good without sever- 
ity, he was duly qualified to discharge 
tlie duties of the Christian and the 
Bishop. In the pulpit he enforced Re- 
ligion; in his conduct he exemplified 
it. The poor he assisted with his char- 
ity ; the ignorant he blessed with his 
instruction. The friend of men, he 
ever designed their good 5 the enemy 
of vice, he ever opposed it. Chris- 
tian ! dost thou aspire to happiness ? 
Seibury has shown the way that leads 
to it. 

"An epitaph on Captaine Richard 
Lord, deceased May 17, 1662. — 
^.Etatis svffi 51. 

.... Bright stnrre of ovr chivallrie 

lies here 
To the state a covnsillovr fvil deai-e 
And to ye trvth a friend of sweete 

To Hartford a silver ornament 
Who can deny to poore he was releife 
Arid in composing paroxyies he was 

To marchantes as a patterne he might 

Adventring dangers new by sea and 


Blew Market, N. H. 

Rockingham CO. It lies 38 miles 
S. E. from Concord, and 12 V^. by 
S. fiom Portsmouth. Population, 
1830, 2,013. 

Piscassick river passes through 
thi? town inro Duriuim. The Lam- 
prey river washes its N. E. bound- 
ary, as docs the Swamscot the S. 
E. The soil is good, and agricul- 
tural pursuits are here crowned 
with much success. There are 


several pleasant and thriving villa- 
ges, in which are large and valua- 
ble manufactures. 

New Market was originally a 
part of Exeter, and was detached 
and incorporated, 1727. 

Mrs. Fanny Shute, who died in 
this town September, 1S19, was re- 
spected not only for her excellent 
qualities, but the adventures of her 
youth. When 13 months old, she 
was taken by a party of Indians, 
carried to Canada, and disposed of 
to the French — educated in a nun- 
nery, and after remaining 13 years 
in captivity, was redeemed and re- 
stored to her friends. 

Daniel Brackett recently died in 
this town. He weighed 560 lbs. 

New Marlboroiigli, Mass. 

Berkshire co. There is a large 
pond in this town, and a branch of 
Housatonick river. The surface is 
uneven, and the soil best adapted 
for grazing. It was incorporated in 
1759, and lies 135 miles S. W. by 
W. from Boston, and 20 S. by E. 
from Lenox. Population, in 1837, 

There are two caverns in this 
town, containing stalactites. The 
manufactures consist of leather, 
boots, shoes, chairs, cabinet ware, 
and a variety of sawed lumber. — 
The products of the dairy are con- 
siderable, and about 1,600 sheep are 

Ncv Milford, Ct, 

Litchfield CO. This township is 
hilly and broken, several mountain- 
ous ridges extending through it. 
The soil is much diversified, and 
where susceptible of cultivation, it 
is generally good ; but on the whole 
more distinguished for grain than 
grass. There are, however, large 
quantities of excellent meadow 
ground, but the pasturage is, on the 
whole, not abundant. It is essen- 
tially a farming town. For some 
time after the white people come 
here, an Indian chief, or sachem, 


named Werauhamaiig, had a pal- 
ace standing near the Great falls, 
where he resided. On the inner 
walls of this palace, (which were 
of bark with the smooth side in- 
wards,) were pictured every knoAvn 
species of beast, bird, fish and in- 
sect, from the largest to the small- 
est. This Avas said to have been 
done by artists whom a friendly 
prince at a great distance sent to 
him for that purpose, as Hiram did 
to Solomon. The town of New 
Milford was purchased of the Col- 
ony of Connecticut by a company of 
individuals chiefly belonging to Mil- 
ford, and was first settled in 1707. 
The first bridge that was ever built 
over the Housatonick river, from 
the sea to its source was built in this 
town in 1737. The village of Nev/ 
Milford is very handsome ; the 
streets are wide and well shaded. 
It lies 36 miles N. W. from New- 
Haven, and IS S. AV. from Litch- 
field. Population, 1830, 3,979. The 
territory of this town is larger than 
any other in the state : it is 13 by 6 
1-2 miles. The town is well water- 
ed, and has some manufactures. 
There are large quantities of gran- 
ite and marble, and the town pro- 
duces large quantities of grain and 
wool for market. 

Newport, Me. 

Penobscot co. This is a fine farm- 
ing town, and watered by a large 
and beautiful pond which empties 
into Sebasticook river. It lies 56 
miles N. E. from Augusta and 24 
W. from Bangor. Population, 1837, 
1,088. Wheat crop same year, 5,173 
bushels. This town contains a pleas- 
ant village and some mills. 

KeMport, N. H. 

Shire town, Sullivan county. Its 
central situation and its water pow- 
er, together with the enterprising 
spirit of its inhabitants, has render- 
ed Newport a place of considerable 
business. It is 40 miles N.from 
Concord, about 35 N. from Keene, 


and 14 E. S. E. from Windsor, Vt. 
Near the centre of the town, and 
the confluence of the E. and S. 
branches of Sugar river and the 
Croydon turnpike, is a handsome 
village. In general the soil is rich 
and productive. Sugar river flows 
through this town, and its three 
branches unite near the village, 
whence it passes through Claremont 
into the Connecticut. On the east- 
ern branch are situated, principally 
near the village, large and valuable 
manufacturing establishments. — 
There are other mills in different 
parts of the town. There are a 
few eminences, designated as Bald, 
Coitand East mountains, and Blue- 
berry hill. Newport was granted 
bj^ charter in 1761. The first ef- 
fort towards a settlement was made 
in the fall of 1763. The first set- 
tlers were principally from Kill- 
ingworth, Ct. This town is noted 
for its good schools and its various 
charitable societies. Population, 
1830, 1,913. 

Newport, Vt. 

Orleans co. This town is sepa- 
rated from Derby bj'^ Memphrema- 
gog lake, and is watered by a branch 
of Missisque river. It lies 48 miles 
N. by E. from Montpclier, and 10 
N. from Irasburgh. Population, 
1830, 234. 

Newport County, R. I. 

J^ewport is the chief town. This 
county comprises seven towns and 
a number of islands ; but the most 
interesting section of it is tiie isl- 
and of Rhode Island, from which 
the state derives its name. This 
island is about 15 miles in length, 
and has a mean breadth of two miles 
and a half. 

The surface presents an interesting 
variety of moderate eminences and 
declivities, which render the scene- 
ry very pleasing. Valuable mine- 
rals are found on the island, and 
fossil coal, difficult of ignition, is 
found in large quantities. The 

soil of the island is very rich, and 
under the management of skilful 
farmers is made to produce in great 
abundance all the varieties of grains, 
grasses, vegetables, fruits and flow- 
ers common to its latitude. 

It is remarkable that not only this 
island, but the county generally, 
should be so fertile. The poorest 
lands in New England are gener- 
ally on the sea board ; but as it re- 
gards this county, few sections of 
the interior present a better soil. 

From the earliest settlement of 
the country, this county has been 
engaged iu commerce and the fish- 
ery. These interests are now in a 
flourishing condition ; and manu- 
facturing establishments are in- 
creasing, by the aid of steam pow- 
er. In 1837 there were 37,340 
sheep in the county. 

Newport county is bound N. by 
Mount Hope bay, and Bristol coun- 
ty, Mass. ; E. by said county of 
Bristol ; S. by the Atlantic ocean, 
and W, by Narraganset bay. Area, 
136 square miles. Population, 1820, 
15,771 ; 1830, 16,535. Population 
to a square mile, 122. 

Newport, R. I. 

Chief town of Newport county, 
and one of the seats of the state leg- 
islature. It is in N. latitude 41° 28' 
20", and W. longitude 71° 21' 14" : 
5 miles from the sea, 30 miles S. 
by E. from Providence, 70 S. S. W. 
from Boston, and 153 from New 
York, by water. The township lies 
in an irregular and somewhat of a 
semicircuku' form, about 6 miles in 
length and 1 in breav'th. In com- 
rton with tlie wiiole ishmd of Rhode 
Island, on whicri Newport is situr.- 
ted, the soil is lemarkably fertile 
and under good cultivation. The 
surface is undulating, presenting a 
great variety of delightful scenery. 
The waters of Narraganset bay at 
this place are unrivalled for beauty 
and convenience. The harbor of 
Newport is considered one of the 
best on the coast of America : it 


has sufficient depth of water for the 
largest class of vessels, is exceed- 
ingly easy of access from the ocean, 
and sufficiently capacious to con- 
tain whole fleets. This harbor is 
admirably defended by forts Wol- 
cott. Green and Adams, and will 
probably soon become a naval de- 
pot. Newport w^as first settled by 
William Codington and his associates 
in 1638. The growth of the town 
was so rapid for the first hundred 
years, that in 1738 there were 7 
worshipping assemblies, and 100 sail 
of vessels belonged to the port. 

Newport suffered severely dur- 
ing the revolutionary war, and was 
for a long time in possession of the 
enemj'. After the war it revived 
again, but the more favorable loca- 
tion of Providence for an interior 
commerce, deprived it of a large 
portion of its original business. 

Newport however retains its 
former character for foreign com- 
merce and the fishery. A number 
of vessels are now engaged in the 
whaling business, and manufactur- 
ing establishments have recently 
been put into operation by steam 
power, which promise success. — 
Ship and boat building and the man- 
ufacture of cordage are carried on 
extensively. The domestic fishe- 
ry is to Newport an important re- 
sourse. There is probably no place 
in the world where a greater varie- 
ty of fish, or of a better quality, are 
found. About sixty different kinds, 
comprising almost every species of 
fin and shell fish, fit for the ta- 
ble, are taken in great abundance 
around the shores of Narraganset. 
The tonnage of the district of New- 
port, in 1837, was 11,498 tons. 

The compact part of the town is 
built on a beautiful site, facing the 
harbor in a southeasterly direction. 
The main street extends more than 
a mile in length. The buildings 
on this and other streets and on 
Washington square are neatly built, 
and some of them are very hand- 
some The marks of age which 

some of these buildings bear, with 
the excellent state of preservation 
in which they appear, give them a 
grace not found in many of those 
of more modern construction. 

Although this ancient town has 
passed through many vicissitudes 
and changes of fortune, still it con- 
tinues to advance in the number of 
its people. Population, in 1820, 
7,319; 1830, 8,010. 

Newport is celebrated for its 
beauty and the salubrity of its cli- 
mate. From these circumstances, 
and from the numerous inviting 
objects which surround it, it has 
become a favorite resort for visitors 
from warmer climates ; and in no 
place can the summer season be 
more enjoyed than amid the charms 
of Newport. 

Olivkr Hazzard Perry, the 
victor on Lake Erie, Sept. 10, 1813, 
was born at Newport, in 1785. — 
He died in the West Indies, in 1820. 
A monument is erected to his mem- 

Ne-w Portland, Me. 

Franklin co. This town is finely 
watered by two branches of Seven 
Mile brook. This is one of the 
finest farming towns in the coun- 
ty. It produced, in 1837, 10,451 
bushels of wheat. Population, 
same year, 1,476. This town has a 
pleasant village, a number of saw 
mills and other manufactories. It 
lies 48 miles N. N. W. from Augus- 
ta, and 18 N. by E. from Farming- 
ton. Incorporated, 1808. 

Newry, Me. 

Oxford CO. A branch of Andros- 
coggin river waters this town, and 
affords it good mill privileges. It 
lies 63 miles W. from Augusta, and 
25 N. W. from Paris. Population, 
1837, 412, Incorporated, 1805. 

New Salem, Mass. 

Franklin co. This town is bound- 
ed N. by Miller's river, and has a 
good water power. It lies 74 miles 


W N. W. from Boston, and 17 E. 
S. E. from Greenfield. This is a 
pleasant town of elevated surface, 
and good soil for grazing. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 1,255. The manufac- 
tures of the town, consist of palm- 
leaf hats, boots, shoes, leather, 
straw bonnets, and ploughs. In- 
corporated, 1753. 

Ne^v Sliarom, Me. 

Franklin, co. This town is water- 
ed on the northwest side by Sandy 
river, and is bounded south by Vi- 
enna. The soil is admirably adapt- 
ed to agricultural purposes. Popu- 
lation, 1637, 1,771. Wheat crop, 
same year, 8,132 bushels. It lies 
26 miles N. W. from Augusta. In- 
corporated, 1794. 

New Slioreliam, R. I. 

Newport co. This town com- 
prises the island of Block Island. 
The island lies in the open sea, 
ftbout 14 miles S. S. W. from Judith 
Point, and 13 N. E. from Montauk 
Point, on Long Island, N. Y. It is 
about 8 miles in length, and varies 
from 2 to 4 miles in w idth. It has 
several ponds, which cover about a 
seventh part of the island. The 
surface of the town is uneven; in 
some parts elevated. The soil is a 
sandy, gravelly loam, and quite 
productive. This island was once 
famous for its cattle and good dai- 
ries. The people are mostlj^ fish- 
ermen : they have no harbor, and 
peat is their only fuel. Population, 
1830, 1,185. Incorporated, 1672. 
Its Indian name was Manisses. 

Ke-tvton, Mass. 

Middlesex co. A very beauti- 
ful, agricultural and manufacturing 
town, the JVonantinn of the In- 
dians, 7 miles W. by S. from Boston, 
12 S. E. from Concord, and 7 N. 
from Dedham, Charles river wash- 
es the borders of this town 15 miles, 
and, by two fallsof considerable ex- 
tent, affords it a great and valuable I 
water power. Nine bridges cross | 

Charles river in this town. The 
soil is generally very good, and 
highly cultivated. There are 2 
cotton, 1 woolen, and 5 paper 
mills in the town, and manufactures 
of nails, rolled iron, candles, vit- 
riol, barilla, chaises, harnesses, mo- 
rocco, leather, boots, shoes, ma- 
chinery, chairs, and cabinet ware ; 
the value of which, the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$815,872. Newton was incorpo- 
rated in 1691 ; it formerly com- 
prised the town of Cambridge, and 
is noted as the birth place and resi- 
dence of many distinguished men. 
Population, 1830, 2,377 ; 1837, 
3,037. A Theological Seminary 
was established in this town, in 
1825. See Register. 

Neivtown, N. H., 

Rockingham co., lies 40 miles S. 
E. from Concord, and 27 S. S. W. 
from Portsmouth. Country pond 
lies in Newtown and Kingston, and 
two other small ponds connect by 
outlets Avith its waters. The soil 
produces good crops of grain or 
grass. Joseph Barilett first settled 
in this town, in 1720. Bartlett was 
taken prisoner by the Indians at 
Haverhill, in 1708, and renjained a 
captive in Canada about 4 years.. 
Population, 1830, 510. 

Ne"»vto^vn, Ct. 

Fairfield co. This town was in- 
corporated in 1708. It is watered 
by Patatuck river, the Indian name 
of the place. It lies 25 miles W. 
N. W. from New Haven, 10 E. 
from Danbury, and 22 N. from Fair- 
field. Population, 1830, 3,100.— 
The surface of the town is hilly ; 
many of the eminences are exten- 
sive and continuous. The soil is 
principally a gravelly loam, gener- 
ally fertile and productive. It is 
well adapted to the culture of grain, 
and is also favorable for fruit, there 
being many valuable orchards in the 
town. The borough of Newtown 
is beautifully situated on high 


ground ; it commands an extensive 
prospect, and contains some hand- 
some buildings. 

The flourishing village of Sandy 
Hook is situated about 1 1-2 miles 
N. E. of the central part of New- 
town, at the foot of a rocky emin- 
ence or bluff, from the top of which 
is a fine prospect of the surround- 
ing country. A fine mill stream 
(the Patatuck) runs in a northerly 
course through the village, at the 
base of the ciiff, which rises almost 
perpendicular to the height of 160 
feet. Near a cotton factory, at the 
northern extremity of the village, 
some traces of coal have been dis- 
covered. The village contained, in 
1S34, 1 cotton, 1 hat, 1 comb and 
2 woolen factories. There was also 
1 machine shop, and 1 establish- 
ment for working brass. 

NeM^ Vineyard, Me. 

Franklin co. This town is wa- 
tered by a branch of Seven Mile 
brook. The surface of the town is 
uneven, but the soil, generally, is 
productive. It produced, in 1837, 
7,063 bushels of wheat. Popula- 
tion, same year, 870. Incorporat- 
ed, 1802. it Ues 40 miles N. W. 
from Augusta, and 8 N. by E. from 

]Vol>lel>oroiigIi, Me. 

Lincoln co. This town lies on 
the east side of the upper waters 
of Damariscotta river. It is a 
place of considerable trade. Many 
ships are built here, and a large 
number of vessels are employed in 
the coasting trade. The soil of the 
town is generally good, and consid- 
erable attention is paid by the in- 
habitants to agricultural pursuits. 
It lies 38 miles S. E. from Augusta, 
and HE. from Wiscasset. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 1,999. Incor., 1788. 

No-Mans-Land, Mass. 

Dukes CO. A ledge of rocks, 
the most southern part of the state. 
It lies 7 miles S. from Gay Head. 


Norfolk County, Mass. 

Chief town, Dedham. This 
county is bounded N. E. by Boston 
harbor, N. by Suffolk county, W. 
by the S. E. corner of Worcester 
county, S. by the N. E. corner of 
the state of Rhode Island, and S. 
S. E. and E. by the counties of Bris- 
tol and Plymouth. Area, about 
400 square miles. Population, in 
1820,36,452; in 1830, 41,901 ; in 
1837, 50,399. Taken from Suffolk 
county in 1793. 

This county has a maritime coast 
on Boston harbor of about 12 miles, 
which is indented with many small 
bays and navigable rivers. Its sur- 
face is uneven, and in some parts 
hilly. Its soil is generally strong 
and rocky. Much of the dark col- 
ored granite, or sienite, is found 
here. A large part of Norfolk 
county, particularly those towns 
near Boston, is under a high state 
of cultivation, and affords fruits and 
vegetables in great abundance. — 
The proximity of this county to 
the capital gives it many facilities; 
and the towns in this, and in the 
county of Middlesex, that border 
on Boston harbor, may be called the 
Gardens of Boston. It contains 
22 towns, and 126 inhabitants to a 
square mile. The Charles, Nepon- 
set, and Manatiquot are its chief 

In 1837, this county contained 
2,054 sheep. The value of the 
manufactures in the county, the 
year endinj; April 1, 1837, was 
$;6,466,010." The value of the 
fishery, the same year, was $244,- 

Norfolk, Ct. 

Litchfield co. The settlement 
of Norfolk began in 1744. It lies 
35 miles W. N. W. from Hartford, 
and 17 N". from Litchfield. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,485. 

This town is elevated and moun- 
tainous. The soil is a primitive, 
gravelly loam, generally cold and 
stonj, but has considerable depth. 


and affwds good grazing. Former- 
ly large quantities of sugar were 
made from the maple : more than 
20,000 lbs, have been manufactured 
in a single season ; but since the 
land has been cleared by progres- 
sive settlements, and in consequence 
of the destruction of the maple 
trees by some tornadoes, the busi- 
ness has greatly declined. The 
dairy business comprises the prin- 
cipal interests of the town. A 
stream, called Blackberry river, 
runs near the centre of the place, 
and a little westward of the con- 
gregational church falls over a ledge 
of rocks 30 feet in height. This is 
an excellent site for mills, of which 
there are several near this spot. 

There is a handsome village, with 
an open square or green in front of 
the church, which is uncommonly 
neat and beautiful in its appearance. 
About half a mile north is another 
village, in which are two woolen 
and three scythe factories, 

Xorridgovock, Me. 

Chief town of Somerset co. This 
town is situated on both sides of 
the Kennebec river, 28 miles N. 
from Augusta. Incorporated, 1788. 
Population, 1837, 1,955. Its sur- 
face is diversified with hills of a 
moderate elevation, the soil various, 
but generally good and well culti- 
vated. W>)eat crop, 1837, 10,299 
bushels. This town was formerly 
the site of the celebrated tribe of 
Norridgewock Indians. Their vil- 
lage was situated at the foot of Nor- 
ridgewock falls, in the N. W. part 
of the town, and the border of Mad- 
ison. The tribe had a church, the 
bell of which was dug up a few 
years since, and placed in the cabi- 
net at Bowdoin college. The tribe 
was destroyed by a party of 1G8 
men, sent out from Massachusetts 
for that purpose, commanded by 
Capt. Moulton, on the afternoon of 
August 23, 1724. Among the kill- 
ed was the noted Jesuit missiona- 
ry, Ralle. A monument was erect- 

ed the 23d of August, 1833, by- 
Bishop Fenwick, to his memory. — ■ 
It is a plain granite pyramidal shaft, 
standing on a square base of the 
same material, having the follow- 
ing inscription : — 

Sebastianus Rasles natione Gal- 
luse Societate Jesu missionius, per 
aliquot annos Illinois et Huronibus 
primum evangelanus, deinde per 
34 annos Abenaquis, fide et chari- 
tate Christi verus Apostolus, pericu- 
lus armorum intenitus se pro suis 
oribus mori paratum soepius testifi- 
cans, inter arma et cocdes ac Pagi 
Nanarantsouak Norridgewock, et 
Ecclesiae suae minas, hoc in ipso 
loco, cecidit tandem optimus pastor, 
die 23 Augusti, A. D. 1724, ipsi et 
filius in Christo defunctis Monu- 
mentum hoc posuit Benidictus Fen- 
wick, Espiscopus Bostoniensis dedi- 
cavitque 23 Augusti, A. D. 1833. 
A. M. D. G. 

Norridgewock village is situated 
on the north side of the river, di- 
rectly in the bend, five miles west 
of Skowhegan falls. It is one of 
the most pleasant and delightful 
villages, especially in the summer, 
in the state. The main street is 
lined with ornamental trees, some 
of them venerable for age and mag- 
nitude, extending their long arms 
quite across the street, forming a 
beautiful avenue from east to west. 
On the south side of the river, con- 
nected by a bridge, is a pleasant and 
rapidly increasing village. 

The public buildings consist of 
a church and court house, on the 
north side of the river, and on the 
south, a female academy, and a free 
church at " Oak Hill," about 5 
miles from the village. 

This section of country is remark- 
able for its luxuriant growth of the 
white pine. A few years since, one 
of these trees was cut for a canoe 
Its length was 154 feet and measur 
ed 4 1-2 feet in diameter. 

North Hampton, N. H., 

Rockingham co., formerly con- 


stituting the parish called JVorth 
Hill, in Hampton, lies on the sea 
coast 50 miles S. E. by E. from 
Concord, and 9 S. by W. from Ports- 

Little river rises in the low 
grounds in the north part of the 
town, and after running southeast 
one or two miles, takes an east 
course, falling into the sea between 
Little Boar's head, in this town and 
Great Boar's head, in Hampton. 
Winnicut river rises near the cen- 
tre of the town, and passes north- 
west into Great bay. In 1742, the 
town was incorporated. Population, 
1830, 767. 

IVortliampton, Mass. 

Chief town of Hampshire co. This 
is a very beautiful town, delightful- 
ly situated on the west bank of Con- 
necticut river, and united to Hadley 
by a bridge. Since the first settle- 
ments on the Connecticut basin, 
this town lias been an important 
point of attraction. This was the 
third town settled on Connecticut 
river in this state. Its Indian name 
was J\''onatuck. The soil of the 
town is alluvial and its products ex- 
uberant. Both before and since the 
division of the old county into three, 
this place has been the seat of jus- 
tice. The buildings are handsome, 
and the most important county offi- 
ces are ^re proof. A fine stream 
passes through the centre of the 
town, possessing a good water pow- 
er, on which are manufactories and 
mills of various kinds. 

The manufactures of Northamp- 
ton consist of woolen and silk goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, paper, brooms, 
chairs, iron, tin, and cabinet wares, 
&c. ; total value the year ending 
April 1, 1837, about $.350,000. The 
manufacture of sewing silk, rib- 
bons, &c., is on a large scale, and 
the most flourishing establishment 
of the kind in this country. In 
1837, there were 3750 sheep shear- 
ed in the town ; the value of the 
wool was ^7,075. 

This place has considerable river 
and inland commerce, which will 
be increased by the Hampshire and 
Hampden canal, which meets the 
Connecticut river here and termi- 
nates at New Haven. 

This town was incorporated, in 
1654 ; population, 1820, 2,854, and in 
1837, 3,576. It is 91 miles W. from 
Boston, 67 E. from Albany, 39 N. 
from Hartford, 22 S.from Greenfield, 
17 N. by W. from Springfield, and 
376 from Washington. 

There are many institutions of a 
literary and religious character in 
this town, and its schools are of the 
first order. The country around 
the town is enchanting, and those 
who visit Mount Holyoke, 830 feet 
above the river, on the east side, or 
Mount Tom, 1,200 feet above the 
river, on the west side, will find 
a wonderful variety of landscape 
scenery, probably unsurpassed in 
beauty by any in the New Eng- 
land States. 

Korth. Beriviclc, Me. 

York CO. This town was incor- 
porated in 1831, and was taken from 
the east side of Berwick. It com- 
prises a fine tract of land ; it is well 
watered and very pleasant. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,493. It lies 91 miles 
S. AV. from Augusta, and 13 N. W. 
from York. 

Nortliljorougli, Mass. 

Worcester co. This is a pleasant 
farming town, of good soil, and wa- 
tered by Assabet river. It was in- 
corporated in 1766, and lies 32 miles 
W. from Boston, and 10 N. E. from 
\Vorcestcr. Population, 1830, 994 
— 1S37, 1,224. 

The manufactures of the town 
consist of cotton goods, boots, shoes, 
leather, children's wagons, &c.; an- 
nual amount about $75,000. 

North. Branford, Ct. 

New Haven co. This town was 
incorporated in 1831, and was taken 
from Branford. A range of moun- 


tains from the southwest to north- 
east passes through the central part 
of the town. The inhabitants are 
generally substantial farmers, and 
property is very equally distributed. 
The face of the township is gene- 
rally hilly, but the soil is strong and 
fertile. It lies 9 miles E. from 
New Kaven. Population, 1832, 

About a mile southeast of the 
Northford church, on Tetoket moun- 
tain, there is the appearance of hav- 
ing been, at some remote period, 
some violent convulsions in nature ; 
the rocks appear to have been rent 
asunder, and are thrown about in 
great disorder. Lead is said to have 
been found near this spot, a mass 
of it being discovered by a person 
who was hunting, at the time of 
the first settlement of the parish: 
he hung up a pair of buck's horns 
to designate the spot, but the place 
could not be found afterwards. 

Kortlitoridge, Mass. 

Worcester co. The Blackstone 
river and canal pass through this 
pleasant manufacturing and agri- 
cultural town. It has some excel- 
lent intervale land, and the soil of 
the uplands produces grass, grain, 
and vegetables in abundance. The 
river here is beautiful, and produces 
a great hydraulic power. The 
manufactures of the town consist 
of cotton and woolen goods, cotton 
machinery, boots, shoes, &c. : val- 
ue, the year ending April 1, 1837, 

Northbridge lies 35 miles S. W. 
by W. from Boston, and 13 S. E. 
from Worcester. Incorporated, 
1772. Population, 1830, 1,053; 
1837, 1,409. 

North. Bridge-ivater, Mass. 

Plymouth co. This town lies 20 
miles S. from Boston, 24 N. W. from 
Plymouth, and 10 S. S. W. from 
Weymouth Landing. Population, 
1830, 1,953; 1837, 2,701. It is 
well watered by Salisbury river 

and other small streams which emp- 
ty into the Taunton. The surface of 
the town is uneven, but the soil is 
of a good quality, particularly for 
grazing. Incorporated, 1821. 

The manufactures of the town 
consist of cotton goods, boots, shoes, 
hats, chairs, shoe tools, forks, hoes, 
cabinet and wooden wares, &c. : 
total amount, the year ending April 
1, 1837, $236,700. 

We regret that this very pleas- 
ant town was not called Titicut 
or JVunketest, one of the Indian 
names of the ancient territory. 

This town was the first of the 
three Bridgewaters thathave sprung 
from Old Bridgewater, named after a 
celebrated English Duke. We can 
see no good cause for attaching a 
cardinal point of the compass to the 
name of any town, particularly one 
of foreign derivation, when some 
beautiful Indian name meets the ear 
on the bank of almost every stream. 
Had the noble Duke bequeathed to 
good old mother Bridgewater and 
her three handsome daughters, (as 
he did to the city of Manchester,)the 
perpetual privilege of obtaining 140 
pounds of coal iov four pence, \\iqyq 
would appear some reason for per- 
petuating and extending the name. 

Some just remarks on the names 
of towns appeared in the Provi- 
dence Journal, which are worthy 
of repetition. 

"Indian" Names. The new 
state of Michigan has passed one 
of the most sensible laws that was 
ever enacted. Its object is to pre- 
serve the noble and harmonious old 
Indian names, which have been giv- 
en to every river and lake and for- 
est and mountain in our country, 
and which, by a bad taste, have in 
many instances, been displaced by 
the hackneyed names of European 
cities, or of distinguished men. The 
law provides that no town shall be 
named after any other place or af- 
ter any man, without first ob- 
taining the consent of the Legisla- 
ture. The consequence is, that 


Michigan is destitute of London, 
Paris and Amsterdam ; unlike her 
sister states, she boasts neither 
Thebes, Palmyra, Carthage or Troy. 
No collection of log huts, with half 
a dozen grocery stores, has been 
honored with the appellation of Liv- 
erpool, nor has any embryo city, 
with a college or an academy, re- 
ceived the appropriate name of 
Athens. She has no Moscow and 
Morocco, in the same latitude ; and 
noEdinburgh and Alexandria within 
thirty miles of each other. Baby- 
lon, Sparta and Corinth, though they 
have been transplanted to other 
parts of the Union, are destined ne- 
ver to flourish on the soil of Mich- 
igan. No Franklin or Greene or 
Jefferson, no Washington, is to be 
found in her borders. On the con- 
trary, her rivers and lakes still re- 
tain the full, rich, swelling names 
■which were bestowed upon them by 
the red men of the forests, and her 
towns bear the names of the sturdy 
chiefs who once battled or hunted 
in their streets. Strange, when we 
have such a noble nomenclature as 
the Indians have left us, that we 
should copy from the worn out 
names of ancient cities, and which 
awake no feelings but ridicule, by 
the contrast between the old and the 
new. Mohawk, Seneca, Massasoit, 
Ontario, Erie, how infinitely supe- 
rior to Paris, London, Fishville, 
Buttertown, Bungtown, &c. The 
feeling which prompts us to perpet- 
uate the names of our revolutionary 
heroes by naming towns after them, 
is highly honorable ; but it should 
not be forgotten that frequent rep- 
etition (especially in cases where 
the town is utterly unworthy of its 
namesake) renders the name vulgar 
and ridiculous. It seems, that not 
content with driving the Indians 
from the soil, we are anxious to ob- 
literate every trace of their exist- 

We are glad to see a better taste 
beginning to prevail upon this sub- 
ject, and we hope that the example 

of Michigan will be followed, if not 
by legal enactments, at least by the 
force of public opinion." 

North. Brookfield, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town is on 
elevated ground : it is of good soil, 
well cultivated, well watered and 
very pleasant. It has a fine fish 
pond, and lies 6S miles W. from 
Boston, and 13 W. from Worcester : 
taken from Brookfield in 1802. 
Population, 1830, 1,241 ; 1837, 1,509. 
The agricultural products sent to 
market are very considerable. The 
manufactures of the town consist 
of boots and shoes, woolen cloth, 
leather, &.C., the value of which for 
the year ending April 1,1837, was 
$525,224 ; of w^hich $470,316 was 
for boots and shoes. 

Kortlifield, Vt. 

Washington co. This town lies 
10 miles S. S. W. from Montpelier, 
and 35 E from Burlington. Popu- 
lation in 1830, 1,412. First settled, 
1785. The principal stream in this 
town is Dog river, which runs 
through it in a northerly direction, 
and affords a great number of valu- 
able mill privileges. The surface 
is uneven, but the soil is generally 
good and easily cultivated. In the 
centre of the town is a neat, pleas- 
ant and flourishing village, contain- 
ing a number of saw mills and other 
mechanical operations by water. 

Nortlifield, Me. 

Incorporated 1833. See " Down 

Northiield, N. II., 

Merrimack co., is bounded N. by 
Winnepisiogee river, and W. by 
the Merrimack. It is 14 miles N. 
from Concord, and 10 W. by S. of 
Gilmanton. The soil here is in 
some parts good — that of the best 
quality lies on the two ridges ex- 
tending through the town. Ches- 
nut pond lies in the east part of the 
town, and its waters flow into the 


Winnepisiogee three miles fiom its 
junction with the Pemigewasset. — 
Sondogardy pond flows into the 
Merrimack. Near Webster's falls, 
the Winnepisiogee falls into the 
Pemigewasset, and the united 
streams form the Merrimack river. 
The principal elevation, called Bean 
hill, separates the town from Can- 
terbury. Northfield formerly pos- 
sessed valuable water privileges on 
the Winnepisiogee river, but this 
portion of its territory i